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H  laarrative  ant)  Critical  f)iston? 






Ipublication  Committee 

JULIUS  F.  SACHSE,  I,itt.D. 
J.  E.  B.  BUCKENHAM,  M.D. 

^mns^I^ania  (German 

in  t()e 

lettlement  of  J^ar^Ianb 


DANIEL  WUNDERLICH  NEAD,  M.D.  (Univ.  of  Pa.) 

Member  of  the  Pennsylvania-German  Society ;  the  Historical  Society  of 

Pennsylvania ;   the  Historical  Society  of  Berks  County ;  the 

Pennsylvania  Society  of  Sons  of  the  Revolution,  etc. 

"  Forsan  et  haec  olim  meminisse  juvabit."— VIRGIL 

Part  XXV.  of  a  Narrative  and  Critical  History 

prepared  at  the  request  of 

The  Pennsylvania-German  Society 


Copyrighted  1914 


penns^Ivania=(9ecman  Society; 






^0R  a  century  and  a  half 
the  term  "  Mason  and 
Dixon's  Line"  has  been  a 
more  or  less  familiar  expres- 
sion, and  for  the  greater  part 
of  the  latter  half  of  that 
period  it  was  frequently  on 
men's  tongues.  The  lines 
drawn  on  the  earth's  surface 
by  geographers  or  laid  out  by 
the  wisdom  of  statecraft  are 
often  taken  in  too  literal  a 
sense ;  and  so,  in  the  course  of  time,  it  came  to  pass  that 
Mason  and  Dixon's  Line  came  to  be  regarded  almost  as  a 
tangible  barrier :  the  line  dividing  the  North  from  the  South. 
Yet,  as  a  mater  of  fact,  were  it  not  for  the  monuments  set 
up  at  stated  intervals  it  would  be  impossible  to  tell  where 
the  jurisdiction  of  one  commonwealth  ends  and  that  of  the 
other  begins.  The  mountains  and  valleys  are  continuous, 
the  fertile  fields  lie  side  by  side,  there  is  no  difference  to  be 
found  in  the  people,  and  it  not  unfrequently  happens  that 
a  farm  will  lie  partly  on  one  side  of  the  line  and  partly  on 
the  other,  and  there  are  even  houses  through  which  the  line 
runs,  one  part  of  the  house  being  in  Maryland  and  the 
other  part  in  Pennsylvania. 

vi  \The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

But  outside  of  the  question  of  contiguity  there  is  a  senti- 
mental attachment  between  the  states  of  Maryland  and 
Pennsylvania.  Had  the  boundary  between  the  two  colonies 
been  fixed  at  the  point  where  the  respective  charters  appar- 
ently placed  it,  the  fortieth  parallel  of  north  latitude,  a 
considerable  portion  of  the  territory  now  included  within 
the  state  of  Pennsylvania  would  belong  to  Maryland,  The 
fortieth  parallel  runs  about  on  a  line  with  Lehigh  Avenue 
in  Philadelphia,  so  that  had  that  meridian  been  decided  on 
as  the  dividing  line  between  the  two  colonies  the  greater 
part  of  the  city  of  Philadelhia  would  now  be  situated  in 
Maryland.  So  too  would  be  a  strip  of  territory  nearly 
twenty  miles  in  width,  extending  across  the  state  and  tak- 
ing in  such  towns  as  West  Chester,  York,  Chambersburg, 
and  all  the  fertile  country  surrounding  those  towns. 

In  the  following  pages  an  attempt  has  been  made  to 
gather  together  in  brief  form  what  Is  known  concerning  the 
Influence  of  the  Pennsylvanians  In  the  settlement  of  the 
western  part  of  the  colony  of  Maryland.  There  is  no 
claim  of  originality,  but  use  has  been  freely  made  of  the 
results  of  other  investigations.  It  Is  very  unfortunate  that 
there  are  but  few  records  in  existence  concerning  the  period 
under  consideration,  so  that  many  points  cannot  be  deter- 
mined, but  what  is  known  has  been  put  together  in  concise 
form  for  convenient  reference. 

The  writer  wishes  here  to  express  his  thanks  to  Dr. 
Julius  F.  Sachse  for  preparing  the  illustrations,  which  add 
materially  to  the  Interest  In  the  work,  and  also  to  Dr.  Frank 
R.  Dlffenderffer  for  material  assistance  in  searching  old 

Reading,  Pennsylvania, 
December,  1913. 


The  Maryland  Colony 

CHAPTER   11. 
The  First  German  Settlers  .  .  . . 


The  Germans  in  Pennsylvania  . 

The  Movement  to  Maryland  . . . 

The  Monocacy  Road 

The  First  Settlements 





viii  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Home-Making  in  the  Wilderness 66 

Mechanical  Arts  and  Industries 80 

The  Religious  Life 89 

Education,  Redemptioners,  Servitude 108 

The  Border  Troubles 121 

The  French  and  Indian  War 141 

Fort  Frederick 163 

The  Pre-Revolutionary  Period 176 

Preparing  for  the  Struggle 196 

The  Flying  Camp 205 

Contents.  ix 


The  German  Regiment 224 


Service  of  the  Maryland  Troops 241 


Forwarding  the  Cause  at  Home 260 

Index  to  Proper  Names 272 

Index  to  Subjects 299 


Archives  of  Maryland. 

Banvard,  Joseph.     Pioneers  of  the  New  World,  and  the  Old  French  War. 

Chicago,  1880. 
Bozman,  John  Leeds.     The  History  of  Maryland  from  its  first  Settlement, 

in  1633,  to  the  Restoration,  in  1660.     z  vols.     Baltimore,  18371 
Browne,  William  Hand.     Maryland,  the  History  of  a  Palatinate.     Boston, 

Brumbaugh,  Martin  Grove.     A  History  of  the  German  Baptist  Brethren  in 

Europe  and  America.     Mount  Morris,  111.,  1899. 
Colonial  Records  of  Pennsylvania. 
Doddridge,   Joseph.     Notes   on   the   Settlements   and   Indian   Wars   of  the 

Western  Parts  of  Virginia  and  Pennsylvania,  from  the  Year  1763  until 

the  Year  1783.     Wellsburgh,  Va.,  1824. 
Eddis,     William.     Letters     from     America,     Historioal     and     Descriptive. 

London,   1792. 
Griffith,  Thomas  W.     Annals  of  Baltimore.     Baltimore,  1824. 
Harbaugh,  Henry.     The  Life  of  Michael  Schlatter.     Philadelphia,  1857. 
James,  Bartlett  B.     The  Labadist  Colony  in  Maryland.     Baltimore,   1899^ 
Johnson,  John.     Old  Maryland  Manors.     Baltimore,  1883. 
Kercheval,    Samuel.     A   History   of   the   Valley   of   Virginia.     Woodstock, 

Va.,   1850. 
Kuhns,    Levi    Oscar.     The    German    and    Swiss    Settlements    of    Colonial 

Pennsylvania.     New   York,   1901. 
McCorraac,    Eugene    Irving.     White    Servitude    in    Maryland,    1634-1820. 

Baltimore,  190*4. 
McMahon,  J.  V.  L.     An  Historical  View  of  the  Government  of  Maryland, 

from  its  Colonization  to  the  Present  Day.     Baltimore,   1837. 
McSherry,  James.     History  of  Maryland.     Baltimore,  1904. 



Mereness,  Newton  D.     Maryland  as  a  Proprietary  Province.     New  York, 

190  r. 
Neill,  Edward.     The  Founders  of  Maryland  as  Portrayed  in  Manuscripts, 

Provincial  Records  and  Early  Documents.     Albany,  18761. 
Pennsylvania  Archives,  First  and  Second  Series. 
Ridgely,  David.     Annals  of  Annapolis.     Baltimore,  184-1. 
Scharf,  J.  Thomas.     The  Chronicles  of  Baltimore.     Baltimore,  1874. 
History  of  Maryland  from  the  Earliest  Period  to  the  Present  Day.     3 

vols.     Baltimore,  1879. 

History  of  Western  Maryland,  being  a  History  of  Frederick,  Mont- 
gomery, Carroll,  Washington,  Allegany  and  Garrett  Counties.  2  vols, 
Philadelphia,  i88e. 

Sioussat,  St.  George  Leakin.     Economics  and  Politics  in  Maryland,  1720^ 

1750.     Baltimore,  1903. 
Steiner,    Bernard    C.    Beginnings    of    Maryland,    16131-1639.    Baltimore, 


Maryland  under  the  Commonwealth.    A  Chronicle  of  the  Years  1649— 

r658.     Baltimore,   1911. 

Maryland  during  the  English  Civil   Wars.     Baltimore,   1906—7. 

Western  Maryland  in  the  Revolution.     Baltimore,   1902. 

Schultz,  Edward  T.  First  Settlements  of  Germans  in  Maryland.  Fred- 
erick, Md.,  1896^ 

Society  for  the  History  of  Germans  in  Maryland.     16  annual  reports. 

Thomas,  James  Walter.  Chronicles  of  Colonial  Maryland.  Baltimore, 


The  Maryland  Colony. 

'TTHE  settlement  of  Maryland 
^  was  the  culmination  of  the 
plan  of  George,  Lord  Baltimore, 
to  found  a  colony  where  the  in- 
habitants might  worship  God  ac- 
cording to  the  dictates  of  their 
consciences.^  Sir  George  Calvert 
was  brought  up  a  Protestant  and, 
enjoying  the  personal  friendship 
of  James  L,  he  obtained  rapid  ad- 
vancement in  the  government  service  and  was  finally  made 

1  "  It  cannot  with  evident  certainty  be  stated  that  Sir  George  Calvert,  in 
the  settlement  of  either  of  his  provinces,  Avalon  or  Maryland,  had  in  view 
the  formation  of  an  asylum  for  English  Catholics,  although  it  is  so  stated 
by  several  historians ;  such  intention  of  his  being  nowhere  clearly  expressed 
by  himself,  unless  it  be  in  the  before  mentioned  MS.  account  of  Avalon,  by 
Sir  George  himself,  still  remaining  in  the  British  Museum,  the  contents  of 
which  we  have  no  opportunity  of  examining.  With  regard  to  Maryland, 
the  fact,  ascertained  in  history,  as  well  in  the  records  of  the  province,  that 
most  of  the  first  colonists  of  that  province  were  Roman  Catholics,  leaves  a 
strong  inference  that  it  was  the  original  contemplation  of  Sir  George 
thereby  to  erect  for  such  Catholics  a  place  of  refuge.  In  respect  to 
Avalon,  however,  we  have  not  this  fact,  as  a  ground  for  such  inference."— 
Bozman's  "  History  of  Maryland,"  Vol.  I.,  p.  242. 

6  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

principal  Secretary  of  State.  In  1624  he  became  a  Roman 
Catholic  and  at  once  resigned  his  position  as  Secretary, 
but  the  king  kept  him  as  a  member  of  the  Privy  Council 
and  created  him  Lord  Baltimore,  of  Baltimore,  in  Ireland. 

At  this  time  the  laws  of  England  were  very  severe 
against  the  Roman  Catholics  and  in  order  to  escape  perse- 
cution Lord  Baltimore  determined  to  found  a  colony  where 
religious  liberty  would  be  secured  to  all  the  inhabitants. 
For  some  years  he  had  been  interested  in  schemes  for 
colonizing  America,  having  been  one  of  the  councillors  of 
the  New  England  Company  and  a  member  of  the  Virginia 
Company  until  its  charter  was  revoked,  when  he  was 
appointed  one  of  the  council  for  the  government  of  that 
colony.  He  first  turned  his  attention  to  New  Foundland 
and,  securing  a  grant  in  that  locality,  he  erected  a  province 
which  he  named  Avalon.^  After  first  sending  a  small 
party  of  colonists,  he  went  thither  himself  with  his  family, 
but  a  residence  of  two  years  convinced  him  that  that  local- 
ity was  not  suited  for  the  successful  planting  of  a  colony, 
and  he  sailed  for  Virginia. 

The  authorities  in  the  Virginia  colony  would  not  allow 
him  to  land  unless  he  would  take  the  oath  of  allegiance 
and  supremacy,  and  this  his  religious  principles  would  not 
allow  him  to  do.  He,  therefore,  sailed  north  and  explored 
the  shores  of  the  Chesapeake  above  the  Virginia  settle- 

2  Bozman,  Vol.  i,  p.  240,  quotes  Oldmixon's  "  British  Empire  in  Amer- 
ica," as  follows:  "This  gentleman"  (Sir  George  Calvert)  "being  of  the 
Romish  religion  was  uneasy  at  home,  and  had  the  same  reason  to  leave 
the  kingdom,  as  those  gentlemen  had,  who  went  to  New  England,  to 
enjoy  the  liberty  of  his  conscience.  He  therefore  resolved  to  retire  to 
America,  and  finding  the  New  Foundland  company  had  made  no  use  of 
their  grant,  he  thought  of  this  place  for  his  retreat;  to  which  end  he 
procured  a  patent  for  that  part  of  the  island,  that  lies  between  the  bay 
of  Bulls  in  the  east,  and  cape  St.  Mary's  in  the  south,  which  was  erected 
into  a  province,  and  called  Avalon." 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.        7 

ment,  and  finding  this  territory  suitable  for  his  purpose  he 
returned  to  England  and  petitioned  Charles  L,  who  by 
that  time  had  succeeded  his  father,  for  a  grant  of  land  in 
that  locality.  Opposition  arose  from  the  Virginia  authori- 
ties and,  although  the  king  was  favorably  disposed  toward 
Lord  Baltimore,  the  matter  was  delayed,  and  before  the 
charter  was  finally  granted,  on  June  20,  1632,  Lord 
Baltimore  died,  and  the  charter,  when  issued,  was  in  the 
name  of  his  eldest  son,  Cecilius. 

The  charter  granted  to  Lord  Baltimore  was  the  most 
liberal  ever  granted  by  the  English  crown.  It  erected  the 
colony  into  a  palatinate,^  and  created  the  proprietary  but 
little  short  of  a  ruling  sovereign.  He  was  made  "  abso- 
lute lord  of  the  land  and  water  within  his  boundaries,  could 
erect  towns,  cities,  and  ports,  make  war  or  peace,  call  the 
whole  fighting  population  to  arms,  and  declare  martial 
law,  levy  tolls  and  duties,  establish  courts  of  justice,  ap- 
point judges,  magistrates,  and  other  civil  officers,  execute 
the  laws,  and  pardon  offenders;  he  could  erect  manors  with 
courts-baron  and  courts-leet,  and  confer  titles  and  dignities, 
so  that  they  differed  from  those  of  England;  he  could 
make  laws  with  the  assent  of  the  freemen  of  the  province, 
and.  In  cases  of  emergency,  ordinances  not  impairing  life, 

3  The  term  Palatinate  originated  with  the  early  Frankish  or  German 
rulers  who  bestowed  on  an  officer  known  as  the  "  Count  of  the  Palace  " 
(comes  palatii,  or  palatinus)  certain  powers  nearly  equaling  those  of 
royalty.  Later  these  powers  were  bestowed  on  powerful  vassals  who,  to 
all  intents  and  purposes,  became  kings,  except  that  they  acknowledged  the 
suzerainty  of  the  appointing  sovereign.  In  England  certain  counties  were 
made  palatinates,  and  the  charter  granted  to  Lord  Baltimore  gave  him 
all  the  "  rights,  jurisdictions,  privileges,  prerogatives,  royalties,  liberties, 
immunities  and  royal  rights,  and  temporal  franchises  whatsoever  ...  as 
any  bishop  of  Durham,  within  the  bishopric  or  county  palatine  of  Durham, 
in  our  kingdom  of  England,  ever  heretofore  hath  had,  held,  used,  or 
enjoyed,  or  of  right  could,  or  ought  to  have  held,  use  or  enjoy." 

8  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

limb,  or  property,  without  their  assent;  he  could  found 
churches  and  chapels,  have  them  consecrated  according  to 
the  ecclesiastical  laws  of  England,  and  appoint  the  in- 

Having  received  his  charter.  Lord  Baltimore  immedi- 
ately proceeded  to  organize  an  expedition  to  colonize  the 
territory  which  had  been  granted  to  him.  He  secured  two 
vessels,  the  Ark  and  the  Dove,  on  which  his  party  of 
colonists  embarked  and  sailed  from  Cowes  on  November 
22,  1633.  There  were  about  two  hundred  in  the  party, 
of  whom  about  twenty  were  "  gentlemen  adventurers,"  as 
they  were  called:  men  of  fortune  who  took  part  in  the 
enterprise  partly  In  a  spirit  of  adventure,  although,  no 
doubt,  some  of  them  sought  a  religious  asylum,  the  bal- 
ance of  the  company  being  made  up  of  servants  and  crafts- 
men of  various  kinds.  Lord  Baltimore  had  intended 
accompanying  the  expedition,  but  his  presence  in  England 
being  necessary  he  placed  his  brother  Leonard  in  command 
as  governor.  Early  in  the  following  spring  they  reached 
the  Chesapeake,  and  after  stopping  at  an  island  near  the 
mouth  of  the  Potomac,  which  they  named  St.  Clement's, 
where,  on  March  25,  1634,  they  celebrated  their  first  mass 
in  the  new  world,  Governor  Calvert  with  a  small  party 
started  out  to  seek  a  suitable  location  for  their  settlement. 
He  had  secured  as  guide  Henry  Fleete,  an  Englishman 
who  was  well  acquainted  with  that  part  of  the  country, 
having  spent  several  years  among  the  Indians.  But 
although  Fleete  was  thoroughly  acquainted  with  the  sur- 
rounding country  he  was  not  the  first  of  his  countrymen 
to  visit  it. 

The  first  white  man  to  visit  the  territory  now  embraced 
within  the  state  of  Maryland  was  Captain  John  Smith,  of 
Virginia.     Very  soon  after  the  foundation  of  the  James- 





\P    OF    VIRGINIA,    1606. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.        9 

town  settlement  that  hardy  pioneer  turned  his  attention  to 
exploring  the  country  to  the  north,  and  in  the  summer  of 
1608  he  made  two  trips  in  an  open  boat,  with  a  few  com- 
panions, and  made  his  way  as  far  north  as  the  mouth  of  the 
Susquehanna,  exploring  the  different  rivers  and  marking 
them  on  his  map  with  an  accuracy  that  is  scarcely  exceeded 
at  the  present  day.  He  rowed  up  the  Potomac  river  to  a 
point  above  the  present  site  of  Washington,  as  far  as  he 
could  go  in  his  boat,  and  has  given  us  a  comprehensive 
description  of  that  part  of  the  country.  Of  this  expedition 
Lossing  says:^  "It  was  one  of  the  most  wonderful  of 
exploring  expeditions,  considered  in  all  its  aspects." 

Under  the  guidance  of  Fleete  the  party  went  a  short 
distance  up  the  Potomac,  and  at  a  point  where  an  Indian 
town  already  existed  a  tract  of  land  was  purchased  from 
the  Indians  and  a  tovv^n  laid  out  which  was  named  St. 
Mary's.  During  their  first  year  the  colonists  subsisted 
largely  upon  supplies  of  food,  chiefly  Indian  corn,  obtained 
from  the  Indians.  The  policy  followed  by  Governor 
Calvert  in  his  treatment  of  the  Indians  was  such  as  to  gain 
their  friendship,  and  thus  were  avoided  many  of  the  dis- 
asters which  overtook  colonists  in  other  parts  of  the 
country.  The  Maryland  settlers,  as  a  rule,  were  free  from 
attacks  by  hostile  Indians. 

It  was  evidently  Lord  Baltimore's  intention  to  found  an 
aristocratic  state,  based  on  large  holdings  of  land,  the 
land  to  be  kept  in  the  family  of  the  original  owner  through 
the  law  of  entail.  The  first  allotment  of  land  to  the 
settlers  was  made  with  this  end  in  view.  In  the  proprie- 
tary's instructions  to  his  brother  Leonard,  who  represented 
him,  he  advises  him  that  he  is  to 

4  Quoted  by  Scharf,  "  Chronicles  of  Baltimore,"  p.  %\ 

lO  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

"  make  or  cause  to  be  made  under  our  great  seal  of  that  our  said 
province  unto  every  first  adventurer  for  every  five  men  aged  between 
sixteen  and  fifty  years,  which  such  adventurer  did  bring  into  our 
said  province  to  inhabitt  and  plant  there  in  the  year  of  our  Lord 
1633,  and  unto  his  heirs  forever,  a  grant  of  two  thousand  acres  of 
land  of  English  measure  for  the  yearly  rent  of  400  lb.  of  good 
wheat,  .  .  . 

And  we  do  further  will  and  authorize  you,  that  every  two  thou- 
sand acres,  and  every  three  thousand  acres,  and  every  one  thousand 
acres  of  land  so  to  be  passed  or  granted  as  aforesaid  unto  any  adven- 
turer or  adventurers,  be  erected,  and  created  into  a  manor  to  be 
called  by  such  name  as  the  adventurer  or  adventurers  shall  desire."' 

But  this  plan  of  Lord  Baltimore's  did  not  succeed. 
While  it  was  possible  for  a  colonist,  by  bringing  over  a 
large  number  of  servants,  to  obtain  a  large  grant  of  land, 
it  was  unusual  to  find  plantations  containing  more  than  one 
thousand  acres.  Prior  to  1700  there  were  few  towns  and 
these  did  not  grow  very  rapidly.  The  character  and  occu- 
pations of  the  inhabitants  militated  against  the  growth  of 
towns.  The  colony  of  Maryland  had  been  established  by 
Lord  Baltimore  as  a  religious  asylum  where  the  inhabi- 
tants might  worship  God  according  to  the  dictates  of  their 
consciences,  and  although  he  was  a  Roman  Catholic,  no 
attempt  was  made  to  prevent  those  who  belonged  to 
Protestant  denominations  from  settling  in  the  colony. 
Indeed,  it  is  probable  that  of  the  first  colonists  the  greater 
number  were  Protestants.  Most,  if  not  all,  of  the  "  gen- 
tlemen adventurers  "  were  probably  Roman  Catholics,  but 
of  the  servants  and  laborers  there  is  no  doubt  that  a  very 
large  proportion  were  Protestants,  although  there  is  no 
way  of  accurately  determining  this,  as  there  is  no  record  of 
the  names  of  all  the  colonists.    These  settlers  were  planters 

6  Bozman's  "  History  of  Maryland,"  Vol.  II.,  pp.  38^40. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      1 1 

and  farmers  and  the  plantations  were,  as  a  rule,  spread 
over  a  rather  extended  territory.  There  were  no  manu- 
factories, and  what  manufactured  goods  were  required 
were  brought  over  from  England. 

Following  the  example  of  the  Virginia  colonists,  the 
newcomers  almost  Immediately  began  the  cultivation  of 
tobacco.  Indeed  more  attention  was  paid  to  this  than  to 
anything  else.  The  chief  aim  of  the  planters  was  to  raise 
as  much  tobacco  as  possible,  for,  being  the  currency  of  the 
colony,  all  other  commodities  were  purchasable  with  It, 
and  a  man's  possessions  were  reckoned  In  accordance  with 
the  amount  of  tobacco  he  could  produce.  The  natural 
consequence  of  this  state  of  affairs  was  that  the  quality  of 
the  tobacco  soon  began  to  deteriorate,  while  the  growing 
of  corn  and  other  necessaries  of  life  almost  ceased.  As 
early  as  1639  ^^  ^^t  was  passed  compelling  every  grower 
of  tobacco  to  plant  and  cultivate  two  acres  of  corn  for 
each  member  of  his  family.  The  next  year  another  act 
was  passed  limiting  the  culture  of  tobacco  to  so  many 
plants  per  head,  but  even  these  laws  did  not  Improve 
matters  much.  The  colony  did  not  grow  very  rapidly,  the 
settlers  confined  themselves  almost  entirely  to  the  terri- 
tory adjacent  to  tidewater,  and  It  was  not  until  the  coming 
of  the  German  settlers,  who  by  their  thrift  and  Industry 
showed  the  possibilities  of  the  fertile  fields,  that  the  colony 
began  to  make  rapid  strides  forward. 


The  First  German  Settlers. 


HERE  is  nothing  in  the 
records  to  show  that  there 
were  any  Germans  among  the 
first  party  sent  out  by  Lord  Bal- 
timore to  found  the  colony  of 
Maryland,  but  it  is  extremely 
probable  that  among  that  com- 
pany of  two  hundred  people, 
consisting  chiefly  of  servants  and 
artisans,  there  were  a  number  of 
Germans.  The  colony  had  been 
founded  as  an  English  settle- 
ment, and  it  is  evident  that  foreigners  were  not  desired,  for 
while  there  was  no  direct  prohibition  of  the  settlement  of 
foreigners  in  the  colony,  there  was  no  inducement  to  lead 
them  in  that  direction.  The  terms  upon  which  land  was  to 
be  granted  to  colonists  was  such  as  to  lead  to  the  formation 
of  an  aristocracy,  which  was  undoubtedly  Lord  Baltimore's 
purpose,  and  naturally  this  aristocracy  would  be  expected 
to  be  made  up  of  wealthy  Englishmen  who  could  take  ad- 
vantage of  the  conditions  of  plantation.    According  to  the 


Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      13 

instructions  sent  out  by  Lord  Baltimore  to  his  brother,  in 
1 636,  any  member  of  the  first  party  of  colonists  who  brought 
over  with  him  five  men  was  to  receive  two  thousand  acres 
of  land  subject  to  an  annual  quit-rent  of  four  hundred 
pounds  of  wheat.  The  same  allotment  of  land  was  made 
to  those  who  came  over  in  the  years  1634  and  1635,  bring- 
ing with  them  ten  men,  but  the  rent  was  to  be  six  hundred 
pounds  of  wheat,  and  those  who  came  over  later,  or 
brought  fewer  men,  were  to  be  granted  smaller  amounts 
of  land.^  As  Bozman  says:''^  "  It  will  be  readily  perceived, 
that  these  instructions,  or  conditions  of  plantation,  were 
well  calculated  to  induce  men  of  some  property  in  England, 
who  were  able  to  bear  the  expense  of  transporting  serv- 
ants and  dependents,  to  emigrate  to  this  province.  It  is 
true,  that  it  was  sketching  out  aristocratic  features  in  the 
future  government  of  the  province,  which  in  other  times, 
might  have  been  supposed  to  operate  in  discouragement  of 

But  it  was  evidently  this  class  of  people  that  Lord  Balti- 
more wanted,  and  foreigners  were  not  even  allowed  to  own 
land  nor  had  they  any  political  rights.  It  was  not  until 
1648  that  foreigners  were  allowed  to  take  up  land.  In 
the  commission  of  William  Stone,  lieutenant  of  the  prov- 
ince, accompanying  the  conditions  of  plantation  of  1648, 
and  dated  at  Bath,  August  20,  1648,  Lord  Baltimore 

And  we  do  hereby  authorize  and  Require  you  till  we  or  our  heirs 
shall  signify  our  of  their  Pleasure  to  the  Contrary  from  time  to 
time  in  our  name  and  under  the  Great  Seal  of  the  said  Province 
of  Maryland  to  Grant  Lands  within  our  said  Province  to  all  Ad- 
venturors  or  Planters  to  or  within  the  same  upon  such  terms  and 

8  Archives  of  Maryland,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  471 
7  "  History  of  Maryland,"  Vol.  II.,  p.  38. 

14  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Conditions  as  are  expressed  in  the  said  last  Conditions  of  Planta- 
tion bearing  date  with  these  presents  and  according  to  the  forms 
of  Grants  above  mentioned  and  not  otherwise  without  further  and 
special  warrant  hereafter  to  be  obtain*^  for  the  same  under  our  or 
our  heirs  hand  and  seal  at  Arms  and  whereas  we  are  Given  to 
understand  that  as  well  divers  Frenchmen  as  some  other  People 
of  other  Nations  who  by  our  former  as  also  by  these  last  Conditions 
of  Plantation  are  not  Capable  of  having  any  lands  within  our  said 
Province  and  are  already  seated  or  may  hereafter  with  our  or  you 
our  Lieutenants  leave  there  for  the  time  being  seat  themselves  in 
our  said  Province  we  do  hereby  Authorize  you  to  make  any  Person 
or  Persons  of  French  Dutch  or  Italian  discent  as  you  shall  think 
fit  and  who  either  are  already  planted  or  shall  hereafter  come  and 
Plant  in  our  said  Province  Capable  of  our  said  last  Conditions  of 
Plantation  and  do  hereby  Give  you  Power  to  Grant  Lands  there- 
upon within  our  said  Province  unto  them  and  every  of  them  accord- 
ingly as  well  for  and  in  respect  of  themselves  as  for  and  in  respect 
of  any  Person  or  Persons  of  British  or  Irish  discent  or  of  any  of 
the  other  discents  aforesaid  which  they  or  any  of  them  and  also 
which  any  other  Person  of  British  or  Irish  discent  shall  hereafter 
with  our  or  you  our  said  Lieutenants  leave  transport  into  the  said 
province  in  the  same  and  in  as  ample  manner  and  upon  the  same 
terms  and  Provisoes  as  you  are  hereby  or  by  our  Commission  to 
you  for  the  Government  of  the  said  Province  authorised  to  Grant 
any  Lands  to  any  Adventuror  or  Planter  of  British  or  Irish  discent 
within  the  said  Province.^ 

The  following  year  the  conditions  of  plantation  were 
abrogated  and  new  ones  issued  under  date  of  July  2,  1649. 
The  new  ones  were  practically  the  same  as  those  issued  the 
year  before  except  that  they  authorized  an  Increase  in  the 
size  of  the  manors  to  be  granted.  Lord  Baltimore  gives 
as  his  reason  for  issuing  the  new  ones  that  those  of  1648 
"were  not  like  to  give  sufficient  encouragement  to  many 

8  Archives  of  Maryland,  Vol.  III.,  p.  222. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      15 

to  adventure  and  plant  there."     Bozman  seems  to  think^ 
that  this  action  on  the  part  of  Lord  Baltimore,  in  allowing 
foreigners  to  take  up  land,  was  prompted  chiefly  by  his 
anxiety  to  increase  the  population  of  the  province,   and 
that  he  was  undoubtedly  indifferent  as  to  what  sect  of 
Protestant  religion  his  colonists  belonged.     Whether  this 
liberality  on  the  part  of  Lord  Baltimore  led  to  any  increase 
in  the  number  of  Germans  who  settled  in  the  colony  is  not 
evident,  but  It  Is  extremely  probable  that  it  did  have  that 
effect.    There  Is  no  doubt  that  from  a  very  early  period  in 
the  history  of  Maryland  the  colony  was  constantly  receiv- 
ing additions  from  the  neighboring  colony  on  the  Dela- 
ware, which  at  the  time  of  the  founding  of  the  colony  of 
Maryland  was  under  the  control  of  the  Dutch.    It  is  true 
that  these  additions  were  not  made  up  of  a  very  desirable 
class  of  people,  consisting  chiefly,  as  they  did,  of  runaway 
servants.    The  records  of  the  Dutch  and  Swedish  colonies 
on  the  Delaware  frequently  mention  occurrences  of  this 
kind.     In  a  letter  from  Director-General  Peter  Stuyvesant 
to  the  directors  of  the  Dutch  West  India  Company,  dated 
September  4,  1659,  he  says:^*^ 

The  City's  affairs  on  the  Southrlver  are  in  a  very  deplorable  and 
low  state.  It  is  to  be  feared,  that,  if  no  other  and  better  order  is 
introduced,  it  will  be  ruined  altogether;  it  would  be  too  long  and 
tedious,  to  report  all  the  complaints  brought  from  there,  nor  can 
all  be  received  (as  true;)  but  it  is  certainly  true,  that  the  people 
begin  to  run  away  In  numbers,  as  for  instance,  while  I  write  this, 
there  arrives  from  there  an  English  ketch,  which  went  there  with 
some  provisions  from  Boston  three  weeks  ago ;  the  skipper  of  it,  a 
well-known  and  trustworthy  man,  says  that  during  his  stay  of  14 
days  at  the  Southriver  about  50  persons,  among  them  whole  fam- 
ilies, run  away  from  there  to  Virginia  and  Maryland. 

9  "  History  of  Maryland,"  Vol.  II.,  p.  342. 

10  Pennsylvania  Archives,  Second  Series,  Vol.  VII.,  p.  611. 

1 6  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Again,  on  the  17th  of  the  same  month  Stuyvesant 
writes  :^^ 

We  mentioned  in  our  last  letter  the  deplorable  and  bad  state  of 
affairs  in  the  City's  Colony  on  the  Southriver,  caused  by  the  deser- 
tion and  removal  of  the  Colonists  to  Maryland,  Virginia  and  other 
places,  which  increases  daily  in  such  a  manner,  that  hardly  thirty 
families  remain. 

It  is  very  probable  that  the  state  of  affairs  was  greatly 
exaggerated  by  Stuyvesant,  as  there  is  no  record  of  such 
wholesale  additions  to  the  population  of  Maryland,  and 
the  few  stragglers  who  did  make  their  way  into  that  col- 
ony were  not  in  sufficient  numbers  to  leave  any  records  of 
their  doings.  One  of  the  first  of  the  German  settlers  in 
Maryland  of  whom  we  have  any  record,  and  the  first  who 
may  be  called  a  Pennsylvania-German,  was  Cornelius 
Commegys.  He  had  formerly  lived  in  the  colony  on  the 
Delaware,  and  after  spending  some  time  there  had  re- 
moved to  Maryland.  The  exact  date  of  his  arrival  in  the 
latter  colony  is  not  known,  but  it  was  probably  about  1661, 
as  he  was  naturalized  on  July  22  of  that  year.  In  the 
same  year  Augustine  Herman,  writing  to  Vice-Director 
Beekman,  of  the  Dutch  colony  on  the  Delaware,  says: 
"Nothing  could  be  done  with  Cornelius  Comegys  this 
year,  it  must  be  done  next  year  and  some  other  instructions 
sent  from  the  Manhattans,  which  upon  my  return  home  I 
shall  help  your  Honor  to  procure. "^^  This  would  seem 
to  indicate  that  there  was  some  trouble  in  connection  with 
Commegys's  removal  to  Maryland.    W^eishaar^^  says  that 

1^  Ibid.,  p.  617. 

^2  Pennsylvania  Archives,  Second  Series,  Vol.  VII.,  p.  697. 
13  Report  of  the  Society  for  the  History  of  the  Germans  in  Maryland, 
Vol.  XV.,  p.  19. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      ly 

on  July  30,  1666,  Commegys  received  a  patent  for  150 
acres  of  land  In  Cecil  county.  Later  on  he  obtained  a 
much  larger  tract  of  land,  for  the  proceedings  of  Council 
show^^  that  on  December  15,  1669,  he  was  granted  a 
patent  for  350  acres  of  land.  There  is  very  little  known 
of  the  history  of  Cornelius  Commegys.  Weishaar  says : 
"When  in  1679  the  two  Labadists,  Danker-Schilders  and 
Sluyter-Vorstmann  visited  Maryland,  they  found  Com- 
megys in  possession  of  a  large  farm,  and  his  son  Cornelius 
was  about  to  buy  a  farm  for  himself.  His  first  wife 
Wilhemintye,  however,  had  died,  and  he  was  married 
again  to  an  English  woman." 

It  may  be  interesting  to  note  the  manner  in  which  for- 
eigners were  naturalized  at  this  time.  It  must  be  remem- 
bered, however,  that  at  that  period  there  was  not  the  same 
distinction  between  the  terms  Dutch  and  German  that 
there  is  to-day.  In  fact,  the  term  German  was  rarely  used, 
and  the  appellation  Dutchman  was  indiscriminately  applied 
to  the  representatives  of  all  the  Teutonic  races.  Under  the 
heading  "  Denization  of  Swedes  and  Dutch,"  in  the  Pro- 
ceedings of  Council,  appears  the  following  paper  :^^ 

"  Caecelius  Absolute  Lord  and  Proprietary  of  the  Provinces  of 
Maryland  and  Avalon  Lord  Barron  of  Baltemore  &c  To  all  per- 
sons to  whome  theis  shall  come  Greeting  in  our  Lord  God  Ever- 
lasting. Whereas  Peter  Meyor  late  of  New  Amstell  and  Subject 
of  the  Crowne  of  Sweeden  hauing  transported  himselfe  his  wife 
and  Children  into  this  our  Province  here  to  Inhabite  hath  besought 
us  to  grante  him  the  said  Peter  Meyor  leaue  here  to  Inhabite  and 
as  a  free  Dennizen  freedome  land  to  him  and  his  heires  to  purchase 
Knowe  yee  that  we  Doe  hereby  Declare  them  the  said  Peter  Meyor 
his  wife  and  Children  as  well  those  already  borne  as  those  here- 

1*  Archives  of  Maryland,  Vol.  V.,  p.  59. 
15  Ibid.,  Vol.  III.,  p.  428. 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

after  to  be  borne  to  be  free  Dennizens  of  this  our  Province  of 
Maryland  And  doe  further  for  vs  our  heires  and  Successors 
straightly  enjoyne  Constitute  ordeine  and  Command  that  the  said 
Peter  Meyer  be  in  all  things  held  treated  reputed  and  esteemed  as 
one  of  the  faythful  people  of  us  our  heires  and  Successors  borne 
within  this  our  Province  of  Maryland  And  likewise  and  lands  tene- 
ments Revenues  Services  and  other  hereditam*^  whatsoeu"^  within 
our  said  Province  of  Maryland  may  inherrite  or  otherwise  purchase 
receive  take  haue  hould  buy  and  possesse  and  them  may  occupye  and 
enjoye  Give  Sell  alyen  and  bequeathe  as  likewise  all  libertyes  fran- 
chises and  priviledges  of  this  our  Province  of  Maryland  freely 
quietly  and  peaceably  haue  and  possesse  occupye  and  enjoye  as  our 
faythful  people  borne  or  to  be  borne  within  our  said  Province  of 
Maryland  without  lett  Molestacon  vexacon  trouble  or  Greivance 
of  us  our  heires  and  Successo"  and  Custome  to  the  contrary  hereof 
in  any  wise  notwithstanding  Giuen  at  Saint  Marys  vnder  the  Great 
Scale  of  our  said  Province  of  Maryland  this  two  and  twentyth  day 
of  July  in  the  thirtyth  yeare  of  our  dominion  over  the  said  Province 
of  Maryland  Annoq  domini  One  thousand  six  hundred  Sixty  one 
Wittness  our  Deare  Brother  Philip  Calvert  Esq""  our  Leivetennant 
of  our  said  Province  of  Maryland." 

Accompanying  this  paper  is  the  following  list  of  names 
of  persons  who  were  to  be  included  in  this  process  of 
naturalization : 

Axell  Stille 
Peter  Jacobson 
Marcus  Sipherson 
Clement  Micheelson 
Hendrik  Hendrickson 
Andrew  Clementson 
Peter  Montson 
Hendrick  Mathiason 
Mathias  Cornelison 
John  Wheeler 

Bartholomew  Hendrickson 
Cornelius  Urinson 
John  Urinson 
Andreu  Toreson 
Paul  Johnson 
Gothofrid  Harmer 
Jacob  Micheelson 
Cornelius  Comages 
Michaell  Vandernorte 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      19 

While  this  naturalization  apparently  accorded  to  the 
persons  naturalized  all  the  rights  and  privileges  of 
natural-born  citizens,  such  was  evidently  not  the  case,  for 
at  the  meeting  of  the  assembly  thirteen  years  later,  1674, 
a  number  of  these  persons  along  with  others,  presented  a 
petition  asking  that 

they  and  every  one  of  them  shall  from  henceforth  be  adjudged 
reputed  and  taken  as  natureall  borne  people  of  this  Prouince  of 
Maryland  and  alsoe  that  they  and  every  one  of  them  shall  and  may 
from  henceforth  by  the  same  Authority  be  enabled  and  adjudged 
to  all  intents  and  Purposes  able  to  demand  Challenge  aske  haue 
hold  and  Injoy  any  Lands  Tenements  Rents  &  Hereditaments 
within  this  Prouince  as  Heire  or  Heires  to  any  of  their  Ancestors 
by  Reason  of  any  discent  in  fee  simple  feetayle  Generall  or  Speciall 
or  Remainder  vppon  and  fee  Tayle  generall  or  speciall  to  come  to 
them  or  any  of  them  by  discent  in  fee  simple  feetayle  Generall  Spe- 
ciall or  Remainder  vppon  any  Estate  tayle  as  aforesaid  or  by  any 
other  Lawfull  Conveyance  or  Conveyances  or  meanes  whatsoever 
as  if  they  and  every  of  them  had  been  borne  within  this  Prouince 
or  were  of  Brittish  or  Irish  discent  as  aforesaid  and  alsoe  that  they 
and  every  of  them  from  henceforth  shall  and  may  be  Enabled  to 
prosecute  maintaine  &  avow  Justifie  and  defend  all  manner  of 
accons  suites  plaints  or  other  demands  whatsoever  as  Liberally 
franckly  freely  Lawfully  fully  and  securely  as  if  all  of  them  had 
been  Natureall  borne  within  the  Prouince  of  Maryland. ^^ 

The  most  distinguished  German  who  at  that  period 
made  his  home  in  Maryland  was  Augustine  Herman. 
Although  he  was  born  at  Prague,  Bohemia,  it  is  very  prob- 
able that  Herman  was  a  German.    He  entered  the  service 

18  Archives  of  Maryland,  Vol.  II.,  p.  400.  The  names  in  this  petition 
show  how  rapidly  the  process  of  anglicizing  the  names  of  foreigners  pro- 
ceeded. For  instance,  Hendrik  Hendrickson  had  become  Henry  Hender- 
son ;  Hendrick  Mathiason,  Henry  Mathews ;  Andrew  Clementson,  Andrew 

20  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

of  the  Dutch  West  India  Company  and  came  to  New- 
Amsterdam,  where  he  attained  a  position  of  prominence 
and  married  a  relative  of  Peter  Stuyvesant.  When  the 
trouble  between  the  Maryland  colony  and  the  Dutch 
settlers  on  the  Delaware  seemed  to  be  reaching  an  acute 
stage  on  account  of  the  actions  of  Col.  Nathaniel  Utie, 
who  had  been  sent  to  the  Delaware  colony  by  Governor 
Fendall,  of  Maryland,  and  notified  the  settlers  there  that 
the  territory  in  question  belonged  to  Maryland  and  de- 
clared that  they  must  either  leave  or  recognize  the  author- 
ity of  Maryland,  Augustine  Herman  was  sent  by  Stuy- 
vesant as  one  of  the  commissioners  to  confer  with  the 
Maryland  authorities  and  try  to  bring  about  a  settlement 
of  the  difficulty.  Their  mission  was  a  failure,  but  Herman 
seems  to  have  been  very  favorably  impressed  with  the 
locality  and  determined  to  make  his  home  in  Maryland. 
The  various  boundary  disputes  had  taught  Herman  the 
importance  of  having  a  map  of  the  territory,  and  he  made 
a  proposition  to  Lord  Baltimore  to  the  effect  that  he  would 
make  a  map  of  the  country  if  he  were  granted  a  certain 
amount  of  land  with  the  privilege  of  a  manor.  This  prop- 
osition was  accepted,  and  in  September,  1660,  Herman 
received  a  grant  of  four  thousand  acres  of  land,  to  be 
selected  where  he  saw  fit.  The  tract  chosen  was  on  the 
Elk  river,  and  early  In  the  following  year,  having  bought 
the  land  from  the  Indians,  he  settled  on  Bohemia  Manor, 
as  he  named  his  acquisition.  He  immediately  went  to 
work  on  his  map,  which  was  completed  in  1670.  It 
covered  the  whole  section  of  country  between  North  Caro- 
lina and  the  Hudson  river.  In  the  acknowledgment  of 
the  receipt  of  the  map  Herman  was  informed 

That  His  Lordship  had  received  no  small  Satisfaction  by  the 
variety  of  that  mapp,  and  that  the  Kings  Majesty,  His  Royall 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      21 

Highness,  and  all  others  commended  the  exactness  of  the  work, 
applauding  it  for  the  best  mapp  that  ever  was  drawn  of  any  country. 

Herman  was  naturalized  by  act  of  assembly  on  Sep- 
tember 17,  1763,  it  being  the  first  act  of  this  kind  passed 
by  the  assembly.  It  also  included  Herman's  brother-in- 
law,  George  Hack,  Garrett  Ruttzn  and  Jacob  Clauson. 
The  record  of  this  transaction  in  the  "Assembly  Proceed- 
ings, September-October,  1663,"  is  as  follows  :^^ 

Thursday  Sep*^  17*^ 

Then  was  read  the  pet°  of  Augustine  Herman  for  an  Act  for 
Naturalizacon  for  himselfe  Children  and  his  brother  in  Lawe 
George  Hack 

Ordered  that  An  Acte  of  Naturalizacon  be  prepared  for  the 
Consideracon  of  both  howses  to  naturalize  Garrett  Ruttzn  and  his 
Children  and  Jacob  Clauson  ffreemen  of  this  Province 

Ordered  likewise  that  an  Acte  of  Naturalizacon  be  prepared  for 
Augustine  Herman,  and  his  Children  and  his  brother  in  Lawe 
George  Hack  and  his  wife  and  Children. 

Herman  attained  considerable  prominence  in  the  colony 
and  filled  various  offices.  He  took  an  active  part  in  the 
quarrels  arising  over  the  boundary  between  Maryland  and 
Pennsylvania,  and  his  house  was  named,  in  1682,  as  the 
place  of  meeting  for  Lord  Baltimore  and  Governor  Mark- 
ham,  of  Pennsylvania,  to  discuss  the  question.  It  was  also 
on  Herman's  land  that  the  Labadist  colony  was  estab- 
lished.^^ The  Labadists  were  a  pietistic  sect  founded  in 
Germany  about  1669  by  Jean  de  Labadie.    Labadie,  who 

1^  Archives  of  Maryland,  Vol.  I.,  p.  462. 

IS  For  a  full  account  of  the  Labadists  see  "  The  Labadist  Colony  in 
Maryland,"  by  Bartlett  B.  James. 

22  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

was  born  In  1610,  had  been  educated  as  a  Jesuit  priest,  but 
his  pronounced  inclination  towards  mysticism,  as  well  as 
his  eccentricities,  made  him  objectionable  to  the  Society  of 
Jesus,  and  he  easily  secured  his  release  from  that  order 
and  became  a  free  lance.  His  attacks  on  the  Roman 
Catholic  church,  and  more  particularly  the  Jesuits,  led  to 
his  persecution  and  he  was  driven  by  the  authorities,  civil 
and  ecclesiastical,  from  one  place  to  another.  About  1650 
he  adopted  the  Calvinistic  doctrines  and  was  ordained  a 
Protestant  minister,  but  he  soon  found  that,  from  his 
viewpoint,  the  Protestant  church  also  needed  reformation, 
and  he  attempted  this  reformation  so  vigorously  that  he 
again  antagonized  both  the  civil  and  ecclesiastical  authori- 
ties and  was  finally  deposed  from  the  ministry.  He  then 
established  an  independent  church  to  teach  the  pure  prin- 
ciples and  practices  of  the  Christian  faith,  as  he  conceived 
them.  He  attracted  followers  and  located  at  different 
places  but  was  compelled  to  move,  until  finally,  after  the 
death  of  Labadie,  the  colony  located  at  Weiward,  in 
Friesland.  The  needs  of  the  colony  required  more  land 
for  their  support  than  they  could  procure  at  Weiward,  and 
In  1679  the  Weiward  assembly  sent  Peter  Sluyter  and 
Jasper  Danckers  to  America  to  look  for  a  location  for  a 
new  colony.  These  two  men  traveled  under  the  names  of 
P.  Vorstman  and  J.  Schllders.  While  In  New  York  they 
made  the  acquaintance  of  Augustine  Herman's  son  Eph- 
raim  and  accompanied  him  to  Maryland,  where  they  met 
the  elder  Herman.  The  two  Labadists  were  much  pleased 
with  the  locality  and  Herman  was  very  favorably  im- 
pressed with  them.  They  were  very  anxious  to  secure 
part  of  his  land  for  their  colony,  but  while  he  would  not 
agree  to  sell  them  any  of  It  he  became  so  entangled  with 
them  that  later  on  he  was  compelled  by  legal  action  to 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      23 

transfer  part  of  his  estate  to  them.^^  The  two  commis- 
sioners returned  to  Weiward  to  make  their  report  to  the 
assembly,  and  in  1683  brought  back  with  them  the  nucleus 
for  a  colony  and,  through  legal  action,  compelled  Herman 
to  transfer  to  them  nearly  four  thousand  acres  of  land, 
consisting  of  four  necks  of  land  eastwardly  from  the  first 
creek  that  empties  into  Bohemia  river,  from  the  north  or 
northeast  to  near  the  old  St.  Augustine,  or  Manor  church.^o 
The  colony  did  not  grow  very  rapidly  and  never  amounted 
to  much  more  than  one  hundred  persons.  It  was  domi- 
nated by  Sluyter,  who  assumed  the  title  of  bishop,  and  who 
gradually  managed  to  secure  title  to  most  of  the  land.  He 
exacted  rigid  obedience  from  every  member  of  the  com- 
munity, to  whom  was  assigned  some  part  of  the  work. 
Some  of  them  had  to  see  to  the  cooking,  others  to  the 
housework.  The  fields  had  to  be  cultivated  by  some, 
while  others  looked  after  the  stock.  "  The  different  fam- 
ilies had  dwellings  according  to  their  needs,  though,  by 
partitioning  off  the  larger  compartments,  strict  economy 
of  space  was  observed.  All  rooms  were  at  all  times  open 
to  the  pastors  and  to  those  who  held  oversight  in  their 
name.  Those  who  joined  the  community  resigned  into  the 
common  stock  all  their  possessions.  Individuality  in 
attire  was  suppressed.  Degrading  tasks  were  assigned  to 
those  suspected  of  pride.  Samuel  Bownas,  a  minister  of 
the  Society  of  Friends,  in  the  record  of  his  visit  to  the 
community  gives  a  more  particular  account  of  their  table 
discipline  than  can  be  found  elsewhere.  He  says:  'After 
we  had  dined  we  took  our  leave,  and  a  friend,  my  guide, 
went  with  me  and  brought  me  to  a  people  called  Labadists, 
where  we  were  civilly  entertained  in  their  way.     When 

1^  James,  "The  Labadist  Colony  in  Maryland,"  p.  35. 
20  Ibid.,  p.  38. 

24  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

supper  came  In,  it  was  placed  upon  a  large  table  in  a  large 
room,  where,  when  all  things  were  ready,  came  in  at  a  call, 
twenty  men  or  upwards,  but  no  women.  We  all  sat  down, 
they  placing  me  and  my  companion  near  the  head  of  the 
table,  and  having  passed  a  short  space,  one  pulled  off  his 
hat,  but  not  so  the  rest  till  a  short  space  after,  and  then 
they,  one  after  another,  pulled  all  their  hats  off,  and  in 
that  uncovered  posture  sat  silent  uttering  no  word  that  we 
could  hear  for  nearly  half  a  quarter  of  an  hour,  and  as 
they  did  not  uncover  at  once,  neither  did  they  cover  them- 
selves again  at  once,  but  as  they  put  on  their  hats  fell  to 
eating  not  regarding  those  who  were  still  uncovered,  so 
that  it  might  be  ten  minutes  time  or  more  between  the  first 
and  last  putting  on  of  their  hats.  I  afterward  queried 
with  my  companion  as  to  their  conduct,  and  he  gave  for 
an  answer  that  they  held  it  unlawful  to  pray  till  they  felt 
some  inward  motion  for  the  same,  and  that  secret  prayer 
was  more  acceptable  than  to  utter  words,  and  that  it  was 
most  proper  for  every  one  to  pray  as  moved  thereto  by  the 
spirit  In  their  own  minds.  I  likewise  queried  if  they  had 
no  women  amongst  them.  He  told  me  they  had,  but  the 
women  ate  by  themselves  and  the  men  by  themselves,  hav- 
ing all  things  In  common  respecting  their  household  affairs, 
so  that  none  could  claim  any  more  right  than  another  to 
any  part  of  their  stock,  whether  In  trade  or  husbandry.'  "^^ 

According  to  the  belief  of  the  Labadists  the  church  was  a  com- 
munity of  holy  persons  who  had  been  born  again  from  sin,  held 
together  by  the  love  of  truth  as  it  is  in  Jesus  Christ.  They  laid 
great  stress  on  the  power  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  operating  not  only 
through  the  scriptures  and  the  administration  of  the  sacraments, 
but  also  by  direct  communication  with  the  souls  of  the  elect.  The 
presence  of  the  Holy  Ghost  was  indicated  by  the  conduct  of  the 

21  Ibid.,  p.  i6. 




^    MAP,     1670. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      25 

believer.  They  did  not  believe  in  infant  baptism  because  it  could 
not  be  foretold  w^hether  the  child  would  grow  up  in  the  fear  of 
God  or  in  sin.  To  them  baptism  was  the  sealing  of  a  new  covenant 
with  God  and  insured  the  washing  away  of  sins.  They  held  that 
the  believers  and  unbelievers  should  be  kept  apart,  and  carried  this 
doctrine  to  such  a  length  that  they  believed  it  was  the  duty  of  a 
husband  and  wife  to  separate  if  either  were  not  of  the  elect.  They 
held  themselves  as  freed  from  allegiance  to  any  law. 

"Labadism,"  says  James, ^^  "was  essentially  a  mystical 
form  of  faith,  teaching  supreme  reliance  upon  the  inward 
illumination  of  the  Spirit.  And  yet  the  works  of  the 
Labadists  disclose  a  high  form  of  Christian  faith  and  aspi- 
ration. Whatever  its  defects,  and  the  opportunities  for 
hypocritical  pretence  which  it  offered,  Labadism  was  yet 
a  standard  of  faith  and  conduct  which  no  one  could  con- 
form to  without  at  the  same  time  exemplifying  high  Chris- 
tian graces." 

The  Labadist  colony  on  Bohemia  river  ceased  to  exist 
as  such  shortly  after  the  year  1720. 

According  to  Weishaar,^^  other  Germans  who  settled  in 
Maryland  prior  to  1700  were  Martin  Faulkner,  who  was 
granted  150  acres  of  land  in  Anne  Arundel  county,  Sep- 
tember 23,  1680;  Daniel  Hast,  Somerset  county,  August 
30,  1680;  Robert  Knapp,  September  22,  1681;  Christo- 
pher Geist,  August  10,  1684;  William  Gross,  October  24, 
1684;  Richard  Schippe;  John  Leniger,  October  10,  1683; 
Rudolph  Brandt,  June  12,  1686;  William  Blankenstein, 
about  1685  ;  Jo^^  Falkner,  1685  ;  Thomas  Faulkner,  June 
12,  1688;  William  Gross,  May  2,  1689;  William  Lange, 
November  10,  1691 ;  Robert  Sadler,  April  4,  1689. 

22  "  The  Labadist  Colony  in  Maryland,"  p.  14. 

23  Report  of  the  Society  for  the  History  of  the  Germans  in  Maryland, 
Vol.  XV.,  p.  20. 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

These  are  practically  all  the  Germans  who  had  settled 
in  the  colony  before  1700.  Compared  with  those  of 
other  nationalities  they  were  few  in  number  and  were  not 
of  sufficient  importance  to  make  any  impression  in  consider- 
ing the  character  of  the  inhabitants.  Maryland  was  still 
English  in  all  respects  and  it  remained  so  until  the  large 
influx  of  Pennsylvania-Germans  a  third  of  a  century  later. 



The  Germans  in  Pennsylvania. 


ROM  the  time  that  Moses 
led  the  hosts  of  Israel  out 
of  Egypt  toward  the  Prom- 
ised Land  history  records  no 
such  exodus  of  a  people  as 
that  which  took  place  from 
the  Rhenish  provinces  of  Ger- 
many in  the  early  years  of  the 
eighteenth  century.  The  op- 
pressed and  Impoverished  In- 
habitants went,  not  by  scores, 
nor  even  by  hundreds,  but 
literally  by  thousands.  In  this  day  we  can  scarcely  realize 
the  extent  of  the  emigration  which  took  place  from  Ger- 
many at  that  time,  nor  the  causes  which  brought  It  about. 
These  causes  were  varied,  though  It  was  the  ruthless  devas- 
tation of  the  valley  of  the  Rhine,  commonly  known  as  the 
Palatinate,  during  the  Thirty  Years'  War  and  those  which 
followed  It,  "mpre  than  any  other  cause  that  started  the 
great  and  steady  stream  of  German  blood,  muscle  and 
brains  to  Pennsylvania's  shores."-^ 

2*  Julius  F.  Sachse,  Litt.D.,  in  Proceedings  and  Addresses  of  the  Penn- 
sylvania-German Society,  Vol.  VII.,  p.  172. 


28  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Almost  with  the  opening  of  the  Thirty  Years'  War,  In 
1620,  the  troops  of  the  Emperor  Ferdinand  II.  of  Ger- 
many, under  Tilly  and  Maximilian,  devastated  the  Protes- 
tant lands  and  cities  of  the  Palatinate,  and  began  the 
ravages  which  marlced  that  war.  The  Protestants  retali- 
ated, with  the  result  that  the  country  was  almost  depopu- 
lated. Before  this  war  the  Palatinate  was  credited  with 
a  population  of  half  a  million  souls;  at  the  close  of  the 
struggle  a  census  showed  less  than  one  third  of  the  original 
number.^^  It  has  been  estimated  that  in  the  first  half  of 
the  seventeenth  century  two  thirds  of  the  people  of  Ger- 
many perished  from  war,  pestilence  and  famine.  One  of 
the  effects  of  the  war  was  the  destruction  of  almost  all 
trade  and  commerce.  During  the  war  Alsace,  adjoining 
the  Palatinate,  was  so  terribly  devastated  by  the  French 
that  the  German  Emperor  found  himself  unable  to  hold  it. 
The  population  was  greatly  reduced  in  numbers  and  much 
of  the  land  was  left  uncultivated. 

With  the  end  of  the  Thirty  Years'  War  the  impover- 
ished and  destitute  inhabitants  of  Germany  hoped  for  a 
respite  from  their  troubles  and  for  a  chance  to  rebuild 
their  homes  and  rehabilitate  their  fortunes.  But  that  hope 
was  in  vain.  In  1674,  during  the  Dutch  War,  Turenne 
pushed  forward  into  the  Palatinate,  defeated  the  imperial- 
ists at  Sinzheim,  and  deliberately  destroyed  the  whole 
country.  After  the  revocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes,  in 
1685,  large  numbers  of  Huguenots  left  France  and  settled 
in  the  Palatinate.  The  French  king  becoming  angered 
because  the  Palatine  Elector  gave  shelter  to  these  perse- 
cuted people,  sent  Louvois  with  one  hundred  thousand 
soldiers,  with  orders  to  destroy  the  Palatinate.  "How 
well  this  horde  of  murderers  did  his  bidding,"  says  Dr. 

25  Ibid.,  p.  125. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      29 

Sachse,  "  is  a  matter  of  history.  Even  to  the  present  day, 
after  the  lapse  of  two  centuries,  the  line  of  march  may  be 
traced  from  the  Drachenfels  to  Heidelberg.  Crumbling 
walls,  ruined  battlements  and  blown-up  towers  still  remain 
as  mementoes  of  French  vandalism. "^"^ 

But  even  this  was  not  the  end  of  their  chapter  of  hor- 
rors, for  with  the  opening  of  the  eighteenth  century  the 
War  of  the  Spanish  Succession  caused  the  country  again  to 
be  overrun,  and  what  little  the  previous  marauders  had  left 
was  destroyed  by  the  flames  and  battles  of  another  invasion. 
The  few  people  who  were  left  were  in  the  direst  poverty. 
Even  those  who  a  few  years  before  were  well-to-do,  were 
now  no  better  off  than  their  poorest  neighbors,  for  with 
their  homes  destroyed  and  their  fields  uncultivated  they 
had  nothing,  and  no  prospects  of  having  anything. 

But,  as  though  the  trial  by  the  sword  and  flames  was 
not  enough,  nature  did  what  she  could  to  still  further  afflict 
the  stricken  inhabitants  of  the  Palatinate.  The  winter  of 
1708-9  was  unusually  severe.  The  cold  was  intense  and 
long-continued,  and  the  half-starved  and  destitute  inhabi- 
tants were  illy-prepared  to  withstand  the  rigors  of  that 
unusually  severe  winter,  so  that  many  of  them  perished 
from  the  cold.  To  the  little  remnant  that  was  left  it 
seemed  as  though  they  had  been  forsaken  by  God  as  well 
as  by  man,  and  they  were  ready  to  turn  in  any  direction 
that  offered  an  escape  from  the  terrible  situation  in  which 
they  found  themselves. 

At  this  juncture  the  agents  sent  out  by  WilHam  Penn, 
and  to  a  lesser  degree  by  some  of  the  proprietors  of  some 
of  the  other  American  colonies,  made  their  appearance 
and  distributed  broadcast  glowing  accounts  of  the  new 

28  Proceedings  and  Addresses  of  the  Pennsylvania-German  Society,  Vol. 
VII.,  p.  170. 

30  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

homes  that  might  easily  be  founded  in  the  land  across  the 
sea.  The  poverty-stricken,  starving  people  jumped  at  the 
chance  that  was  offered  and  rose  en  masse  and  made  their 
way  as  best  they  could  to  the  nearest  seaports  and  started 
for  England  as  the  first  stage  in  their  journey  to  the  new 
home  beyond  the  sea.  They  went  literally  by  the  thousand. 
In  May  or  June,  1709,  the  Germans  began  to  arrive  in 
London,  and  by  October  between  13,000  and  14,000  had 
come.""  The  coming  into  England  of  so  large  a  number 
of  destitute  people  with  no  means  of  sustenance  presented 
to  the  English  people  a  problem  which  had  to  be  met 
promptly.  As  Dr.  Diffenderffer  says,  "  Never  before, 
perhaps,  were  emigrants  seeking  new  homes  so  poorly 
provided  with  money  and  the  other  necessaries  of  life  to 
support  them  on  their  way  as  were  these  Palatines.  .  .  . 
From  the  day  of  their  arrival  in  London  they  required  the 
assistance  of  the  English  to  keep  them  from  starving. 
There  was  little  or  no  work;  bread  was  dear,  and  the  only 
thing  to  do  was  to  bridge  the  crisis  by  raising  money  by 
public  subscriptions." 

A  large  amount  of  money  was  collected  and  by  direction 
of  Queen  Anne  one  thousand  tents  were  taken  from  the 
Tower  of  London  and  set  up  in  the  country  outside  of 
London.  In  these  camps  many  of  the  emigrants  were  shel- 
tered, while  others  were  housed  in  barns  and  warehouses, 
and  some  in  private  houses.  The  government  took  active 
steps  to  get  rid  of  the  foreigners  as  quickly  as  possible, 
and  eventually  they  were  disposed  of.  Nearly  four  thou- 
sand of  them  were  sent  to  Ireland,^^  where  their  descend- 

2T  Frank  R.  DiffenderflFer,  Litt.D.,  in  Proceedings  and  Addresses  of  the 
Pennsylvania-German  Society,  Vol.  VII.,  p.  266. 

28  Dr.  Diffenderffer  is  of  the  opinion  that  if  these  German  colonists  did 
not  actually  establish  the  linen  industry  in  Ireland  they  gave  it  such  an 
impulse  as  to  make  it  the  most  important  textile  industry  in  that  country. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      3 1 

ants  live  to  this  day.  Many  of  the  Roman  Catholics  were 
returned  to  the  places  from  which  they  had  come,  and  a 
large  party,  numbering  over  three  thousand,  was  sent  to 
the  New  York  colony,  many  of  whom  eventually  found 
their  way  down  into  Pennsylvania  and  settled  in  the  Tulpe- 
hocken  region. 

This  was  practically  the  beginning  of  the  German  emi- 
gration to  America,  although  the  Crefeld  colony  under 
Pastorius  had  made  a  settlement  at  Germantown  in  1683 
and  Kocherthal,  with  his  fifty-three  companions,  had 
founded  Newburg  on  the  Hudson  at  the  beginning  of 
1709.  A  constant  stream  of  German  colonists  followed, 
at  first  slowly,  then  in  larger  numbers,  the  greater  number 
going  to  Pennsylvania.  By  17 17  so  many  of  them  had 
arrived  in  that  colony  that  alarm  was  excited  in  the  minds 
of  the  authorities.  In  that  year  Governor  Keith  thought 
the  matter  of  sufficient  importance  to  recommend  that  the 
masters  of  all  vessels  bringing  in  foreign  passengers  be 
required  to  furnish  lists  of  all  such  persons  and  that  the 
emigrants  be  required  to  take  the  oath  of  allegiance. 
Through  this  recommendation  being,  at  a  later  period, 
enacted  into  a  law  a  fairly  accurate  record  of  the  number 
of  German  emigrants  who  came  into  Pennsylvania  has  been 
preserved.  The  exact  number  is  not  known,  as  many  came 
before  the  records  were  begun,  in  1727,  and  some  of  these 
records  appear  to  have  been  lost,  but  Professor  Oscar  Kuhns 
has  gone  over  the  lists  very  carefully  and  has  figured  out 
that  between  1727  and  1775  the  number  of  Germans  who 
came  to  Pennsylvania  was  about  68,872.2^  The  authori- 
ties~of  the  province  did  not  look  kindly  upon  this  influx 
of  German  emigrants.  Secretary  James  Logan  was  par- 
ticularly outspoken  in  his  opposition  to  them,  and  on  a 

29  "  The  German  and  Swiss  Settlements  of  Colonial  Pennsylvania,"  p.  57. 

32  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

number  of  occasions  wrote  unfavorably  concerning  them. 
On  march  25,  1727,  he  wrote  to  John  Penn:  "We  have 
many  thousands  of  foreigners,  mostly  Palatines,  so-called, 
already  in  y®  Countrey,  of  whom  near  1500  came  in  this 
last  summer;  many  of  them  are  a  surly  people,  divers 
Papists  amongst  them,  and  y^  men  generally  well  arm'd. 
We  have  from  the  North  of  Ireland,  great  numbers  yearly, 
8  or  9  Ships  this  last  ffall  discharged  at  Newcastle.  Both 
of  these  sorts  sitt  frequently  down  on  any  spott  of  vacant 
Land  they  can  find,  without  asking  questions;  the  last 
Palatines  say  there  will  be  twice  the  number  next  year,  & 
y*  Irish  say  y^  same  of  their  People." 

The  proprietaries  were  naturally  influenced  by  the  un- 
favorable reports  sent  "to  "therri  concerning  the  German 
emigrants  and  in  consequence,  although  they  were  doubt- 
less actuated  by  other  motives,  determined  to  have  them 
settle  on  the  outlying  lands:  s6tti'aTthey  might  serve  as  a 
bulwark  between  the  inhabitants  of  the  more-thickly 
settled  parts  of  the  province  and  the  hostile  Indians.  In 
1729,  John,  Thomas  and  Richard  Penn  wrote  to  Secre- 
tary Logan:  "As  to  the  Palatines,  you  have  often  taken 
notice  of  to  us,  wee  apprehend  have  Lately  arrived  in 
greater  Quantities  than  may  be  consistent  with  the  welfare 
of  the  Country,  and  therefore,  applied  ourself  to  our 
Councill  to  find  a  proper  way  to  prevent  it,  the  result  of 
which  was,  that  an  act  of  assembly  should  be  got  or  en- 
deavoured at,  and  sent  us  over  immediately,  when  we 
would  take  sufllicient  Care  to  get  it  approved  by  the  King. 
With  this  resolution  we  acquainted  the  Governour,  by 
Cap'  Stringfellow,  to  Maryland,  the  25*''  Feb"^  a  Duplicate 
of  which  we  have  since  sent  by  another  shipp,  both  w'^'' 
times  we  also  enclos'd  Letters  for  thee ;  but  as  to  any  other 
people  coming  over  who  are  the  subjects  of  the  British 



Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      33 

Crown,  we  can't  Conceive  it  anyways  practicable  to  pro- 
hibit it :  but  supposing  they  are  natives  of  Ireland  &  Roman 
Cathollcks,  they  ought  not  to  settle  till  they  have  taken  the 
proper  Oaths  to  the  King,  &  Promls'd  Obedience  to  the 
Laws  of  the  Country,  and.  Indeed,  we  Can't  Conceive  It 
unreasonable  that  if  they  are  Inclinable  to  settle,  they 
should  be  obllg'd  to  settle,  either  Backwards  to  Sasque- 
hannah  or  north  In  y^  Country  beyond  the  other  settle- 
ments, as  we  had  mentioned  before  in  relation  to  the  Pala- 
tines; but  we  must  desire  Care  may  be  taken  that  they  are 
not  suffered  to  settle  towards  Maryland,  on  any  account."^^ 

Not  only  did  the  provincial  authorities  feel  apprehen- 
sion concerning  the  large  number  of  Germans  who  were 
coming  into  the  colony,  but  the  same  impression  prevailed 
among  the  English  generally,  and  even  as  late  as  1751 
Benjamin  Franklin  said:  "Why  should  the  Palatine  boors 
be  suffered  to  swarm  into  our  settlements,  and,  by  herding 
together,  establish  their  language  and  manners,  to  the 
exclusion  of  ours?  Why  should  Pennsylvania,  founded 
by  the  English,  become  a  colony  of  aliens,  who  will  shortly 
be  so  numerous  as  to  Germanize  us,  instead  of  our  Anglicl- 
fylng  them,  and  will  never  adopt  our  language  or  customs 
any  more  than  they  can  acquire  our  complexion?  "  Frank- 
lin later  realized  that  he  had  made  a  mistake  in  speaking 
so  contemptuously  of  this  element  which  formed  so  large 
a  proportion  of  the  population  of  Pennsylvania,  and  tried 
to  smooth  It  over  by  trying  to  make  It  appear  that  he  had 
used  the  word  "  boor"  in  the  sense  of  "  farmer." 

But  in  spite  of  the  opposition  to  them  the  Germans  con- 
tinued to  come  in  increasing  numbers.  It  Is  said  that  in 
17 19  six  thousand  German  emigrants  came  to  Pennsylva- 
nia, but  as  accurate  records  were  not  kept  at  that  time  It  is 

30  Pennsylvania  Archives,  Second  Series,  Vol.  VII.,  p.  140. 

34  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

probable  that  this  estimate  is  exaggerated.  In  1727,  when 
fairly  accurate  records  were  kept,  over  twelve  hundred 
landed,  while  in  1732  the  number  was  between  two  and 
three  thousand.  As  the  eastern  section  of  the  country  be- 
came more  thickly  settled  the  Germans  spread  out  to  the 
west  and  southwest  and  settled  in  the  more  remote  parts 
of  the  colony,  often  on  land  not  yet  purchased  from  the 
Indians,  as  was  the  case  with  the  party  from  Schoharie 
county.  New  York,  who  made  their  way  through  the 
unbroken  forests,  following  the  Susquehanna,  and  settled 
at  Tulpehocken.  They  were  part  of  the  party  who  settled 
in  Livingston  Manor,  in  17 10,  and  after  spending  some 
years  there  had  gone  to  Schoharie,  whence  they  were  again 
impelled  to  move.  The  Indians  naturally  resented  this 
encroachment  upon  their  lands  and  frequently  assumed  a 
hostile  attitude,  making  attacks  on  unprotected  settlements. 
The  settlers  appealed  to  the  authorities  for  aid  in  repelling 
these  attacks,  but,  in  addition  to  the  fact  that  the  Quaker 
authorities  were  opposed  to  furnishing  means  for  warfare 
and  bloodshed,  they  were  almost  continually  having  con- 
troversies with  the  governors  and  proprietaries,  and  but 
little  was  done  in  the  way  of  furnishing  protection,  and  the 
inhabitants  of  the  outlying  sections  were  usually  left  to 
their  own  devices. 

The  condition  of  these  settlers  is  well  illustrated  in  a 
letter^^  written  by  Casper  Wistar  from  Philadelphia, 
under  date  of  November  8,  1732  : 

Being  importuned  daily  by  so  many  of  our  countrymen  to  re- 
lieve them  from  the  great  distress,  into  which  they  have  come, 
partially  through  their  own  thoughtlessness,  and  partially  by  the 
persuasion  of  others,  and  it  being  absolutely  impossible  to  help  all, 

31  Quoted  by  Rev.  Dr.  Henry  E.  Jacobs,  in  Proceedings  and  Addresses  of 
the  Pennsylvania-German  Society,  Vol.  VIII.,  p.  142. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      35 

sympathy  for  the  poor  people  still  in  the  Fatherland,  and  who, 
before  undertaking  such  a  journey,  have  time  to  reflect,  constrains 
me  to  give  a  true  account  of  the  conditions  of  things  in  this  new 
land.  I  make  this  particular  request  that  these  facts  may  be  re- 
ported everywhere,  that  no  one  may  have  the  excuse  for  learning 
them  only  from  his  own  personal  experience. 

Some  years  ago  this  was  a  very  fruitful  country,  and,  like  all 
new  countries,  but  sparsely  inhabited.  Since  the  wilderness  re- 
quired much  labor,  and  the  inhabitants  were  few,  ships  that 
arrived  with  German  emigrants  were  cordially  welcomed.  They 
were  immediately  discharged,  and  by  their  labor  very  easily  earned 
enough  to  buy  some  land.  Pennsylvania  is  but  a  small  part  of 
America,  and  has  been  open  now  for  some  years,  so  that  not  only 
many  thousand  Germans,  but  English  and  Irish  have  settled  there, 
and  filled  all  parts  of  the  country;  so  that  all  who  now  seek  land 
must  go  far  into  the  wilderness,  and  purchase  it  at  a  higher  price. 

Many  hardships  also  are  experienced  on  the  voyage.  Last  year 
one  of  the  ships  was  driven  about  the  ocean  for  twenty-four  weeks, 
and  of  its  one  hundred  and  fifty  passengers,  more  than  one  hun- 
dred starved  to  death.  To  satisfy  their  hunger,  they  caught  mice, 
and  rats;  and  a  mouse  brought  half  a  gulden.  When  the  sur- 
vivors at  last  reached  land,  their  sufferings  were  aggravated  by 
their  arrest,  and  the  exaction  from  them  of  the  entire  fare  for  both 
living  and  dead.  This  year  ten  ships  with  three  thousand  souls 
have  arrived. 

One  of  the  vessels  was  seventeen  weeks  on  the  way  and  about 
sixty  of  its  passengers  died  at  sea.  All  the  survivors  are  sick  and 
feeble,  and  what  is  worst,  poor  and  without  means;  hence,  in  a 
community  like  this  where  money  is  scarce,  they  are  a  burden,  and 
every  day  there  are  deaths  among  them.  Every  person  over  four- 
teen years  old,  must  pay  six  doubloons  (about  90  dollars)  passage 
from  Rotterdam,  and  those  between  four  and  fourteen  must  pay 
half  that  amount.  When  one  is  without  the  money,  his  only 
resource  is  to  sell  himself  for  a  term  from  three  to  eight  years  or 
more,  and  to  serve  as  a  slave.     Nothing  but  a  poor  suit  of  clothes 

36  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

is  received  when  his  time  has  expired.  Families  endure  a  great 
trial  when  they  see  the  father  purchased  by  one  master,  the  mother 
by  another,  and  each  of  the  children  by  another.  All  this  for  the 
money  only  that  they  owe  the  Captain.  And  yet  they  are  only 
too  glad,  when  after  waiting  long,  they  at  last  find  some  one  will- 
ing to  buy  them;  for  the  money  of  the  country  is  well  nigh  ex- 
hausted. In  view  of  these  circumstances,  and  the  tedious,  expen- 
sive and  perilous  voyage,  you  should  not  advise  any  one  for  whom 
you  wish  well  to  come  hither.  All  I  can  say  is  that  those  who 
think  of  coming  should  weigh  well  what  has  been  above  stated, 
and  should  count  the  cost,  and,  above  all,  should  go  to  God  for 
counsel  and  inquire  whether  it  be  His  will,  lest  they  may  under- 
take that  whereof  they  will  afterward  repent.  If  ready  to  haz- 
ard their  lives  and  to  endure  patiently  all  the  trials  of  the  voyage, 
they  must  further  think  whether  over  and  above  the  cost  they  will 
have  enough  to  purchase  cattle,  and  to  provide  for  other  necessities. 
No  one  should  rely  upon  friends  whom  he  may  have  here ;  for  they 
have  enough  to  do,  and  many  a  one  reckons  in  this  without  his 
host.  Young  and  able-bodied  persons,  who  can  do  efficient  work, 
can,  nevertheless,  always  find  some  one  who  will  purchase  them 
for  two,  three  or  four  years;  but  they  must  be  unmarried.  For 
young  married  persons,  particularly  when  the  wife  is  with  child, 
no  one  cares  to  have.  Of  mechanics  there  are  a  considerable  num- 
ber already  here;  but  a  good  mechanic  who  can  bring  with  him 
sufficient  capital  to  avoid  beginning  with  debt,  may  do  well, 
although  of  almost  all  classes  and  occupations,  there  are  already 
more  than  too  many.  All  this  I  have,  out  of  sincere  love  for  the 
interests  of  my  neighbor,  deemed  it  necessary  to  communicate  con- 
cerning the  present  condition  in  Pennsylvania. 


The  Movement  to  Maryland. 


URING  the  first  century  of 
Its  existence  the  colony  of 
Maryland  did  not  grow  very  rap- 
idly and  it  was,  relatively,  of  minor 
importance.  The  territory  actu- 
ally settled  consisted  chiefly  of  a 
narrow  strip  along  Chesapeake 
Bay,  the  colonists  showing  but  little 
inclination  to  locate  very  far  from  tidewater.  This  was  but 
natural,  for  everyone  was  devoting  his  energies  to  raising 
tobacco,  and  to  dispose  of  this  it  had  to  be  shipped  abroad, 
and  the  numerous  inlets  along  the  coast  afforded  ample  op- 
portunity for  this  shipment,  without  the  necessity  of  a  long 
haul  to  the  port  of  lading.  It  is  curious  to  note  how  every 
settler  devoted  all  his  time  and  labor  to  the  raising  of 
tobacco,  without  regard  to  reason,  and  to  the  exclusion  of 
the  necessaries  of  life;  but  tobacco  was  the  only  medium 
of  barter  and  exchange,  and  all  debts,  public  and  private, 
were  settled  in  that  commodity.  Naturally,  therefore, 
everyone  wanted  to  raise  as  much  tobacco  as  possible,  and 
the  result  was  that  but  little  attention  was  paid  to  the 
quality,  and  the  consequent  lowering  of  value  of  the  prod- 


38  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

uct  brought  the  young  colony  into  financial  difficulties  with 
all  the  evils  attendant  on  a  depreciated  currency.  The 
enactment  of  laws  requiring  the  settlers  to  raise  a  certain 
amount  of  corn  and  other  commodities  had  scarcely  any 
effect,  and  it  was  not  until  1748,  more  than  a  hundred 
years  after  the  founding  of  the  colony,  that  an  effective 
law  regulating  the  production  of  tobacco  was  enacted.  It 
was  this  restriction  of  the  settlements  to  the  neighborhood 
of  the  coast  and  the  evils  arising  from  the  unlimited  culti- 
vation of  tobacco  that  undoubtedly  limited  the  growth  of 
the  colony,  although  the  feudal  system  in  force  in  the 
tenure  of  land  had  something  to  do  with  it.  The  colony 
was  practically  at  a  standstill.  In  1689,  fifty-six  years 
after  its  foundation,  it  had  a  population  of  but  25,000. 
In  the  next  twenty-one  years,  to  17 10,  the  population  in- 
creased but  five  thousand,  and  in  1733  the  number  of  tax- 
able inhabitants,  including  all  males  above  the  age  of 
fifteen,  was  but  31,470;  but  about  this  time  the  German 
settlers  began  to  come  into  Maryland  from  Pennsylvania, 
although  it  was  not  until  some  years  later  that  they  came  in 
sufficient  numbers  to  materially  affect  the  progress  of  the 
colony.  When  this  movement  reached  its  height  the  effect 
was  decidedly  noticeable,  and  by  1756  the  population  had 
increased  to  130,000,  and  by  far  the  greater  number  of 
these  were  Pennsylvania-Germans. ^^ 

When  the  Germans  began  to  arrive  in  Pennsylvania  in 
large  numbers  in  the  early  part  of  the  eighteenth  century, 
and  spread  out  over  that  colony  to  the  west  and  south,  it 
was  but  natural,  in  view  of  the  unsettled  condition  of  the 
boundary  between  Maryland  and  Pennsylvania,  that  some 
of  them  should  get  over  the  dividing  line  into  Maryland. 

32  Louis  p.  Hennighausen,  in  Report  of  the  Society  for  the  History  of 
Germans  in  Maryland,  Vol.  VI.,  p.  14. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      39 

As  early  as  17 10  this  has  been  noted,  for  on  October  27 
of  that  year  the  journal  of  the  Maryland  House  of  Dele- 
gates records  that  * 

This  House  being  informed  several  Palatines  were  come  to 
settle  in  this  Province  &  being  w^illing  and  desirous  to  encourage 
those  poor  People  in  their  Industry  have  resolved  that  those  Pala- 
tines vi'ith  their  Servants  shall  be  free  this  present  year  from  paying 
any  publick,  County,  or  Parish  Levy  or  Charge,  to  which  they 
pray  the  Concurrence  of  the  Honble  Council.^^ 

Butjhere  was  no  marked  movement  of  the  Germans 
from  Pennsylvania  into  Maryland  until  the  latter  part  of 
the  second  decade  of  the  eighteenth  century,  and  then  one 
of  the  chief  causes  In  bringing  about  this  movement  was 
the  indifference  of  the  Quaker  authorities  of  Pennsylva- 
nia to  the  safety  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  back  counties. 
They  were  well  satisfied  to  have  these  sturdy  Germans  on 
the  western  frontier  to  serve  as  a  barrier  between  them- 
selves and  the  hostile  Indians,  but  they  were  very  unwilling 
to  go  to  any  expense  to  provide  the  settlers  with  means 
of  protecting  themselves.  Among  the  numerous  appeals 
to  the  Pennsylvania  authorities  was  the  following  petition 
from  a  number  of  settlers  in  Colebrook  Valley,  asking  for 
protection  from  the  attacks  of  the  Indians  who  had  already 
attacked  the  settlers  near  Falckner's  Swamp  and  Goschen- 
hoppen  :^* 

To  his  Excellency  Patrick  Gordon  Esqr  Governor  Generall  In 
chie(f)    Over  the  Province  of  pencilvania  And  the  Territoris 
Belonging  Bonbrenors  township  and  the  Adjacences  Belonging 
May  ye  10*''  1728 
We  think  It  fit  to  Address  your  Excellency  for  Relief  for  your 

Excellency  must  know  That  we  have  Sufered  and  Is  Like  to  Sufer 

33  Archives  of  Maryland,  Vol.  XVIL,  p.  524. 

34  Pennsylvania  Archives,  First  Series,  Vol.  I.,  p.  213. 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

By  the  Ingians  they  have  fell  upon  ye  Back  Inhabitors  about 
falkners  Swamp  &  New  Coshahopin  Therefore  We  the  humble 
Petitionors  With  our  poor  Wives  And  Children  Do  humbly  Beg 
of  your  Excellency  To  Take  It  into  Consideration  And  Relieve 
us  the  Petitionors  hereof  Whos  Lives  Lie  at  Stake  With  us  and 
our  poor  Wives  &  Children  that  Is  more  to  us  than  Life  There- 
fore We  the  humble  Petitionors  hereof  Do  Desire  An  Answer 
from  your  Excellency  By  ye  Bearor  With  Speed  So  no  More  at 
present  from  your  poor  Afflicted  People  Whose  names  are  here 

John  Roberts 
Jn  Pawling 
Henry  Pannebeckers 
Wm  Lane 
John  Jacobs 
Isaac  Dubois 
Israeli  Morris 
Ben  i amen  Fry 
Jacob  op  den  graef 
Johannes  SchoU 
Richard  Adams 
George  Poger 
Adam  Sollom 
Dirtman  Kolb 
Martin  Kolb 
Gabriel  Showier 
Anthony  halmon 
John  Isaac  Klein 
Hans  Detweiler 
William  Bitts 
Heinrich  Rutt 
Hubburt  Castle 
Henery  Fentlinger 
Christian  Weber 
Gerhart  de  hesse 

Hen  rich  Kolb 
John  fret 
Paul  fret. 
Wm  Smith 
Peter  Rambo 
David  young 
Christopher  Schmit 
Garret  Clemens 
Johannes  Reichardt 
Mathias  Tyson 
Peter  Johnson 
Jost  hyt 

Christian  Alibock 
bans  Rife 
Daniel  Stowford 
Abraham  Schwartz. 
Johann  Vallentin  Kratz. 
John  Johnson 
Colly  hafilfinger 
Nickolas  huldiman 
Michal  Sigler 
Christian  Stoner 
Johannes  Garber 
John  huldiman 
Claus  Johnson 



^g;!^.,^^^^^  ^,^>^^^/^  ^3^6?^^^  ^^0^  Qp^  a^a^^^^o^  ^^^ 






Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      41 

Lorentz  Bingamon  Nicholas  hicks 

Richard  Jacob  Johannes  Lisher 

Hermanes  Kiisters  Jacob  Shimor 

Peter  Bun  Michall  Cross 

Jacob  Engners  Peter  Rife 

Hans ■  George  Rife 

Conrad   Cusson  George  Mire 

Jacob  Mernke  Postron  Smith 

Christian  Nighswanger  Edward  Scherer 

Conrad  Knight  Jacob  Crontor 

Jacob  Kolb  Jacob  Stoferd 

hons  Wolly  Bergy  Henrey  Stoferd 

John  Mior  Paul  fret.  Junior. 

This  appeal,  like  so  many  others  of  similar  import, 
brought  no  response  from  the  authorities.  Among  the 
signers  of  this  petition  was  Jost  Hyt,  or  Jost  Hite,  as  he 
Is  generally  designated  In  the  Virginia  records.  Hite,  who 
appears  to  have  been  a  man  Imbued  with  the  courage  of  his 
convictions,  apparently  became  disgusted  with  the  manner 
in  which  the  rights  of  the  Inhabitants  were  Ignored  by  the 
authorities,  and  determined  to  seek  a  home  In  some  other 
locality  where  the  safety  of  the  settlers  would  not  be  a 
matter  of  indifference  to  those  In  authority.  Thus  was 
started  a  movement  which  resulted  In  the  peopling  of 
a  state. 

In  1709  Franz  Ludwig  Michel  and  Baron  Christopher 
von  Graffenrled,  from  Berne,  Switzerland,  established  a 
colony  In  North  Carolina,  but  on  account  of  the  Indian 
massacres,  as  well  as  the  fact  that  the  settlers  were  not 
able  to  obtain  land  upon  as  favorable  terms  as  they  had 
expected,  most  of  the  colonists  removed  Into  the  colony 
of  Virginia.  Here  they  were  favorably  received  by  Gov- 
ernor Alexander  Spottswood,  who  established  a  colony  for 

42  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

them  at  Germanna,  where  he  erected  an  iron-works  in 
which  a  number  of  the  foreigners  found  employment. 
This  settlement,  however,  did  not  prosper  and  soon  became 
extinct,  and  the  inhabitants  located  in  other  parts  of  the 
colony.  The  presence  of  these  Germans  with  their  thrift 
and  industry  naturally  excited  a  desire  to  have  more  of 
the  same  kind  of  people  in  the  colony,  and  in  1730  Isaac 
and  John  Van  Meter,  two  Dutchmen  whose  father  had 
settled  on  the  Hudson,  obtained  from  the  Governor  of 
Virginia  a  patent  for  40,000  acres  of  land  in  that  colony, 
on  condition  that  they  would  settle  two  hundred  German 
families  on  the  land  ceded  to  them.  In  looking  for  a  place 
where  he  might  locate  under  more  favorable  conditions 
than  he  had  found  to  obtain  in  Pennsylvania,  Jost  Hite 
made  an  agreement  with  the  Van  Meters  and  became  a 
partner  in  the  plan  to  found  a  German  colony  in  Virginia, 
and  in  1732,  with  his  family,  his  son-in-law,  George  Bow- 
man, Jacob  Chrisman  and  Paul  Froman,  with  their  fami- 
lies, and  several  others — sixteen  families  in  all — left  York, 
crossed  the  Potomac,  and  settled  near  where  Winchester 
now  stands.  Although  a  little  before  this,  as  early  as 
1729,  a  few  Germans  had  made  their  way  down  from 
Pennsylvania  into  Maryland  and  settled  near  the  Mono- 
cacy  river,  this  settlement  of  Hite's  may  be  considered  as 
the  entering  wedge  which  started  the  great  movement  of 
the  Germans  from  Pennsylvania  into  Maryland  and  Vir- 
ginia. In  pursuance  of  their  plan  Hite  and  Van  Meter 
traveled  through  the  German  settlements  to  the  north  and 
extolled  the  advantages  of  the  territory  they  were  exploit- 
ing, and  thus  started  the  movement  towards  the  south. 

Charles,  Lord  Baltimore,  becoming  aware  of  this  move- 
ment, and  desiring  to  obtain  settlers  for  the  unoccupied 



GOVERNOR    OF   VIRGINIA.      BORN    1676;     DIED    1740. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      43 

western  portion  of  his  colony,  issued  the  following  proc- 
lamation:"   " 

By  the  Right  Honourable  Charles  Absolute  Lord  and  Pro- 
prietary of  the  Provinces  of  Maryland  and  Avalon  Lord  Baron  of 
Baltimore  &'c 

Wee  being  Desireous  to  Increase  the  Number  of  Honest  people 
within  our  Province  of  Maryland  and  willing  to  give  Suitable 
Encouragement  to  such  to  come  and  Reside  therein  Do  offer  the 
following  Terms : 

i^'  That  any  person  haveing  a  ffamily  who  shall  within  three 
Years  come  and  Actually  Settle  with  his  or  her  Family  on  any  of 
the  back  Lands  on  the  Northern  or  Western  Boundarys  of  our 
said  province  not  already  taken  up  between  the  Rivers  Potomack 
and  Susquehana  (where  wee  are  Informed  there  are  Several  large 
Bodies  of  Fertile  Lands  fit  for  Tillage,  Which  may  be  Seen  aithout 
any  Expence)  Two  hundred  Acres  of  the  said  Lands  in  ffee  Simple 
Without  paying  any  part  of  the  fforty  Shillings  Sterling  for  every 
hundred  Acres  payable  to  Us  by  the  Conditions  of  Plantations, 
And  without  paying  any  Quit  Rents  in  three  Years  after  the  first 
Settlement,  and  then  paying  four  Shillings  Sterling  for  Every 
hundred  of  Acres  to  us  or  our  Heirs  for  every  Year  after  the  ex- 
piration of  the  said  three  Years. 

2^  To  allow  to  Each  Single  person  Male  or  Female  above  the 
Age  of  Thirty  &  not  under  Fifteen  One  hundred  Acres  of  the 
said  Lands  upon  the  same  Terms  as  mentioned  in  the  preceding 

S**  That  We  will  Concour  in  any  reasonable  Method  that  shall  be 
proposed  for  the  Ease  of  such  New  Comers  in  the  payment  of  their 
Taxes  for  some  Years  And  We  doe  Assure  all  such  that  they  shall 
be  as  well  Secured  in  their  Liberty  &  property  in  Maryland  as  any 
of  his  Majesty's  Subjects  in  any  part  of  the  British  Plantations  in 
America  without  Exception  And  to  the  End  all  persons  Desireous 
to  come  into  and  Reside  in  Maryland  may  be  Assured  that  these 
Terms  will  be  Justly  &  Punctually  performed  on  our  part  Wee 

44  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

have  hereunto  sett  our  hand  and  Seal  at  Arms,  at  Annapolis  this 
Second  day  of  March  Annoq  Domini  1732.^^ 

This  exceedingly  liberal  off  er  of  land  at  a  rental  of  about 
one  cent  per  acre  per  annum,  with  no  rent  to  be  paid  for" 
three  years,  naturally  attracted  the  attention  of  the  emi- 
grants, and,  as  Hennighausen  says,^®  "the  settlers  on 
their  way  to  Spottsylvania,  seeing  the  rich  soil  of  Frederick 
county  offered  to  them  on  such  liberal  terms,  did  not  pro- 
ceed further,  but  stuck  their  spades  into  the  ground  right 
then  and  there." 

A  little  later  another  element  that  had  considerable 
weight  in  inducing  many  already  settled  in  Pennsylvania 
to  go  farther  south  was  the  fact  that  the  winter  of  1 740-1 
was  an  Intensely  cold  one.  Not  only  were  there  prolonged 
periods  of  Intense  cold,  but  an  unusual  quantity  of  snow 
fell,  so  that  there  was  a  great  deal  of  suffering  all  through 
the  settlements  of  Pennsylvania.^^  While  the  severe 
weather  prevailed  over  the  most  of  America,  and  was 
almost  as  marked  In  Virginia  as  It  was  In  Pennsylvania, 
many  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  latter  colony,  under  the 
Impression  that  farther  south  the  climate  would  be  less 
rigorous,  removed  from  the  settlements  already  formed 
In  Pennsylvania,  and  went  to  Maryland  and  Virginia. 

35  Archives  of  Maryland,  Vol.  XXVIII.,  p.  25.. 
38  Op.  cit,  p.  151. 

3'^Blodget's  "Climatology  of  the  United  States,"  p.  144,  says:  "It  was 
commonly  called  '  the  cold  winter.' " 


The  Monocacy  Road. 

♦|i5  EFORE  the  coming  of  the 

^^'^  white  man  the  original  own- 
ers of  the  American  continent  had 
made  many  paths,  or  "  trails,"  as 
they  were  called,  running  from 
one  section  of  the  country  to  an- 
other for  the  use  of  their  war 
parties,  or  on  their  hunting  expe- 
ditions. At  first,  before  any  roads 
were  cut,  the  settlers  found  It  con- 
venient to  continue  using  these  trails,  as  they  were  generally 
the  shortest  route  between  any  two  points.  They  were  suit- 
able for  travelers  on  foot  or  for  pack-horses,  but  could  not 
be  used  for  wagons,  and  as  the  needs  of  the  settlers  devel- 
oped many  of  the  Indian  trails  were  widened  Into  roads, 
and  not  a  few  of  the  well-known  highways  of  to-day  are  but 
the  amplification  of  the  by-paths  over  which  the  redman 
found  his  way  through  the  primeval  forest.  One  of  these 
Indian  trails  started  at  a  point  on  the  Susquehanna  river 
near  where  Wrightsvllle  now  stands  and  extended  through 
the  territory  now  forming  parts  of  York  and  Adams 
^' 45 

46  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

counties,  Pennsylvania,  to  a  point  on  the  Monocacy  river 
near  the  boundary  between  the  provinces  of  Maryland  and 
Pennsylvania,  thence  to  the  Potomac  river,  crossing  the 
South  Mountain  through  a  gap  known  as  Crampton's  Gap. 
It  was  over  this  trail  that  the  first  Germans  went  from 
Pennsylvania  to  Maryland,  in  17 10,  and  later  when  the 
movement  became  more  extensive  the  same  route  was  used. 
When  communication  between  the  settlements  in  Mary- 
land and  Pennsylvania  became  more  frequent  the  neces- 
sity of  having  better  means  of  travel  became  urgent  and 
steps  were  taken  to  have  a  road  properly  laid  out.  In 
1739  application  was  made  to  the  Lancaster  county  court 
for  the  appointment  of  viewers  for  such  a  road.  The 
record  of  this  proceeding  may  be  of  interest.  It  is  found 
in  "Road  Docket  No.  i,  from  1729  to  1742,"  and  is  as 
follows : 

"  1739.  At  a  Court  of  General  Quarter  Sessions,  held  at  Lan- 
caster, the  Seventh  day  of  August,  in  the  thirtieth  year  of  His 
Majesty's  reign  Anno  Dom.  before  John  Wright,  Tobias  Hen- 
dricks, Thomas  Edwards,  Samuel  Jones,  Edward  Smout,  Thomas 
Lindley,  Anthony  Shaw,  Samuel  Boyd,  James  Armstrong  and 
Emanuel  Carpenter,  Esqrs.  Justices  of  our  Lord  the  King,  the 
Peace  of  our  said  Lord  the  King,  in  the  said  county  to  keep,  as 
also  divers  fFelonys,  tresspasses  &c  other  misdeeds  in  the  said  county 
committed  to  hear  &  determine  assigned. 

"  Upon  the  Petition  of  Several  of  the  Inhabitants  of  the  town- 
ship of  Hallem,  on  the  West  side  of  Susquehanah,  setting  forth  the 
necessity  of  a  road  from  John  Wright's  iferry,  towards  Potomac 
river,  and  praying  that  persons  may  be  appointed  to  lay  out  the 
Same:  Ordered  by  ye  Court,  that  Joshua  Minshall,  Henry  Hen- 
dricks, ffrancis  Worley  Jun"",  Christian  Crowl,  Michael  Tanner  & 
Woolriclc  Whistler  view  and,  if  they  or  any  four  of  them  se  cause 
that  they  lay  the  same  by  course  and  distance,  ffrom  the  said  fferry 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      47 

to  the  line  dividing  the  Provinces,  and  report  ye  same  to  ye  next 

At  a  Court  of  General  Quarter  Sessions  held  on  the  5th 
and  6th  days  of  February,  1740,  the  following  return  of 
the  viewers  was  handed  to  the  Court : 

"  The  Persons  appointed  at  the  August  Court  last  &  continued 
to  November  Court  following  do  report  that,  pursuant  to  order, 
they  have  viewed  and  laid  out  a  road  from  Susquehanah  river 
South  Westerly,  towards  the  Province  line,  according  to  the 
courses  &  distances  following,  viz. :  Beginning  at  the  said  river,  in 
the  line  between  the  lands  of  John  Wright  Jun.  and  Samuel  Tay- 
lor; thence  South  80  deg.  West  430  per.  71  deg.  West.  562  per, 
to  Crawl's  run:  South  70  deg.  West,  430  per.  to  a  marked  white 
oak.  West  76  per.  to  the  Canoe  run ;  South  68  deg.  West  254  per. 
to  a  black  oak ;  South  53  deg.  West  540  per.  to  the  West  branch  of 
Grist  creek;  South  66  deg.  West  280  per.;  South  84  deg.  West 
264  perches;  West  166  per.  to  Little  Codorus  creek;  South  82 
lor;  thence  South  80  deg.  West  430  per.  71  deg.  West.  562  per. 
South  72  deg.:  West  260  pr.  to  Big  Codorus  creek;  continuing  the 
same  course  360  per.  to  Perrin's  run.  West  246  per.  to  Springle's 
field;  South  72  deg.  West  80  per:  South-West  160  per;  South  60 
deg.  West,  126  per.  to  the  point  of  a  steep  hill:  South  48  deg. 
West  134  per.  South  69  deg.  West  200  per.  South  58  deg.  West 
240  per.  to  Loreman's  run:  South,  57  deg.  West  40  per.:  South  71 
deg.  West,  166  per.  to  a  black  oak,  by  Chrn  Oyster's  South  55 
deg.  West,  172  per.  South  40  deg.  West  330  per.  South  52  deg. 
West  172  per.  to  Nicholas  lougher's  run:  South  44  deg.  West  380 
per.  South  58  deg.  West  376  per.:  South  22  deg.  West  120  per. 
to  the  West  branch  of  the  Codorus  creek:  South  30  deg.  West  66 
per.:  South  36  deg.  West,  60  per.:  South  26  deg.  West  66  per.; 
South  104  per." 

Here  the  court  record  of  this  proceeding  concerning  the 
road  ends,  but  from  the  fact  that  the  road  was  constructed 

48  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

It  is  quite  probable  that  the  report  of  the  viewers  was 

By  an  act  of  the  Maryland  assembly  this  road  was  con- 
tinued to  the  Potomac  river.  It  practically  followed  the 
old  Indian  trail  and  was  known  as  the  Monocacy  Road. 
It  was  over  this  road  that  Benjamin  Frankhn,  in  1755, 
sent  the  150  wagons  and  200  horses  he  had  secured  in 
Pennsylvania  to  General  Braddock  in  preparation  for 
the  ill-fated  campaign  against  Fort  Duquesne.  Having 
learned  that  Braddock  had  determined  to  send  officers  into 
Pennsylvania  to  seize  the  horses  and  wagons  needed,  in 
order  to  prevent  such  a  catastrophe  Franklin  offered  to 
secure  the  necessary  equipment,  and,  making  his  headquar- 
ters at  Lancaster,  he  sent  the  horses  and  wagons  he  was 
able  to  obtain  over  the  Monocacy  Road  to  Braddock's 
camp  at  Frederick. 

This  was  the  route  over  which  the  settlers  in  Maryland 
sent  their  produce  and  manufactures  to  Philadelphia,  at 
first  by  pack-horses  and  later  by  wagons.  At  first  the 
wagons  were  home-made  affairs,  the  wheels  being  sawed 
from  the  trunks  of  the  gum,  or  buttonwood  tree.  Later 
came  the  well-known  Conestoga  wagon, ^^  with  its  blue 

2^  It  is  remarkable  how  much  misinformation  is  frequently  crowded  into 
the  so-called  "  Historical  Novel " — misinformation  which  is  made  to 
masquerade  as  fact.  For  instance,  in  "  The  Quest  of  John  Chapman,"  by 
Rev.  Newell  Dwight  Hillis,  D.D.,  on  page  80,  appears  the  following 
remarkable  explanation  of  the  reason  for  building  the  Conestoga  wagon 
in  the  shape  in  which  it  was  made: 

"  Not  until  they  came  to  the  Susquehanna  did  Dorothy  appreciate  the 
meaning  of  these  wagons,  with  the  body  built  like  a  boat  with  prow  in 
front  and  curved  behind.  Coming  to  the  edge  of  the  river,  the  driver 
drove  the  team  into  the  stream  until  the  wagon  floated  like  a  boat.  Then 
the  horses  and  running  gears  were  driven  back  to  the  land,  and  the 
wheels  and  axles  were  placed  in  the  body  of  the  wagon  which  had  now 
become  a  boat.  One  driver  poled  or  paddled,  the  other  led  the  swimming 
horses,  until  all  were  conveyed  safely  to  the  opposite  shore." 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      49 

body  and  bright-red  running  gears,  drawn  by  four,  six, 
or  even  more  horses.  When  the  first  wagons  made  their 
appearance  the  owners  of  the  pack-horses  bitterly  opposed 
their  use,  just  as,  a  few  generations  later,  the  wagoners 
opposed  the  building  of  the  railroads. 

During  the  Revolution,  when  It  was  desired  to  transfer 
the  British  prisoners  from  Reading  and  Lancaster  to  some 
point  farther  In  the  Interior,  they  were  conducted  over  the 
Monocacy  Road  to  the  barracks  at  Frederick,  Maryland, 
and  to  Winchester,  Virginia.  It  was  by  this  same  road 
that  General  Wayne,  In  178 1,  led  the  Pennsylvania  troops 
to  Yorktown.  The  Monocacy  Road  was  macadamized  In 
1808,  and,  until  the  railroads  were  built,  It  was  the  main 
thoroughfare  between  Maryland  and  the  South  and  Phila- 
delphia and  the  eastern  section  of  the  country. 



The  First  Settlements. 


'N  studying  the  early  history 
of  Maryland  one  is  at  once 
Impressed  by  the  fact  that  there 
are  but  few  records.  Outside 
of  the  Council  and  Assembly 
proceedings  there  Is  very  little 
on  record  to  show  the  growth 
and  development  of  the  colony 
during  the  first  half  of  the  eigh- 
teenth century.  More  particu- 
larly Is  this  the  case  as  regards  the  settlement  of  the  western 
part  of  the  state,  the  section  In  which  movement  of  the  Ger- 
mans from  Pennsylvania  was  most  prominent.  Whether  or 
not  there  were  such  records,  It  Is  Impossible  to  say,  but  It  Is 
scarcely  likely  that  this  was  the  case.  It  Is  more  probable 
that  the  Pennsylvania-German  settlers.  Intent  on  preparing 
their  lands  for  cultivation  and  building  their  homes,  wasted 
no  time  on  such  matters;  and  so  It  happens  that  the  history 
of  the  first  settlements  In  that  section  are  shrouded  In 
uncertainty.  While  It  Is  known  that  a  few  Pennsylvania- 
Germans    came    down    Into    Maryland   during   the    first 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      51 

quarter  of  the  eighteenth  century,  there  were  not  many  of 
them  and  they  were  so  widely  separated  that  there  was  no 
attempt  made  to  found  a  town  or  village.  It  was  not  until 
after  the  year  1730  that  any  considerable  number  of  them 
settled  in  Maryland. 

The  territory  now  known  as  Western  Maryland,  the 
part  that  was  settled  by  the  Pennsylvania  Germans,  was 
originally  part  of  Charles  county,  which  was  formed  in 
1638.  There  was  very  little  settlement  of  the  western 
part  of  this  county  for  nearly  one  hundred  years,  so  that 
there  was  no  change  made  in  the  county  lines,  and  it  was 
not  until  the  Germans  had  come  in  numbers  that  a  further 
division  was  deemed  necessary.  In  1748  the  western  part 
of  the  colony  was  erected  into  a  county  which  was  named 
Frederick.  It  was  in  this  section  that  the  Pennsylvania- 
Germans  made  their  first  settlements. 

The  first  permanent  settlement  made  by  the  Pennsyl- 
vania-Germans was  the  village  of  Monocacy.^^  This  vil- 
lage which  was  the  most  important  settlement  in  western 
Maryland  until  it  was  outstripped  in  growth  by  its 
younger  neighbor,  the  town  of  Frederick,  has  disappeared 
from  the  map,  and  even  its  site  was  unknown  until  the 
investigations  of  Schultz  definitely  fixed  its  location.  It 
was  situated  on  the  west  side  of  the  Monocacy  river  near 
where  the  Virginia  road  crossed  that  stream,  and  about  ten 
miles  north  of  where  Frederick  was  afterwards  laid  out. 
This,  as  Schultz  says,  would  locate  it  a  little  south  of  the 
present  town  of  Creagerstown.  It  was  at  Monocacy  that 
the  first  church  was  built  by  the  Pennsylvania-Germans,  a 
log  structure  in  which  Henry  Melchior  Muhlenberg  and 
Michael  Schlatter  afterwards  held  services,   and  it  may 

30 "  First    Settlements    of    Germans    in    Maryland,"    by    Edward    T. 

Schultz,  p.  6. 

52  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

rightly  be  regarded  as  the  mother-church  of  the  Lutheran 
and  German  Reformed  denominations  in  Maryland. 

In  his  investigation  to  discover  the  exact  site  of  the 
ancient  village  of  Monocacy  Schultz  enlisted  the  services 
of  Rev.  George  A.  Whitmore,  of  Thurmont,  Maryland, 
and  Mr.  Whitmore's  report,  as  given  by  Schultz,  seems  to 
settle  definitely  the  location.  Says  Mr.  Whitmore:*'' 
*'  From  the  information  which  I  have  been  able  to  gather 
from  the  oldest  and  most  reliable  citizens  here,  one  of 
whom  is  now  ninety  years  old,  and  a  man  remarkably  pre- 
served in  mind,  Mr.  W.  L.  Grimes,  Sr.,  also  Mrs.  Michael 
Zimmerman  and  Miss  Melissa  Myers,  both  of  them 
bordering  on  eighty  years,  and  others,  it  seems  that  the 
present  Creagerstown  is  the  site  where  the  old  log  church 
stood.  These  good  people,  who  are  all  connected  with  the 
oldest  and  most  reliable  families,  remember  quite  well  the 
old  weather-boarded  log  meeting-house  which  preceded 
the  present  brick  church,  in  1834.  Mr.  Grimes  helped 
to  tear  down  the  old  building  and  purchased  some  of  the 
logs  and  boarding,  which  he  used  in  the  construction  of 
some  houses  in  the  village,  and  they  are  there  to-day. 
From  what  I  can  learn  from  them,  the  church  was  origi- 
nally built  simply  of  logs,  and  that  the  weather-boarding 
was  supplied  many  years  afterwards.  The  new  brick 
church  was  erected  a  few  rods  north  of  the  old  site  on  a 
new  lot  containing  one  and  a  half  acres,  which,  together 
with  the  old  location,  is  covered  with  graves.  The  first 
graveyard  lay  immediately  in  the  rear  of  the  old  church, 
and  contains  also  an  acre  and  a-half,  but  not  a  tombstone 
can  be  found,  only  the  indenture  of  graves  covered  with  a 
mat  of  broom-sage,  under  which  no  doubt  much  history 
is  hidden. 

*o  Schultz,  p.  21. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      53 

"  Then,  again,  I  have  found  traces  in  two  instances,  plain 
and  unmistakable,  of  the  old  Monocacy  Road,  passing 
just  below  the  village,  in  a  southwestern  direction  and 
crossing  Hunting  creek  where,  according  to  tradition,  there 
was  an  old  tavern,  and  where  there  are  now  three  or  four 
old  dwellings.  Tradition  also  says  the  Monocacy  Road 
crossed  the  river  at  Poe's  Ford,  which  has  not  been  used 
for  over  a  century.  The  road  on  both  sides  of  the  creek 
lies  in  timber  land  of  old  sturdy  oak." 

At  this  late  day  it  is  impossible  to  determine  the  cause 
of  the  decadence  of  the  town  of  Monocacy  and  its  passing 
out  of  existence,  but  it  is  very  probable  that  the  laying  out 
of  another  town  a  short  distance  away  and  on  land  that 
had  a  higher  elevation,  was  one  of  the  chief  causes. 
Schultz  says:  "John  Cramer,  a  German,  or  a  descendant 
of  a  German,  between  1760  and  1770  laid  out  a  village 
on  grounds  belonging  to  him,  which  was  named  in  his 
honor,  Creagerstown.  The  site  selected  was  a  few  rods 
north  of  the  old  log  church  and  little  less  than  a  mile  from 
the  first  settlement.  The  site  selected  for  the  new  village 
was  on  more  elevated  ground,  which  fact  doubtless  caused 
it  to  expand  to  the  detriment  of  the  older  village."  That 
the  existence  of  Monocacy  as  a  town  was  well  known  Is 
shown  by  the  following  letter  addressed  to  Benjamin 
Tasker,  esquire: 

London,  July  the  9th  1752. 

Sir:  By  the  ship  "  Patience,"  Captain  Steel,  a  number  of  Pala- 
tines are  embarked  for  Maryland  to  settle  there,  which  being  noti- 
fied to  me,  and  a  Recommendation  to  you  desired  of  me,  in  favour 
of  Messieurs  F.  &  R.  Snowdens  &  D.  Wolstenholme,  to  whose 
care  they  are  consigned  and  recommended. 

I  therefore  desire  you  will  give  such  necessary  Assistance  to  the 
People  on  their  Arrival,  to  forward  them  to  Manockesy  (which  I 

54  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

understand  is  in  Frederick  County)  or  where  else  they  shall  want 
to  go  to  settle  within  the  Province,  as  in  your  Power,  and  that 
they  may  be  accomodated  in  a  proper  manner;  But  the  charges 
attending  any  such  service  to  them  must  be  done  in  the  most  mod- 
erate manner  in  respect  to  the  Proprietor  and  to  answer  their 
requisites  necessary  to  their  service.  The  increase  of  People  being 
always  welcome,  your  prudence  would  have  supplied  this  Letter 
in  a  kind  Reception  of  them;  nevertheless  as  particular  occasions 
may  require  your  Favour  I  conclude  my  recommendation  of  them, 
in  giving  them  all  possible  satisfaction  relating  to  the  manner  and 
Place  they  shall  choose  to  settle  in  Maryland.    I  am,  Sir, 

Your  most  obedient  servant, 
C^ciLius  Calvert. 

Washington  in  one  of  his  letters  also  speaks  of  Mono- 

Another  very  early  settlement  was  the  village  of  Cono- 
cocheague,  near  the  present  site  of  Clearsprlng.  This  was 
a  well-known  place  and  is  mentioned  by  Washington  and 
other  letter  writers  of  that  period.  Until  after  the  French 
and  Indian  War  this  was  the  most  westerly  settlement  in 
Maryland.  One  of  the  early  settlers  in  that  locality  was 
Jonathan  Hager,  who  afterwards  laid  out  Elizabeth-Town, 
now  known  as  Hagerstown.  Jonathan  Hager  was  un- 
questionably a  Pennsylvania-German.  All  writers  on  the 
subject  say  that  It  is  impossible  to  find  out  just  when  he 
came  to  America,  and  Scharf  says:'^^  "  Capt.  Hager  came 
from  Germany  about  1730."  Yet  the  Pennsylvania 
Archives*^  and  Rupp's  "Thirty  Thousand  Names "^^  both 
give  the  time  of  his  arrival  in  Pennsylvania  as  1736.  Ac- 
cording to  these  records  among  the  passengers  on  the  ship 

41  "  History  of  V^estern  Maryland,"  Vol.  II.,  p.  1059. 

42  Second  Series,  Vol.  XVIL,  p.  122. 

43  Second  Edition,  p.  101. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      55 

Harle,  which  arrived  at  Philadelphia  September  i,  1736, 
was  Jonathan  Heger,  whose  age  is  given  as  22.  The  first 
record  of  his  being  in  Maryland  was  when  he  obtained  a 
patent  for  two  hundred  acres  of  land  near  the  present  site 
of  Hagerstown.  This  was  on  December  16,  1739,  so  that 
it  is  probable  that  he  spent  about  three  years  in  Pennsylva- 
nia. According  to  Scharf,  "the  earliest  information  of 
Jonathan  Hager,  Sr.,  is  found  in  the  statement  that  he 
received  a  patent  of  certain  land  on  which  a  portion  of  the 
city  of  Philadelphia  now  stands,"  but,  unfortunately, 
Scharf  rarely  gives  authority  for  his  quotations.  After  his 
settlement  in  Maryland,  at  various  times  until  1765,  Hager 
obtained  patents  to  different  plats  of  land  until  his  holdings 
amounted  to  almost  twenty-five  hundred  acres.  He  laid 
out  the  town  of  Elizabeth-Town  (Hagerstown)  in  1762. 
This  was  apparently  a  very  successful  undertaking,  for  ten 
years  later,  under  date  of  September  7,  1772,  Eddis 
writes:*^  "About  thirty  miles  west  of  Frederick-town,  I 
passed  through  a  settlement  which  is  making  quick  ad- 
vances to  perfection.  A  German  adventurer,  whose  name 
is  Hagar,  purchased  a  considerable  tract  of  land  in  this 
neighborhood,  and  with  much  discernment  and  foresight 
determined  to  give  encouragement  to  traders,  and  to  erect 
proper  habitations  for  the  stowage  of  goods,  for  the  supply 
of  the  adjacent  country.  His  plan  succeeded:  he  has  lived 
to  behold  a  multitude  of  inhabitants  on  lands,  which  he 
remembered  unoccupied :  and  he  has  seen  erected  in  places, 
appropriated  by  him  for  that  purpose,  more  than  a  hun- 
dred comfortable  edifices,  to  which  the  name  of  Hagar's 
Town  is  given,  in  honor  of  the  intelligent  founder."*^ 

*•*"  Letters  from  America,"  p.  133. 

45  Jonathan   Hager  was   born   in   17114.     In   1740  he   married   Elizabeth 
Kershner.    He  died  November  6,  1775,  from  the  effects  of  an  injury,  a  log 

56  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

The  town  of  Frederick  was  laid  out  in  1745.  The  terri- 
tory had  been  settled  ten  years  before  by  a  party  of  colo- 
nists under  the  leadership  of  Thomas  Schley,  who  was  their 
schoolmaster.  There  is  nothing  on  record  to  show  whether 
Schley  and  his  party  came  to  Maryland  by  way  of  Penn- 
sylvania or  not,  and  it  has  been  assumed  that  they  landed 
at  Annapolis.  The  fact  that  their  names  have  not  been 
found  in  the  Pennsylvania  records  does  not  prove  con- 
clusively that  they  did  not  come  to  that  colony  first,  as  did 
most  of  the  emigrants  of  that  period,  for  those  records  are 
admittedly  Incomplete. 

It  Is  a  fact  that  cannot  be  controverted  that  of  the  thou- 
sands of  Germans  who  settled  in  Maryland  prior  to  1760 
and  entirely  changed  the  character  of  that  colony,  with 
but  very  few  exceptions  they  were  Pennsylvania-Germans. 
In  fact,  although  there  were  some  notable  exceptions,  the 
number  who  came  directly  to  Maryland  from  Germany 
can  be  regarded  as  a  negligible  quantity.  It  is  unfor- 
tunate that  there  was  no  record  kept  of  the  arrival  of  emi- 
grants at  the  ports  of  Annapolis  and  Alexandria,  such  as 
was  kept  at  Philadelphia;  or,  if  there  was  such  a  record 
kept,  that  it  has  disappeared,  for  owing  to  the  absence  of 
a  record  of  this  kind  there  is  no  way  of  telling  just  what 
number  of  Germans  came  directly  to  Maryland  without 
first  stopping  in  Pennsylvania.  It  is  true  that  all  writers 
who  have  touched  upon  this  subject,  and  they  are  not  a 
few,  state  that,  according  to  the  records  of  the  port  of 
Annapolis,  from  the  year  1752  to  1755  German  emigrants 
to  the  number  of  1,060  arrived  at  that  port,  but  the  evi- 
dence presented  is  not  sufficient.  In  my  opinion,  to  prove 

rolling  on  him  and  crushing  him  at  a  saw-mill  where  he  was  superintend- 
ing the  preparation  of  the  lumber  for  the  German  Reformed  church,  in 
the  building  of  which  he  took  a  great  interest. 





Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      57 

conclusively  that  this  is  the  case.  The  authority  for  this 
statement  is  a  paper  read  by  Francis  B.  Mayer  before  the 
Society  for  the  History  of  the  Germans  in  Maryland,  on 
October  21,  1890.**^  Some  years  ago  Mr.  Mayer  saved 
from  destruction  at  a  paper  mill  two  parchment-bound 
volumes  entitled  "  Records  of  Arrivals  and  Clearances  at 
the  Port  of  Annapolis,"  commencing  in  1748.  According 
to  this  record,  among  the  arrivals  at  that  port  were  the 

September  18,  1752,  Ship  "  Integrity,"  Jo.  Coward,  Master  150 
tons,  6  guns  and  14  men — the  baggage  of  150  Palatine  passengers 
from  Cowes. 

September  19,  1753,  Ship  "Barclay,"  J.  Brown,  Master,  120 
tons,  12  men — baggage  of  160  Palatines. 

November  8,  1753,  Ship  "Friendship,"  baggage  of  300  Palatine 

January  16,  1755,  Ship  "Friendship,"  baggage  of  450  Palatine 

It  is  upon  this  record  that  Mr.  Mayer  bases  the  state- 
ment that  1,060  Palatine  emigrants  arrived  at  the  port  of 
Annapolis.  He  says :  "  Of  the  arrival  of  Palatine  Passen- 
gers, as  the  Germans  were  all  known  as  Palatines,  we  have 
no  mention  except  in  connection  with  their  baggage."  It 
seems  to  me  that  this  is  rather  significant,  and  it  at  once 
raises  a  doubt  as  to  whether  the  assumption  that  these  ships 
brought  the  passengers  as  well  as  their  baggage  is  correct. 

The  story  of  the  oppression  and  suffering  undergone  by 
the  German  emigrants  who  sought  a  home  in  America  two 
hundred  years  ago  is  an  oft-told  tale;  and  standing  out 
prominently  in  the  story  are  the  accounts  of  the  villainous 

*^  Report  of  the  Society  for  the  History  of  the  Germans  in  Maryland, 
Vol.  v.,  p.  17. 

58  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

methods  employed  by  the  promoters,  as  they  would  be 
called  to-day;  the  Neulanders,  as  they  were  known  then; 
the  men  who  by  every  means  In  their  power  tried  to  induce 
as  many  as  possible  to  take  ship  for  America.  It  is  a  well- 
known  fact  that  these  shipping-agents  made  a  practice  of 
so  arranging  matters  that  frequently  a  family  of  emigrants 
would  find  out  too  late  that  their  baggage — all  their  house- 
hold effects,  their  clothing,  and  often  even  all  the  money 
they  possessed — was  not  put  on  board  the  vessel  on  which 
they  had  taken  passage,  but  had  been  left  behind  on  the 
dock.  When  this  fact  was  discovered  the  Neulander 
would  promise  that  the  baggage  would  follow  on  the  next 
ship;  but  in  very  many  such  cases  the  owners  never  saw 
their  baggage  again.  It  was  a  very  common  practice  to 
send  such  baggage  to  a  port  other  than  the  one  to  which 
the  owner  had  gone,  and  when  the  latter  was  not  on  hand 
to  claim  it  when  it  did  arrive  it  was  usually  sold  and  the 
proceeds  of  the  sale  divided  between  the  captain  of  the 
ship  and  the  shipping-agent,  the  Neulander. 

Bearing  this  fact  in  mind,  when  we  read  of  certain  ships 
bringing  to  Annapolis  the  baggage  of  over  one  thousand 
Palatine  passengers,  with  no  mention  of  the  passengers 
themselves,  the  information  that  has  come  down  to  us  con- 
cerning the  methods  of  the  Neulanders  is  at  least  suffi- 
cient to  raise  a  doubt  as  to  whether  there  were  any  German 
emigrants  brought  by  those  ships;  whether  those  different 
lots  of  baggage  were  not  some  of  that  literally  stolen  from 
the  unfortunate  emigrants,  who,  without  their  belongings, 
and  in  many  cases  their  money  which  had  been  carefully 
put  away  in  their  chests,  were  not  able  to  pay  for  their 
passage  and  were  sold  as  Redemptioners.  This  view  of 
the  matter  seems  but  the  more  likely  when  we  consider  the 
fact  that  at  least  two  of  these  ships,  the  Friendship  and  the 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      59 

Barclay,  and  probably  also  the  Integrity,  were  commonly 
engaged  In  carrying  German  emigrants  to  the  port  of 
Philadelphia.  Considering  all  the  circumstances  of  the 
matter,  it  seems  to  me  that  there  is  more  than  a  reasonable 
doubt  as  to  whether  there  were  any  emigrants  landed  at 
the  port  of  Annapolis  from  the  ships  specified. 

The  town  of  Frederick  grew  rapidly  and  soon  out- 
stripped the  older  villages,  and  three  years  after  it  was 
"laid  out,  when  the  county  of  Frederick  was  organized,  it 
was  made  the  county  seat.  In  an  address  delivered  at  the 
Centennial  celebration  held  at  Frederick  In  1876,  Dr. 
Lewis  H.  Stelner  said: 

Frederick  was  laid  out  by  an  English  gentleman,  but  Its  lots  and 
the  rich  farms  immediately  surrounding  it  were  soon  taken  up  by  a 
host  of  honest,  thrifty,  laborious  German  emigrants,  who  fled  from 
the  oppressive  restrictions  of  their  own  fatherland  to  seek  a  refuge 
here  for  themselves  and  their  families,  and  whose  names  under- 
went many  a  distortion  and  mutilation  at  the  hands  of  the  English 
representatives  of  the  Lord  Proprietor,  as  they  labored  to  write 
them  down  from  sound  upon  the  pages  of  our  early  records.  The 
German  was  spoken  one  hundred  years  ago  more  freely  and  fre- 
quently upon  the  streets  of  Frederick  than  the  English,  two  of 
their  congregations  had  their  sen^ice  entirely  in  that  language,  the 
children  were  Instructed  In  both  languages  In  the  schools,  the  style 
of  houses  and  barns  introduced  was  that  of  German  rather  than 
English  origin,  and,  In  various  degrees  of  modification,  had  so  held 
its  place  here  that  strangers  who  have  had  the  opportunity  of 
European  travel  Invariably  notice  how  much  Frederick  resembles 
a  continental  town.  But  these  emigrants  brought  with  them  their 
mother-tongue  and  familiar  forms  of  worship  and  architecture. 
They  brought  also  German  thrift,  industry,  and  honesty,  with 
ardent  love  of  home— wherever  It  might  be,  whether  native  or 
adopted,— they  brought  laborious  habits,  virtuous  lives,  truthful 
tongues,  unflinching  courage,  and  an  intense  longing  to  do  their 
duty  to  their  families,  the  community,  and  the  State. 

6o  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Writing  of  Frederick  in  177 1,  William  Eddis  says:*"^ 
"The  third  place  of  importance  in  the  province  of  Mary- 
land, is  situated  about  seventy  miles  west  of  Annapolis, 
and  is  the  capital  of  a  most  extensive,  fertile  and  populous 
county.  Frederick  Town  is  the  name  of  this  settlement. 
Within  fifty  years,  the  river  Monocacy,  about  three  miles 
to  the  eastward,  was  the  extreme  boundary  of  cultivated 
establishments;  and  Mr.  Dulany,  father  of  the  present 
secretary  of  the  province,  was  much  censured  for  having 
procured  considerable  tracts  of  lands,  in  the  vicinity  of  that 
river,  which  it  was  generally  supposed  could  not  even 
repay  the  trifling  charge  of  the  purchase,  for  many  succeed- 
ing generations.  The  richness  of  the  soil,  and  the  salu- 
briety  of  the  air,  operated,  however,  very  powerfully  to 
promote  population;  but  what  chiefly  tended  to  the  ad- 
vancement of  settlements  in  this  remote  district,  was  the 
arrival  of  many  emigrants  from  the  palatinate,  and  other 
Germanic  states.  ...  This  place  exceeds  Annapolis  in 
size,  and  in  the  number  of  inhabitants.  It  contains  one 
large  and  convenient  church,  for  the  members  of  the  estab- 
lished religion :  and  several  chapels  for  the  accommodation 
of  the  German  and  other  dissenters.  The  buildings,  though 
mostly  of  wood,  have  a  neat  and  regular  appearance.  Pro- 
visions are  cheap  and  plentiful,  and  excellent.  In  a  word, 
here  are  to  be  found  all  conveniences,  and  many  super- 

The  town  of  Baltimore  was  laid  out  in  1730  but  it  did 
not  at  first,  at  least,  attract  the  Germans  from  Pennsylva- 
nia. They  were,  as  a  rule,  farmers  by  occupation,  and 
they  preferred  to  settle  on  the  fertile  lands  in  the  western 
part  of  the  colony  rather  than  make  their  homes  on  the 
seaboard,  particularly  as  the  conditions  of  living  in  the 

*'  "  Letters  from  America,"  p.  98. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      6i 

latter  locality  were  very  unfavorably  influenced  by  the 
fact  that  tobacco  culture  overshadowed  all  other  occupa- 
tions and  produced  a  financial  stringency  that  could  not  be 
easily  overcome.  Among  the  first,  if  not  the  first,  of  the 
Pennsylvania-Germans  to  settle  in  Baltimore  were  Leonard 
and  Samuel  Barnitz,  who  came  from  York  about  the  year 
1748  and  established  the  first  brewery  there.  Other  Lan- 
caster and  York  county  Germans  who  later  followed  them 
were  the  DIffenderffers,  the  Leverings,  the  Steigers,  the 
Strickers,  and  others,  but,  at  least  until  after  the  Revolu- 
tTon,  the  additions  to  the  population  of  Baltimore  from 
tills  source  were  not  of  very  great  importance  compared 
with  the  number  who.  were  filling  up  the  western  part  of 
the  state. 

"  Shortly  after  1745  a  number  of  Germans  from  Pennsyl- 
vania, chiefly  Moravians,  made  a  settlement  at  what  is 
now  the  village  of  Graceham,  in  Frederick  county,  about 
twelve  miles  northwest  of  Frederick.  Of  these  people 
Schultz  says:*^  "Its  earliest  settlers  were  Germans  or 
descendants  of  Germans,  who  drifted  into  Maryland  from 
the  Pennsylvania  settlements.  Among  them  were  the  Har- 
baughs.  Boilers,  Hens,  Ebenhards,  Kreigers,  Reinekes, 
Lydricks,  Seiss,  Schmidts,  Utleys,  Williards,  Zahns,  Her- 
zers,  Rosens,  Renzands,  Schaafs  and  Richters."  The  dis- 
trict in  which  Sharpsburg  is  located  was  another  section 
settled  chiefly  by  the  Pennsylvania-Germans,  although 
there  were  also  a  number  of  English  among  them.  Among 
the  early  German  settlers  were  the  families  of  Cruse,  Nead, 
Sahm,  Graff,  Bartoon  and  others.  There  were  a  number 
of  other  small  settlements  made  by  the  Pennsylvania- 
Germans  but  they  did  not  become  places  of  importance 
before  the  Revolution,  and  after  that  struggle  the  number 

*8"  First  Settlements  of  Germans  in  Maryland,"  p.  16. 

62  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

of  Germans  who  came  to  Maryland  direct  from  the  Father- 
land increased  rapidly,  and  there  were  numerous  additions 
as  well  from  among  the  Hessians  who  had  come  to  fight 
and  remained  to  be  citizens,  so  that  the  Pennsylvania- 
German  influence  was  not  so  predominant  as  in  the  pre- 
Revolutionary  period. 

The  unceasing  stream  of  Germans  which  flowed  through 
the  province  of  Pennsylvania  to  the  outposts  of  civilization 
and  formed  a  bulwark  between  the  savage  aborigines  and 
the  older  settlements,  peopled  a  wilderness  from  which 
they  carved  an  empire.  They  found  nothing  there  except 
the  fertile  land.  Whatever  of  material  prosperity  they 
had  they  produced  with  their  own  hands  and  brain.  They 
were  not  an  ignorant  people  and  although  mostly  farmers, 
yet  following  the  German  custom,  every  boy  was  taught 
some  trade,  so  that  in  their  new  homes  with  no  one  to 
depend  upon  but  themselves,  after  their  homes  were  built 
and  their  fields  plowed  and  sowed  they  turned  their  hands 
to  whatever  was  necessary  to  be  done.  As  Scharf  says,*^ 
"It  is  a  significant  fact  that  nearly  all  the  German  immi- 
grants who  came  into  Maryland  soon  established  them- 
selves in  permanent  homes,  and  in  almost  every  instance 
took  rank  at  once  as  thrifty  and  enterprising  citizens.  The 
greater  number  were  skilled  in  agriculture,  but  there  was 
a  large  percentage  of  first-rate  mechanics,  shoemakers, 
paper-makers,  butchers,  watch-makers,  bakers,  smiths, 
iron-workers,  etc.  It  is  a  generally  recognized  fact  that 
the  Protestant  population  of  France  and  Germany  sup- 
plied the  best  class  of  workmen  In  the  various  branches 
of  manufacture.  Thus  we  are  told  by  the  historian  Lecky 
that  '  twenty  thousand  Frenchmen  attracted  to  Branden- 
burg by  the  liberal  encouragement  of  the  elector  at  the  time 

4»  "  History  of  Western  Maryland,"  Vol.  I.,  p.  63. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      63 

of  the  revocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes,  laid  the  founda- 
tion of  the  prosperity  of  Berlin  and  of  most  of  the  manu- 
factures of  Prussia.'  The  same  is  true  in  a  greater  or  less 
degree  of  all  the  Protestant  refugees,  and  it  would  be 
difficult  to  overestimate  the  industrial  value  to  our  own 
country  of  the  successive  immigration  of  whole  communi- 
ties from  the  different  German  states." 

Nor  did  those  in  authority  hesitate  to  give  the  Germans 
credit  for  what  they  were  doing.  As  early  as  1745,  Daniel 
Dulany  writing  to  Governor  Samuel  Ogle,  says:  "You 
would  be  surprised  to  see  how  much  the  country  is  im- 
proved beyond  the  mountains,  especially  by  the  Germans, 
who  are  the  best  people  that  can  be  to  settle  a  wilderness; 
and  the  fertility  of  the  soil  makes  them  ample  amends  for 
their  industry."  In  1773  Governor  Eden,  in  a  letter  to 
Lord  Dartmouth,  says  of  the  Germans  who  had  settled  in 
the  western  part  of  the  state :^"  "They  are  generally  an 
industrious  laborious  people.  Many  of  them  have  acquired 
a  considerable  share  of  property.  Their  improvement  of 
a  Wilderness  into  well-stocked  plantations,  the  example 
and  beneficent  Effects  of  their  extraordinary  industry  have 
raised  in  no  small  degree  a  spirit  of  emulation  among  the 
other  inhabitants.  That  they  are  a  most  useful  people  and 
merit  the  public  regard  is  acknowledged  by  all  who  are 
acquainted  with  them."  Even  the  narrow-minded  Eddis 
whose  British  prejudice  could  find  but  little  to  praise  in 
the  colony,  had  a  good  word  to  say  of  the  Germans.  In 
one  of  his  letters  he  says:^^  "These  people  who,  from 
their  earliest  days,  had  been  disciplined  in  habits  of  indus- 
try, sobriety,  frugality,  and  patience,  were  peculiarly  fitted 

50  Collections    of   the    Massachusetts    Historical    Society,    Fourth    Series, 
Vol.  X.,  p.  694. 

^"^  "  Letters  from  America,"  p.  99. 

64  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

for  the  laborious  occupations  of  felling  timber,  clearing 
land,  and  forming  the  first  improvements ;  and  the  success 
which  attended  their  efforts  induced  multitudes  of  their 
enterprising  countrymen  to  abandon  their  native  homes, 
to  enjoy  the  plenteous  harvest  which  appeared  to  await 
their  labors  in  the  wild,  uncultivated  wastes  of  America." 

Washington  in  his  numerous  journeys  through  western 
Maryland  had  a  good  opportunity  to  note  the  manner  in 
which  the  Germans  had  developed  that  section,  and  he 
was  so  favorably  impressed  with  the  evidences  of  their 
desirability  as  colonists  that  when  he  was  planning  to 
develop  the  lands  presented  to  him  by  the  British  govern- 
ment at  the  close  of  the  French  and  Indian  War,  he  seri- 
ously considered  the  advisability  of  bringing  over  a  number 
of  Germans  to  settle  on  his  property.  With  this  idea  in 
view  he  wrote  the  following  letter  to  James  Tilghman,  of 
Philadelphia  :^2 

Interested  as  well  as  political  motives  render  it  necessary  for  me 
to  seat  the  lands,  which  I  have  patented  on  the  Ohio,  in  the 
cheapest,  most  expeditious,  and  effectual  manner.  Many  expe- 
dients have  been  proposed  to  accomplish  this,  but  none,  in  my  judg- 
ment, so  likely  to  succeed  as  the  importing  of  Palatines.  But  how 
to  do  this  upon  the  best  terms,  is  a  question  I  wish  to  have  an- 
swered. Few  of  this  kind  of  people  ever  come  to  Virginia,  whether 
because  it  is  out  of  the  common  course  of  its  trade,  or  because  they 
object  to  it,  I  am  unable  to  determine.  I  shall  take  it  very  kind 
in  you,  therefore,  to  resolve  the  following  questions,  which  I  am 
persuaded  you  can  do  with  precision,  by  inquiring  of  such  gentle- 
men, as  have  been  engaged  in  this  business.  Whether  there  is  any 
difficulty  in  procuring  these  people  in  Holland  ?  If  so,  from  whence 
does  it  proceed?  Whether  they  are  to  be  had  at  all  times,  or  at 
particular  seasons  only,  and  when?     Whether  they  are  engaged 

62  Sparks'  "Washington,"  Vol.  II.,  p.  382. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      65 

previously  to  sending  for  them,  and  in  what  manner?  Or  do  ships 
take  their  chance  after  getting  there?  Upon  what  terms  are  they 
generally  engaged  ?  And  how  much  for  each  person  do  they  com- 
monly stand  the  importer  landed  at  Philadelphia?  Is  it  customary 
to  send  an  intelligent  German  in  the  ship,  that  is  to  bring  them? 
Do  vessels  ever  go  immediately  to  Holland  for  them,  and,  if  they 
do,  what  cargoes  do  they  carry?  Or  are  they  to  go  round,  and 
where?  In  short,  what  plan  would  be  recommended  to  me,  by 
the  knowing  ones,  as  best  for  importing  a  full  freight,  say  two  or 
three  hundred  or  more,  to  Alexandria?  In  case  of  full  freight, 
how  are  the  numbers  generally  proportioned  to  the  tonnage  of  a 
vessel ? 

At  the  same  time  he  wrote  a  letter  to  Henry  RIddell,  a 
ship-owner,  in  which  he  offered  to  pay  the  traveling  ex- 
penses of  the  German  emigrants  to  the  Ohio  river  and  to 
provide  the  settlers  with  victuals  until  a  first  crop  had  been 
gathered,  and  to  exempt  them  from  the  payment  of  any 
rent  for  a  period  of  four  years,  if  there  was  no  house  on 
the  property  at  the  time  of  taking  possession  of  it. 




Home-Making  in  the  Wilderness. 

HT  this  day  It  is  difficult  to 
realize  the  task  accom- 
plished by  the  hardy  pioneers 
who,  nearly  two  centuries  ago, 
left  behind  them  all  the  advan- 
tages of  a  civilized  community 
and  went  into  the  wilderness  to 
build  themselves  homes;  into  a 
wilderness  inhabited  by  wild  ani- 
mals of  every  description  and, 
still  more  to  be  feared,  the  savage  Indians.  It  required 
a  courageous  and  Indomitable  spirit,  for  every  settler 
literally  took  his  life  in  his  hands  and  as  well  the  lives 
of  his  loved  ones.  We  have  heard  many  tales  of  the 
bravery  and  daring  performances  of  these  men,  and, 
now  and  then,  some  woman  Is  mentioned  as  having  per- 
formed some  act  which  made  her  memorable;  but  the 
silent  woman,  those  unknown  thousands  of  whom  we  do 
not  hear,  are  worthy  of  as  much  commendation  and  their 
memory  Is  as  much  to  be  revered  as  is  that  of  the  men. 
Their  part  In  the  building  was  as  important  and  as  strenu- 
ous as  that  of  the  men,  although,  perhaps,  not  so  plainly 


Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      6j 

discernible.  It  was  no  easy  matter  for  them  to  attend  to 
the  ordinary  routine  of  housekeeping  with  only  the  rudest 
utensils  to  do  it  with.  There  was  for  them  no  spare  time : 
when  there  was  nothing  else  to  be  attended  to  the  spinning- 
wheel  and  the  loom  must  be  kept  busy.  They  were  a 
hardy  race,  inured  to  hard  work  and  the  lack  of  comforts, 
yet  the  tombstones  which  have  survived  the  ravages  of 
time  and  the  church  records  tell  us  that  even  they  could 
not  long  bear  up  under  the  strenuous  existence,  but  were 
frequently  cut  off  in  what  we  would  now  consider  the  prime 
of  life.  The  advance  of  civilization  and  the  improvements 
in  the  mode  of  living  have  materially  lengthened  the  span 
of  life,  and  on  the  foundations  reared  by  those  venture- 
some pioneers  their  descendants  to-day  live  to  a  far  greater 
age  surrounded  by  comforts  and  advantages  undreamed  of 
in  those  days. 

The  first  thing  the  settler  had  to  attend  to  after  deciding 
upon  the  place  to  locate  was  to  provide  a  shelter.  Some- 
times natural  caves  afforded  convenient  temporary  shelter, 
but,  as  a  rule,  it  was  necessary  to  erect  some  sort  of  a  struc- 
ture. The  first  dwellings  were  very  simple  affairs,  the 
erection  of  more  elaborate  cabins  and  houses  being  de- 
ferred until  some  of  the  land  had  been  put  under  cultiva- 
tion. The  simplest  shelter  was  made  by  planting  two 
forked  poles  at  the  proper  distance  apart  and  laying  in  the 
forks  another  pole  to  serve  as  a  ridge-pole.  Against  this 
ridge-pole  slabs  cut  from  larger  trees  were  placed,  sloping 
to  the  ground.  One  end  was  closed  by  other  slabs,  while 
the  other  end  was  partly  closed  in  the  same  way,  the  open- 
ing left  being  covered  by  a  rudely-constructed  door  or 
sometimes  merely  covered  by  a  blanket.  Sometimes  the 
hard  beaten  earth  was  used  as  the  floor,  while  at  other 

68  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

times  the  floor  would  be  constructed  of  the  split  slabs 
of  wood. 

The  next  dwelling  was  the  cabin  built  with  hewn  logs, 
with  a  roof  of  clapboards  or  plank,  and  in  some  cases  of 
shingles,  and  a  plank  floor.  Until  saw-mills  were  erected 
all  the  planks  used  in  building  had  to  be  cut  from  logs 
with  the  whip-saw.  Kercheval  gives  the  following  descrip- 
tion of  making  planks  with  the  whip-saw  '?^ 

It  was  about  the  length  of  the  common  mill-saw,  with  a  handle 
at  each  end  transversely  fixed  to  it.  The  timber  intended  to  be 
sawed  was  first  squared  with  the  broadaxe,  and  then  raised  on  a 
scaffold  six  or  seven  feet  high.  Two  able-bodied  men  then  took 
hold  of  the  saw,  one  standing  on  the  top  of  the  log  and  the  other 
under  it,  and  commenced  sawing.  The  labor  was  excessively 
fatiguing,  and  about  one  hundred  feet  of  plank  or  scantling  was 
considered  a  good  day's  work  for  the  two  hands.  The  introduc- 
tion of  saw-mills,  however,  soon  superseded  the  use  of  the  whipsaw, 
but  they  were  not  entirely  laid  aside  until  several  years  after  the 

The  building  of  the  log  cabin  required  more  extensive 
preparations.  Trees  of  proper  size  had  to  be  selected  and 
cut  down  and  hewn  into  logs  with  the  broadaxe  and  prop- 
erly notched,  clapboards  had  to  be  split  for  covering  the 
roof  and  various  other  purposes,  and  when  shingles  were 
to  be  used  they  had  to  be  rived.  In  the  more  thickly 
settled  portions  of  the  country  a  number  of  neighbors 
would  frequently  join  with  the  owner  in  building  his  cabin, 
and  in  this  way  a  very  elaborate  structure  could  be  erected 
in  a  short  time.  Dr.  Doddridge  thus  describes  the  erection 
of  such  a  structure  :^^ 

63  "A  History  of  the  Valley  of  Virginia,"  p.  134. 

"*  "  Notes  on  the  Settlements  and  Indian  Wars  of  the  Western  Parts  of 
Virginia  and  Pennsylvania,"  p.  135  et  seq. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      69 

The  fatigue  party  consisted  of  choppers,  whose  business  it  was 
to  fell  the  trees  and  cut  them  off  at  proper  lengths.  A  man  with  a 
team  for  hauling  them  to  the  place,  and  arranging  them,  properly 
assorted,  at  the  sides  and  ends  of  the  building,  a  carpenter,  if  such 
he  might  be  called,  whose  business  it  was  to  search  the  woods  for 
a  proper  tree  for  making  clapboards  for  the  roof.  The  tree  for 
this  purpose  must  be  straight  grained  and  from  three  to  four  feet 
in  diameter.  The  boards  were  split  four  feet  long,  with  a  large 
frow,  and  as  wide  as  the  timber  would  allow.  They  were  used 
without  planing  or  shaving.  Another  division  was  employed  in 
getting  puncheons  for  the  floor  of  the  cabin;  this  was  done  by 
splitting  trees,  about  eighteen  inches  in  diameter,  and  hewing  the 
faces  of  them  with  a  broadaxe.  They  were  half  the  length  of  the 
floor  they  were  intended  to  make.  The  materials  for  the  cabin 
were  mostly  prepared  on  the  first  day  and  sometimes  the  founda- 
tion laid  in  the  evening.  The  second  day  was  allotted  for  the 

In  the  morning  of  the  next  day  the  neighbors  collected  for  the 
raising.  The  first  thing  to  be  done  was  the  election  of  four  corner 
men,  whose  business  it  was  to  notch  and  place  the  logs.  The  rest 
of  the  company  furnished  them  with  the  timbers.  In  the  mean- 
time the  boards  and  puncheons  were  collecting  for  the  floor  and 
roof,  so  that  by  the  time  the  cabin  was  a  few  rounds  high  the 
sleepers  and  floor  began  to  be  laid.  The  door  was  made  by  sawing 
or  cutting  the  logs  in  one  side  so  as  to  make  an  opening  about  three 
feet  wide.  This  opening  was  secured  by  upright  pieces  of  timber 
about  three  inches  thick  through  which  holes  were  bored  into  the 
ends  of  the  logs  for  the  purpose  of  pinning  them  fast.  A  similar 
opening,  but  wider,  was  made  at  the  end  for  the  chimney.  This 
was  built  of  logs  and  made  large  to  admit  of  a  back  and  jambs  of 
stone.  At  the  square  two  end  logs  projected  a  foot  or  eighteen 
inches  beyond  the  wall  to  receive  the  butting  poles,  as  they  were 
called,  against  which  the  ends  of  the  first  row  of  clapboards  was 
supported.  The  roof  was  formed  by  making  the  end  logs  shorter 
until  a  single  log  formed  the  comb  of  the  roof;  on  these  logs  the 

yo  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

clapboards  were  placed,  the  ranges  of  them  lapping  some  distance 
over  those  next  below  them  and  kept  in  their  places  by  logs  placed 
at  proper  distances  between  them.  The  roof  and  sometimes  the 
floor  were  finished  on  the  same  day  as  the  raising. 

In  the  mean  time  the  masons  were  busy.  With  the  heart  pieces 
of  the  timber  of  which  the  clapboards  were  made  they  made  billets 
for  chunking  up  the  cracks  between  the  logs  of  the  cabin  and 
chimney.  A  large  bed  of  mortar  was  made  for  daubing  up  those 
cracks.    A  few  stones  formed  the  back  and  jambs  of  the  chimney. 

As  a  rule  the  furniture  used  by  the  early  settlers  was  of 
the  rudest  sort,  generally  home-made.  Sometimes  there 
might  be  a  piece  or  two  brought  from  their  old  home,  and 
these,  of  course,  were  highly  prized,  and  some  of  them 
have  been  handed  down  to  the  present  day  as  heirlooms. 
But  the  bulky  nature  of  furniture  precluded  much  of  It 
being  carried  on  the  journey  to  the  wilderness.  The  lack 
of  regular  furniture  was  made  up  by  all  sorts  of  make- 
shifts. A  table  was  usually  made  from  a  split  slab,  the 
top  surface  smoothed  off  and  four  legs  set  In  auger  holes. 
Three-legged  stools  were  made  In  the  same  way,  as  were 
also  benches  on  which  to  sit  at  the  table  while  eating. 
Wooden  pins  driven  Into  the  logs  and  supporting  clap- 
boards served  as  closets  and  shelves.  Sometimes  bed- 
steads were  made  In  this  way:  A  single  fork  was  placed 
with  Its  lower  end  in  a  hole  In  the  floor  and  the  upper  end 
fastened  to  a  joist.  A  pole  was  placed  In  the  fork  with 
one  end  through  a  crack  between  the  logs  of  the  wall  and 
this  was  crossed  by  a  shorter  pole  within  the  fork  with  Its 
outer  end  through  another  crack.  Sometimes  other  poles 
were  pinned  to  the  fork  a  little  distance  above  these  for 
the  purpose  of  supporting  the  front  and  foot  of  the  bed, 
while  the  walls  were  the  supports  of  Its  back  and  head. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      71 

As  the  settler  prospered  and  his  possessions  Increased, 
sooner  or  later,  the  simple  log  cabin  was  replaced  by  a  more 
pretentious  dwelling.  This,  too,  was  often  built  of  logs, 
but  In  that  event  the  materials  were  better  prepared  and 
the  logs  joined  more  evenly,  and  sometimes  the  outside  was 
covered  with  clapboards,  and  in  some  Instances  with 
plaster,  producing  the  "roughcast"  house.  In  regions 
where  limestone  was  plentiful  the  house  was  often  built  of 
stone  In  a  very  substantial  manner;  so  much  so  that  some 
of  these  houses  built  by  the  early  settlers  are  standing 
to-day.  These  houses  were  very  much  more  commodious 
than  the  first  log  cabin,  generally  being  two  stories  in 
height,  with  sometimes  a  garret,  the  floors  being  divided 
Into  several  rooms,  and  having  a  cellar  underneath.  In 
many  Instances  the  largest  room  in  the  house  was  the 
kitchen,  on  one  side  of  which  was  a  large  open  fire-place, 
or  hearth.  These  fire-places  were  quite  an  institution,  in 
which  a  great  fire  of  oak  or  hickory  cord-wood  was  made. 
During  the  winter  the  kitchen  was  usually  the  living-room, 
as  In  all  probability  it  was  the  only  room  in  the  house  in 
which  there  was  a  fire.  The  family  would  seat  themselves 
about  the  fire,  with,  perhaps,  no  other  light  than  that  made 
by  the  burning  logs.  The  only  means  of  producing  light 
was  by  the  use  of  tallow  candles  or  the  fat-lamp,  and  many 
a  boy  who  later  made  his  mark  In  the  world  learned  the 
letters  of  the  alphabet  and  to  read  by  the  flickering  light 
from  the  blazing  logs  in  the  huge  kitchen  fireplace. 

The  cooking  utensils  were  of  the  simplest  kind.  There 
were  no  stoves  and  all  cooking  had  to  be  done  over  the 
open  wood  fire.  Iron  pots  and  pans  were  supported  over 
the  coals  by  an  iron  tripod,  or  swung  by  chains  attached 
to  a  beam  or  iron  bar  set  in  the  chimney.  Later  the  chain 
was  superseded  by  iron  pot-hooks  which  could  be  adjusted 

72  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

to  different  lengths.  Baking  was  accomplished  in  a  Dutch 
oven,  a  squat  iron  pot  with  an  iron  cover,  over  which  the 
hot  coals  could  be  heaped.  This  was  succeeded  by  the 
large  arched  oven  built  of  masonry.  Sometimes  this  was 
detached  from  the  house  under  a  shed,  but  very  often  it 
joined  the  house,  the  iron  door  of  the  oven  opening  into 
the  kitchen  fireplace.  Baking  in  these  ovens  was  an  inter- 
esting process,  a  process  rarely  seen  in  private  families,  at 
least,  nowadays.  The  oven  was  large  enough  to  take  in 
cord-wood,  with  which  it  was  filled  and  the  fire  started. 
When  the  wood  was  all  consumed  the  ashes  were  scraped 
out,  and  the  floor  of  the  oven  swabbed  with  a  wet  cloth 
on  a  pole,  to  remove  any  ashes  remaining.  The  loaves  of 
bread  were  placed  on  the  floor  of  the  oven  with  the  peel, 
a  broad,  flat  wooden  paddle  with  a  long  handle.  The 
baked  loaves  were  removed  from  the  oven  in  the  same 
way.  In  preparing  the  bread  for  the  oven  each  loaf  as  it 
was  shaped  was  set  to  rise  in  a  bread-basket,  made  of 
braided  straw,  similar  to  those  shown  in  the  illustration.^'^ 
Until  the  introduction  of  stoves  the  only  way  of  heating 
a  house  was  by  open  wood  fires,  and,  as  a  rule,  but  few 
of  the  rooms  were  heated.  One  of  the  earliest  contrivances 
used  was  the  Franklin  stove,  named  from  its  inventor, 
Benjamin  Franklin,  which  was  but  a  modification  of  the 
open  fireplace.  It  consisted  of  iron  plates  set  into  the  fire- 
place, a  back-piece,  with  two  sides  and  a  top  and  bottom. 
The  bottom  piece,  or  hearth,  extended  into  the  room  some 
distance  from  the  chimney,  and  the  top  piece  slightly  so, 
the  latter  forming  a  shelf  upon  which  articles  could  be 
placed  to  be  kept  warm.    Sometimes  instead  of  iron  plates 

^^  In  the  childhood  of  the  writer  bread-baskets  exactly  like  those  shown 
in  the  illustration  were  used  by  the  juvenile  members  of  the  family  on 
Christmas  Eve,  being  set  in  the  chimney-corner,  in  place  of  hanging  a 
stocking,  in  anticipation  of  the  visit  of  the  Kris-kingle. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      73 

slabs  of  soapstone  were  used  in  constructing  the  Franklin 
stove.  Later  came  the  cast-iron  stove,  box-like  in  shape, 
with  its  modification,  the  ten-plate  stove,  with  its  oven  for 

In  the  absence  of  refrigerators  a  spring-house  In  which 
to   keep   milk   and   butter  was   almost   a   necessity,   and 
wherever  it  was  possible  such  a  structure  was  built.    Some- 
times the  Ingenuity  of  the  settler  was  exercised  in  construct- 
ing a   spring-house  in  the   absence   of  a   spring  to  flow 
through  It.     The  writer  is  well  acquainted  with  one  good 
example  of  a  spring-house  of  this  sort,  built  some  time 
during  the  eighteenth  century.     There  was  no  spring  on 
the  property,  but  there  was  a  deep  well  with  an  abundant 
supply  of  cold  water.    The  spring-house  was  built  near  by 
the  well.     It  was  excavated  to  a  depth  of  about  two  and 
a  half  feet  below  the  surface,  and  thick  stone  walls  were 
erected,  surmounted  by  a  heavy  arch.     Along  one  side  a 
heavy  wooden  trough  was  built  from  which  an  iron  pipe 
led  to  the  well,  where  it  was  inserted  into  the  pumpstock. 
Every  time  the  pump  was  used  the  surplus  water  remaining 
In  the  stock,  through  siphonage  and  gravity,  flowed  into 
the  trough  in  the  spring-house,  keeping  the  latter  con- 
stantly filled  with  fresh  cold  water  and  answering  all  the 
purposes  of  a  spring,  in  which  to  set  the  milk  cans  and 
butter  pails.    This  building  had  a  second  story,  the  upper 
part  serving  as  the  smoke-house  for  curing  the  meat.     At 
one  corner  on  the  outside,  about  five  feet  from  the  ground, 
an  iron  fire-box  was  constructed  in  the  wall,  with  a  flue 
leading  up  into  the  smoke-house.     In  smoking  meat  a  fire 
of  hickory  sawdust  and  chips  was  built  In  the  fire-box,  the 
smoke  being  conducted  up  Into  the  room  where  the  meat 
was  hung.     Being  on  the  outside  at  the  ground  level,  the 
fire  could  be  attended  to  with  but  little  inconvenience.    The 

74  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

substantial  character  of  this  structure  is  shown  by  the  fact 
that  although  during  the  Civil  War  the  upper  part  of  the 
building  was  destroyed  by  fire,  the  arch  remained  intact 
and  is  in  as  good  condition  to-day  as  when  it  was  built  a 
century  and  a  quarter  ago. 

During  the  first  year  or  two  the  matter  of  providing 
food  for  his  family  was  a  serious  consideration  for  the 
settler  in  a  new  country,  particularly  if  he  were  located  at 
a  considerable  distance  from  the  more  thickly  settled  local- 
ities. A  family  starting  off  to  make  a  home  In  the  wilder- 
ness, even  if  the  cost  did  not  prevent,  was  not  able  to 
carry  with  them  sufficient  food  to  last  them  until  their 
land  could  produce  what  they  needed,  and  at  times  during 
their  first  year  there  was  not  much  variety  in  their  food. 
The  streams  provided  them  with  fish,  and  the  woods  with 
flesh  and  fowl,  but  very  often  their  vegetable  supply  de- 
pended upon  whether  wild  tubers  and  edible  roots  could 
be  found  in  their  locality.  But  after  the  first  year,  when 
the  land  had  been  cleared  and  planted  with  corn  and 
wheat,  and  vegetable  gardens  provided,  there  was  usually 
an  abundance  of  food.  Indian  com  was  one  of  their 
staples,  and  to  a  less  degree  wheat,  but  with  both  of  these 
the  difficulty  lay  in  the  grinding,  if  there  was  no  mill  near 
by.  Sometimes  a  hand-mill  was  used,  and  in  the  absence 
of  this  a  course  meal  was  made  by  pounding  the  grain  in  a 
large  mortar  improvised  by  burning  a  deep  hole  in  a 
wooden  block,  another  block  of  wood  providing  the  pestle. 
Hominy  was  made  in  much  the  same  way. 

Beef  was  a  rarity  until  a  sufficient  supply  of  domestic 
cattle  had  been  raised,  but  its  lack  was  supplied  by  venison 
and  bear  meat,  of  which  plenty  could  be  obtained  in  the 
forests.  They  were  usually  well  supplied  with  pork,  as 
the  hogs  were  allowed  to  run  loose  in  the  woods,  where 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      75 

they  found  plenty  upon  which  to  feed.  Every  family 
raised  a  lot  of  hogs,  and  about  the  beginning  of  winter 
these  were  butchered  and  the  meat  cured.  Butchering  day 
was  quite  an  institution.  The  hogs  were  killed  and  cleaned 
the  day  before,  and  early  the  next  morning  the  butchers 
started  to  work  cutting  up  the  carcases.  The  work  called 
for  the  assistance  of  all  the  members  of  the  family  as  well 
as  that  of  what  neighbors  could  be  procured,  to  help  to 
cut  up  the  fat  to  be  rendered  into  lard.  The  hams  and 
shoulders  were  trimmed  ready  for  putting  into  the  brine, 
to  be  cured  for  smoking,  many  yards  of  sausage  was 
stuffed,  as  well  as  liver-pudding  {Lebermurst) .  In  pre- 
paring the  latter  the  liver  and  kidneys,  with  the  tenderloin 
and  some  of  the  head-meat,  was  put  into  a  large  iron 
kettle  and  boiled  until  it  was  thoroughly  cooked.  It  was 
then  transferred  to  the  block  and  chopped  fine  and 
stuffed  into  skins,  like  the  sausage,  or  packed  in  crocks  and 
sealed  with  a  layer  of  fat.  The  water  in  which  the  meat 
had  been  boiled  was  used  to  prepare  what  was  commonly 
called  Pon-hoss  {P f annhase)  ,tha.t  is.  Pan-rabbit.  A  great 
many  fantastic  explanations  have  been  given  of  the  deri- 
vation of  this  term,  but  it  is  simply  one  of  the  humorous 
names  similar  to  Welsh-rabbit,  for  a  mixture  made  from 
cheese,  or  Leicestershire  plover,  for  a  bag-pudding.  Pon- 
hoss  was  made  by  using  the  water  in  which  the  pudding- 
meat  had  been  boiled  for  making  a  corn-meal  mush.  This 
was  put  into  pans  to  harden  and  was  then  cut  into  thin 
slices  and  fried.  Sometimes  a  mixture  of  corn-meal  and 
wheat  flour,  or  buckwheat  flour  was  used.  A  somewhat 
similar  mixture  is  made  nowadays  in  the  larger  cities,  par- 
ticularly Philadelphia,  and  is  known  as  scrapple,  but  it  is 
not  the  pon-hoss  of  the  early  Germans.^^ 

58  "  A  University  of  Pennsylvania  professor,  whose  home  is  in  Vienna, 
tells  noe  that  nowhere  on  the  continent  of  Europe  did  he  ever  eat  anything 

76  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

On  Shrove  Tuesday  every  German  housewife  cooked  a 
great  dish  of  Fastnacht-cakes,  or  fastnachts  {Anglice 
Fosnot)  as  they  were  usually  called,  a  cake  made  of  a 
modified  bread-dough  and  fried  in  deep  fat.  These  cakes 
were  a  very  common  dish  throughout  the  winter,  in  some 
families  almost  entirely  replacing  the  use  of  bread.  There 
were  a  number  of  dishes  peculiar  to  the  Germans,  such 
as  "Sauer-Kraut  und  Speck,"  "  Schnitz  und  Knopf,"  etc., 
which  to  those  not  to  the  manner  born  may  seem  strange, 
but  very  often  a  stranger  tasting  them  for  the  first  time 
found  that  they  were  not  to  be  despised. 

Coffee  and  tea  were  not  for  everyday  use,  nor  was  there 
a  plentiful  supply  of  dishes  and  knives  and  forks  for  table 
use.  Very  often  wooden  platters,  or,  in  some  instances, 
pewter  dishes  and  spoons,  were  used,  and  when  individual 
plates  were  lacking  the  members  of  the  family  helped 
themselves  from  the  general  dish.  Dr.  Doddridge  gives 
an  interesting  account  of  the  first  time  he  saw  cups  and 
saucers  and  tasted  coffee  :^'^ 

"  I  well  recollect  the  first  time  I  ever  saw  a  tea  cup  and  saucer, 
and  tasted  coffee.  My  mother  died  when  I  was  about  six  or  seven 
years  of  age.  My  father  then  sent  me  to  Maryland  with  a  brother 
of  my  grandfather,  Mr.  Alexander  Wells,  to  school.  At  Colonel 
Brown's  in  the  mountains,  at  Stony  creek  glades,  I  for  the  first 
time  saw  tame  geese.  .  .  .  The  cabin  and  its  furniture  were  such 
as  I  had  been  accustomed  to  see  in  the  backwoods,  as  my  country 

like  scrapple.  He  is  quite  certain  that  it  is  of  American  origin.  Nor  can 
he,  excellent  scholar  in  five  languages  as  he  is,  and  whose  mother  tongue 
is  German,  explain  just  whence  the  name  ponhaus.  I  venture  to  assert 
that  if  you  said  ponhaus  to  a  Philadelphia  waiter  or  possibly  to  any  ordi- 
nary market  man  in  this  town  he  wouldn't  know  what  you  wanted.  I  am 
equally  positive  that  in  certain  sections  of  Berks,  Lancaster,  York  and 
Lehigh  counties  scrapple  is  a  meaningless  jumble  of  letters." — Philadelphia 
Public  Ledger,  January  16,  1913. 
""^  Op.  cit.,  p.  110. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.     77 

was  called.  At  Bedford  everything  was  changed.  The  tavern  at 
which  my  uncle  put  up  was  a  stone  house,  and  to  make  the  change 
still  more  complete  it  was  plastered  in  the  inside,  both  as  to  walls 
and  celling.  On  going  into  the  dining  room  I  was  struck  with 
astonishment  at  the  appearance  of  the  house.  I  had  no  Idea  that 
there  was  any  house  In  the  world  which  was  not  built  of  logs ;  but 
here  I  looked  around  the  house  and  could  see  no  logs,  and  above  I 
could  see  no  joists;  whether  such  a  thing  had  been  made  by  the 
hands  of  man,  or  had  grown  so  of  itself,  I  could  not  conjecture. 
I  had  not  the  courage  to  Inquire  anything  about  it. 

"  When  supper  came  on  '  my  confusion  was  worse  confounded.' 
A  little  cup  stood  In  a  bigger  one  with  some  brownish  looking  stuff 
in  it,  which  was  neither  milk,  hominy  nor  broth ;  what  to  do  with 
these  little  cups  and  the  little  spoon  belonging  to  them,  I  could 
not  tell ;  and  I  was  afraid  to  ask  anything  concerning  the  use  of 

them.  .  . 

"  It  was  In  the  time  of  the  war,  and  the  company  were  givmg 
accounts  of  catching,  whipping  and  hanging  the  Tories.    The  word 
jail  frequently  occurred:  this  word  I  had  never  heard  before;  but 
I  soon  discovered,  and  was  much  terrified  at  its  meaning,  and  sup- 
posed that  we  were  in  much  danger  of  the  fate  of  the  Tories ;  for, 
I  thought  as  we  had  come  from  the  backwoods,  it  was  altogether 
likely  that  we  must  be  Tories  too.     For  fear  of  being  discovered  I 
durst  not  utter  a  single  word.     I  therefore  watched  attentively  to 
see  what  the  big  folks  would  do  with  their  little  cups  and  spoons. 
I  imitated  them,  and  found  the  taste  of  the  coffee  nauseous  beyond 
anything  I  ever  had  tasted  In  my  life.    I  continued  to  drink,  as  the 
rest  of  the  company  did,  with  the  tears  streaming  from  my  eyes, 
but  when  it  was  to  end  I  was  at  a  loss  to  know,  as  the  little  cups 
were  filled  immediately  after  being  emptied.     This  circumstance 
distressed  me  very  much,  as  I  durst  not  say  I  had  enough.  ^  Look- 
ing attentively  at  the  grown  persons,  I  saw  one  man  turn  his  little 
cup  bottom  upwards  and  put  his  spoon  across  it.     I  observed  that 
after  this  his  cup  was  not  filled  again;  I  followed  his  example, ^and 
to  my  great  satisfaction,  the  result  as  to  my  cup  was  the  same." 

78  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Speaking  of  the  use  of  table  china  ware,  Dr.  Doddridge 
says:  "The  introduction  of  delft  ware  was  considered  by 
many  of  the  backwoods  people  as  a  culpable  innovation. 
It  was  too  easily  broken,  and  the  plates  of  that  ware  dulled 
their  scalping  knives;  tea  ware  was  too  small  for  menj 
they  might  do  for  women  and  children.  Tea  and  coffee 
were  only  slops,  which  in  the  adage  of  the  day  '  did  not 
stick  by  the  ribs.'  The  idea  was  they  were  designed  only 
for  people  of  quality,  who  do  not  labor,  or  the  sick.  A 
genuine  backwoodsman  would  have  thought  himself  dis- 
graced by  showing  a  fondness  for  those  slops." 

The  clothing  worn  by  the  family  was  all  manufactured 
in  the  home  from  the  raw  material.  The  wool  or  flax  was 
spun  and  the  yam  woven  into  cloth.  A  mixture  of  the 
two,  with  flax  for  the  chain  and  wool  for  the  filling,  and 
known  as  linsey-woolsey,  was  the  warmest  and  most  sub- 
stantial cloth  that  was  made,  and  was  quite  commonly 
used  for  clothing.  Some  of  the  women  were  expert 
spinners  and  weavers,  and  produced  linen  of  the  finest 
weave,  and  the  heavy  woolen  bed-spreads  spun  and  woven 
by  those  pioneer  women  are  much  sought  after  even  to-day. 
One  of  these  in  the  possession  of  the  writer,  spun  and 
woven  in  the  family  of  an  ancestor,  still  retains  its  colors 
as  bright  as  the  day  it  was  woven. 

The  settlers  on  the  frontier  were  not  slow  to  see  the 
advantage  of  some  parts  of  the  Indian  costume,  and  soon 
combined  it  with  parts  of  the  European  style  of  dress. 
The  use  of  the  hunting-shirt  was  almost  universal.  It  was 
generally  made  of  linsey-woolsey,  although  some  were 
made  of  dressed  deer  skins,  but  these  were  very  uncom- 
fortable in  wet  weather.  The  hunting-shirt  was  a  sort  of 
loose  frock,  reaching  half  way  down  the  thighs,  with  large 
sleeves,  open  before,  and  made  so  that  when  belted  it 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      79 

would  lap  over  considerably.  It  usually  had  a  cape,  and 
sometimes  was  fringed  with  a  piece  of  cloth  of  a  different 
color,  the  edges  of  which  were  ravelled.  The  wide  bosom 
of  the  shirt  was  utilized  for  holding  articles  of  food,  or 
anything  else  necessary  to  have  convenient.  From  the 
belt,  which  was  tied  behind,  were  suspended  the  toma- 
hawk, the  scalping-knife  and  the  bullet  bag.  The  feet 
were  usually  covered  with  moccasins,  made  of  dressed 
deer  skin.  These  were  made  of  a  single  piece  of  skin,  with 
a  gathering  seam  along  the  top  of  the  foot,  and  another, 
without  gathers,  from  the  bottom  of  the  heel  to  a  little 
above  the  ankle-joint.  Flaps  were  left  on  each  side  to 
reach  some  distance  up  the  legs.  These  were  adjusted  to 
the  ankles  and  lower  part  of  the  leg  by  thongs  of  deer 
skin.  In  cold  weather  the  moccasins  were  stuffed  with 
hair  from  the  deer  skins  or  dry  leaves. 

"  In  the  latter  years  of  the  Indian  war,"  says  Dr.  Dodd- 
ridge, "  our  young  men  became  more  enamored  of  the 
Indian  dress  throughout,  with  the  exception  of  the  match- 
coat.  The  drawers  were  laid  aside  and  the  leggings  made 
longer,  so  as  to  cover  the  upper  part  of  the  thigh.  The 
Indian  breech-clout  was  adopted.  This  was  a  piece  of 
linen  or  cloth  nearly  a  yard  long  and  eight  or  nine  inches 
broad.  This  passed  under  the  belt  before  and  behind, 
leaving  the  ends  for  flaps  hanging  before  and  behind  over 
the  belt.  These  flaps  were  sometimes  ornamented  with 
some  coarse  kind  of  embroidery  work.  To  the  same  belts 
which  secured  the  breech-clouts,  strings  which  supported 
the  long  leggings  were  attached.  When  this  belt,  as  was 
often  the  case,  passed  over  the  hunting-shirt,  the  upper 
part  of  the  thighs  and  part  of  the  hips  were  naked." 



Mechanical  Arts  and  Industries. 


NE  great  advantage  to  be 
found  in  a  settlement 
made  up  of  Germans  was  the 
fact  that  every  German  boy,  no 
matter  what  his  station  in  life 
might  be,  was  taught  a  trade; 
a  custom  which  prevails  in  Ger- 
many to  this  day,  but  which, 
unfortunately,  was  to  a  great 
extent  abandoned  by  the  Ger- 
mans in  this  country,  about  the 
middle  of  the  nineteenth  century.  As  a  result  of  all  the 
men  being  trained  artisans  the  German  settlers  were  able  to 
obtain  many  articles  which  otherwise  they  would  have  had 
to  go  without,  or  else  secure  them  from  some  of  the  older 
settlements  at  an  expenditure  of  considerable  time  and 
money.  While  they  were  all  skilled  in  agriculture,  there 
was  a  large  number  who  were  good  mechanics,  and  those 
who  were  not  able  to  manufacture  for  themselves  the 
articles  they  needed  had  no  difficulty  in  finding  some  one  to 
make  them  for  them,  and  very  often  there  was  a  trading 
in  this  sort  of  service.    One  man  would  make  some  article 


Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      8i 

for  another,  who  would  pay  for  it  by  doing  in  return  some- 
thing in  which  he  was  proficient. 

At  first,  until  the  land  was  cleared,  the  fields  prepared, 
and  the  homes  built,  there  was  not  much  done  in  the  way 
of  starting  manufactories,  but  as  the  settlements  increased 
and  villages  and  towns  sprang  up,  creating  a  greater  de- 
mand for  manufactured  articles,  a  larger  number  of  the 
settlers  turned  their  attention  in  this  direction,  leaving  the 
raising  of  crops  to  be  done  by  others.  There  were  few 
trades  that  were  not  represented,  in  a  greater  or  less  de- 
gree. There  were  expert  cabinet-makers  who,  besides 
making  the  ordinary  household  furniture,  frequently 
turned  out  beautiful  specimens  with  lines  modeled  on  the 
work  of  Heppelwhite  and  Chippendale,  some  of  which 
have  come  down  to  this  day. 

As  the  only  means  of  conveyance  for  passengers  and 
freight  at  that  time  was  by  horses,  the  wagon-makers'  trade 
was  an  important  one.  But  few  wagons  were  brought 
from  abroad,  for  without  counting  the  original  cost  of 
them,  the  freight  for  carrying  them  across  the  ocean  would 
have  made  their  cost  prohibitive.  The  first  wagons  used 
were  made  entirely  of  wood,  the  wheels  being  sawed  from 
the  trunk  of  a  buttonwood  or  gum  tree.  But  it  was  not 
long  before  the  iron  mines  were  opened  and  forges  set  up 
and  after  that  a  better  class  of  wagons  were  obtainable. 
There  were  expert  wheelwrights  and  wagon-builders 
among  them,  who  turned  out  large  numbers  of  substan- 
tial wagons.  The  fact  that  Benjamin  Franklin  in  two 
weeks  was  able  to  obtain  from  the  Germans  of  Pennsyl- 
vania one  hundred  and  fifty  wagons  for  Braddock's  expe- 
dition shows  how  well  supplied  they  were  in  this  particular. 

Transportation  methods  of  this  kind  required  the  use 
of  large  quantities  of  harness  and  saddles,  so  that  saddlers 

82  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

and  harness-makers  were  numerous.  The  manufacture  of 
leather  was  another  very  Important  Industry.  Leather  was 
needed  for  making  boots  and  shoes  as  well  as  for  harness 
and  saddles,  and  great  quantities  of  it  were  used.  As  the 
leather  was  all  made  by  the  old-fashioned  process  of  tan- 
ning, In  which  the  skins  were  macerated  In  vats  for  many 
months,  a  great  many  vats  were  necessary  In  order  to  keep 
up  the  supply,  so  that  some  of  the  tanneries  were  very 
large  establishments.  Shortly  after  1753  Matthias  Nead 
established  a  tannery  near  Clear  Spring,  Maryland,  which 
was  conducted  by  himself,  his  son  and  his  grandsons  for 
about  three  quarters  of  a  century.^^  Fastened  with  wafers 
to  the  wall  of  this  tannery  was  the  following  rhyming 
notice,  which  has  been  preserved : 


Ye  shoemakers,  Cobblers,  and  others  attend, 

Just  look  at  this  Notice,  it  is  from  your  friend ; 

My  Purse  is  so  empty,  tis  light  as  a  feather, 

You  have  worn  out  your  Shoes,  and  not  paid  for  the  Leather. 

Now  take  my  Advice  and  pay  off  the  old  score, 

Before  you  get  trusted  for  any  skins  more; 

I  have  Sheep  Skins,  &  Calf  Skins,  &  Upper,  and  Soal, 

I  have  all  kinds  of  Leather,  from  an  Ox,  to  a  Foal; 

I  have  leather  that's  green,  and  leather  that's  dry, 

But  pay  down  the  Rhino  if  any  you'd  buy: 

A  hint  to  the  wise  is  sufficient  tis  said, 

Pay !  and  take  a  Receipt  from  your  good  old  Friend 


Nearly  every  family  made  the  soap  they  used.     Soap- 
making  was  an  interesting  process,  a  process  still  In  use  in 

^8  It  was  quite  common  for  a  trade  or  business  to  descend  from  father  to 
son  for  several  generations. 



Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      83 

many  of  the  families  descended  from  the  early  German 
settlers.  The  ashes  from  the  hickory  wood  burned  in  the 
open  fireplaces  or  in  the  cast-iron  stoves  were  carefully 
saved,  and  in  the  early  spring  the  lye  for  making  soap 
was  prepared  from  them.  This  was  done  by  means  of  the 
ash-hopper,  a  V-shaped  wooden  structure  raised  from  the 
ground,  the  point  downward,  with  a  hole  bored  at  the 
bottom  of  one  end  opening  on  the  trough-like  board  used 
for  the  bottom.  The  hopper  was  lined  with  straw  and 
then  filled  with  hickory  ashes,  after  which  a  large  amount 
of  water  was  poured  in  on  top  of  the  ashes.  The  water, 
percolating  through  the  ashes,  extracted  all  the  alkali  and 
came  out  at  the  bottom  a  dark  brown  liquid,  the  lye,  ready 
for  soap-making.  This  was  boiled  in  a  large  iron  kettle 
with  the  various  kinds  of  fat  and  grease  that  had  been 
saved  all  winter,  and  the  result  was  soap.  Most  house- 
wives made  both  hard  and  soft  soap. 

Paper-making  was  another  industry  that  the  Germans 
early  established.  With  them  linen  rags  was  the  material 
used  for  making  paper,  but  it  was  a  descendant  of  one  of 
the  early  German  settlers  in  Maryland  who  gave  to  the 
world  straw  paper  and  straw-board,  now  so  universally 
used.  The  Shryock  family  came  to  Pennsylvania  from 
Germany  and  later  went  to  Maryland  shortly  after  1730. 
They  settled  in  what  is  now  Washington  county.  A  de- 
scendant of  this  family  moved  over  the  line  to  Chambers- 
burg,  Pa.,  in  1790,  where  he  built  a  mill  for  the  manu- 
facture of  banknote  paper,  with  which  he  supplied  the 
United  States  government.  His  son,  George  A.  Shryock, 
succeeded  him,  and  later  discovered  the  process  of  making 
paper  from  straw,  with  its  allied  products  straw-board  and 
binders'  board.  Mr.  Shryock  has  left  an  account  of  how 
he  came  to  engage  in  the  manufacture  of  straw  paper.    It 

84  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

appears  that  Col.  William  Magaw,  who  was  a  relative  of 
Mr.  Shryock,  was  extensively  engaged  in  the  manufacture 
of  potash  at  Meadville,  Pa.  The  potash  was  made  from 
ashes,  the  latter  being  leached  just  as  in  preparing  lye  for 
making  soap.  While  overseeing  the  work  Colonel  Magaw 
was  in  the  habit  of  chewing  bits  of  the  straw  that  had 
been  taken  from  the  ash-hoppers  when  they  were  emptied. 
He  noticed  that  when  this  chewed  straw  was  pressed  in 
the  hand  the  softened  fibers  matted  together,  forming  a 
pulp  very  much  like  that  from  which  ordinary  wrapping 
paper  was  made,  and  it  occurred  to  him  that  the  material 
might  be  used  for  that  purpose.  He  wrote  to  Mr.  Shryock, 
who  was  at  that  time  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  rag 
paper  at  the  Hollywell  paper  mill,  just  outside  of  Cham- 
bersburg,  suggesting  to  him  the  advisability  of  investigat- 
ing the  matter,  and  later,  in  the  summer  of  1829,  visited 
Chambersburg  for  a  test  of  the  idea.  "The  experiment 
was,  at  that  time  and  place,  made  and  proved  a  decided 
success,"  says  Mr.  Shryock.  "  I  was  so  well  satisfied  of 
Its  practicability  that  I  bought  a  large  cast  iron  kettle  of 
John  V.  Kelly,  in  Chambersburg,  cribbed  it  with  wood 
staves  so  that  I  could  boil  from  seven  hundred  to  one 
thousand  pounds  of  straw  at  one  filling,  and  made,  for 
.^ome  weeks,  from  twenty  to  thirty  reams  per  day.  The 
material  used  at  that  time  in  the  preparation  of  the  straw 
was  potash,  exclusively.  I  abandoned  the  manufacture  of 
rag  paper,  and  devoted  my  mill  exclusively  to  the  manu- 
facture of  straw  paper  for  some  months.  In  November, 
1829,  I  visited  the  east  to  see  a  cylinder  machine  then  in 
operation  in  Springfield,  Massachusetts,  by  Messrs.  Ames. 
On  my  way  I  accidentally  met  with  Mr.  Lafflin,  of  Lee, 
Massachusetts,  at  Hays'  Pearl  Street  House,  New  York, 
and  engaged  him  to  build  for  me  a  small  cylinder  machine, 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      85 

at  Hollywell  Paper  Mill,  near  Chambersburg,  Pennsylva- 
nia. This  was  certainly  the  first  machine  that  ever  oper- 
ated on  that  material.  Within  the  first  year  I  introduced 
the  grooved  wood  roll  for  the  manufacture  of  binders' 
and  box  boards,  etc.  These  two  manufactures  were  (as 
far  as  has  been  ascertained)  the  very  first  use  of  straw 
paper  as  a  staple  article  in  our  world." 

In  the  older  settled  parts  of  Maryland  it  was  difficult 
to  induce  the  settlers  to  plant  anything  but  tobacco,  but 
the  German  settlers  did  not  require  urging  to  induce  them 
to  turn  their  attention  in  other  directions.  Flax  was  one 
of  their  staple  products,  and  large  quantities  of  it  were 
grown.  They  used  it  for  the  manufacture  of  their  own 
clothing,  they  made  thread  from  it  for  which  they  found 
a  ready  market,  and  the  seed  commanded  a  good  price. 
To  raise  a  good  quality  of  flax  required  care  and  attention, 
but  it  was  needed,  for  at  that  period  the  amount  of  wool 
they  could  raise  was  not  sufficient  for  them  to  depend  upon 
it  alone  for  their  clothing.  The  seed  was  disposed  of  in 
Philadelphia  and  Baltimore,  many  wagon  loads  of  It 
finding  its  way  thither. 

When  the  flax  was  ready  to  be  harvested  the  stalks  were 
pulled  from  the  ground  by  the  roots  and  tied  in  small 
bunches  from  which  shocks  were  formed,  to  allow  the 
seed  to  dry.  When  the  seed  had  been  beaten  out  the  stalks 
were  ready  for  the  process  of  retting,  or  rotting.  For  this 
purpose  the  flax-stalks  were  spread  out  in  a  field  and 
allowed  to  remain  for  several  weeks,  the  action  of  the  rain 
and  sun  setting  up  a  process  of  fermentation  which  loosed 
the  fiber  from  the  woody  portion  of  the  stalk.^^    The  flax 

59  The  best  quality  of  flax  was  not  produced  by  this  process  of  retting, 
"  dew-retting,"  as  it  is  called.  The  plan  more  generally  pursued  is  to  pack 
the  bunches  of  flax-stalks  closely  together  in  pools  of  water  prepared  for  this 

86  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

was  then  dried  and  was  ready  to  be  broken.  The  simplest 
sort  of  a  flax-break  was  made  of  two  pieces  of  board, 
hinged  together  at  one  end,  so  that  they  could  be  separated 
and  the  sharpened  edges  brought  together.  Bunches  of 
the  flax  stalks  were  passed  through  the  break,  the  upper 
part  being  brought  down  sharply  upon  the  stalks  at  many 
places.  In  this  way  the  woody  portion  was  broken  and 
loosened  from  the  fiber.  When  the  flax  had  been  well 
broken  it  was  ready  for  hackling.  The  flax  hackle  was 
usually  made  by  driving  a  number  of  long,  sharp-pointed 
nails  through  a  piece  of  board  so  that  they  projected  for 
several  inches.  The  flax  was  hackled  by  the  operator 
grasping  a  bunch  of  the  straw  and  drawing  it  over  the 
hackle.  This  separated  the  tow  from  the  flax  proper. 
The  oftener  the  flax  was  hackled  the  finer  was  the  quality 
of  the  finished  product. 

The  tow  was  spun  and  woven  into  a  coarse  cloth  which 
was  used  for  making  towels,  bagging,  and  coverings  of 
various  kinds,  while  from  the  flax  itself  linen  of  various 
degrees  of  fineness  was  woven,  and  much  of  it  was  dis- 
posed of  in  barter  as  thread.  The  spinning  of  the  flax 
occupied  the  winter  evenings,  and  in  a  large  family  it  was 
no  unusual  thing  to  see  several  spinning-wheels  at  work 
by  the  light  from  the  kitchen  fire,  operated  by  a  mother 
and  her  daughters.  Every  young  woman  was  taught  to 
spin.  A  Maryland  German  writing  to  his  brother  and 
describing  his  situation  says:  "  I  shall  now  inform  you  how 
I  am  Situated  as  it  Respects  the  things  of  this  world.  I 
have  a  small  Farm  of  lOO  acres  of  land  and  on  it  a  Tan- 
yard,  and  By  Farming  and  Tanning  a  little  we  are  able  to 
Support  our  selves.     Our  Soil  is  well  adapted  to  Clover, 

purpose,  and  allow  the  fermentation  to  take  place  in  this  way.  In  Ireland 
much  of  the  flax  is  retted  in  bog-holes. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      87 

Wheat,  Corn  &  oats,  and  Fruit  of  all  sorts.  We  have  3 
sons  and  8  daughters — 5  are  able  to  turn  the  Spinning 
wheel  and  throw  the  Shuttle." 

There  were  many  metal  workers,  particularly  in  iron 
and  copper.  At  an  early  date  Dirck.  Pennybacker,  a 
grandson  of  Heinrich  Pannebacker,  one  of  the  early 
settlers  at  Germantown,  Pa.,  built  an  iron-works  near 
Sharpsburg,  but  about  178 1  it  was  destroyed  by  a  freshet 
and  he  removed  to  Virginia.  The  coppersmiths  were 
skilled  workmen  who  fashioned  various  utensils,  particu- 
larly the  large  copper  kettles,  which  were  beaten  by  hand 
from  one  piece  of  metal,  and  which  were  frequently  made 
large  enough  to  hold  a  barrel  of  cider.  There  were  many 
other  articles  manufactured  by  the  German  settlers,  and 
their  descendants  were  not  behind  those  of  other  nationali- 
ties in  the  products  of  their  inventive  genius.  According 
to  Scharf  it  was  a  Frederick  county  German,  Joseph 
Weller,  of  Mechanicstown,  who,  in  1831,  discovered  the 
process  and  manufactured  the  first  friction  matches  made 
in  this  country. 

The  Germans  in  Maryland  did  not  establish  any  news- 
papers at  a  very  early  date.  According  to  Daniel  Miller,^^ 
the  first  German  newspaper  in  Maryland  was  established 
by  Matthias  Bartgis  at  Frederick,  in  1785.  In  1795  the 
publication  of  the  Deutsch  Washington  Correspondent 
was  started  at  Hagerstown  by  John  Gruber.  Gruber  was 
born  in  Strasburg,  Lancaster  county,  Pennsylvania,  about 
1778.  He  learned  the  printing  trade  in  Philadelphia,  and 
in  1793  was  in  Reading,  Pa.,  a  member  of  the  firm  of 
Jungman  &  Gruber  who  published  Die  Neiie  Unpar- 
theiische  Readinger  Zeitung.    He  did  not  remain  in  Read- 

*o "  Early  German  American   Newspapers,"   in  Proc.   and  Add.  of  the 
Pennsylvania-German  Soc,  Vol.  XIX.,  p.  96. 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

ing  very  long,  as  two  years  later  he  was  located  in  Hagers- 
town.  In  1796,  In  addition  to  his  newspaper  he  began  the 
publication  of  what  has  proved  to  be  a  monument  to  his 
memory  which  bids  fair  to  last  indefinitely:  The  Hagers- 
Town  Town  and  Country  Almanack.  This  almanac  soon 
attained  a  very  large  circulation  which  it  retains  to  this 
day,  and  in  most  of  the  homes  in  western  Maryland  and 
southern  Pennsylvania  It  was  regarded  as  a  necessity. 
The  farmers  planted  their  crops  according  to  the  rules 
and  signs  given  in  it,  and  it  was  always  consulted  before 
any  undertaking  was  begun.  Until  1822  it  was  printed 
only  in  German,  but  in  that  year  the  English  edition  was 
begun.  In  1836  Mr.  Gruber  obtained  a  series  of  crude 
wood-cuts  appropriate  to  each  month,  and  from  that  time 
to  the  present  the  "Almanack"  has  made  its  appearance 
each  year  exactly  as  its  founder  designed  it  over  three 
quarters  of  a  century  ago. 


2>^r  newe  9?or&^3lmrrfcatti((^c 
t  a  i  t   mi   2  a  n  i 




iKfro  cnD  <2S«J<nin9,  ©onncn  5(uf*  un6  Umcrgong,.  t>a  (^kbtngc^^wS  Slofsong, 
e/iI^rK*^  onb  Uottrgong;  txr  QJenu*  5laf^  unD  Untcrgang,  eourtov  8«u^  <^ 
ti^^/^flfci  imi  ootKrc  |u  cukw  ^alen&a  flc1)6risc  ©ucl^  ja  fm&au 

3«ra    er^cnmal    ^eiaa^gt  ge&cs. 



The  Religious  Life. 

MITH  the  exception  of 
Virginia,  the  English 
colonies  planted  in  America 
during  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury were  founded  for  the 
purpose  of  escaping  religious 
persecution.  The  ruling  pow- 
ers having  determined  that 
the  established  church  should 
be  paramount,  allowed  no 
middle  ground,  and  laws  of 
the  greatest  severity  were 
put  into  force  against  the 
Roman  Catholics,  Puritans,  Dissenters,  etc.  The  colony 
of  Maryland  was  founded  by  Roman  Catholics  and  until 
the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century  the  members  of 
that  denomination  were  in  the  majority,  yet  a  spirit  of 
religious  toleration  prevailed  such  as  was  scarcely  to  be 
found  in  any  other  colony.^^      This  is  the  more  remark- 

61  The   excellent   character  which    Cecilius,   Lord   Baltimore,   is   said   to 
have   always  borne,   would  prompt  us   to  impute  this  proceeding  to  the 


9©  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

able  considering  the  attitude  of  the  Roman  Catholics  in 
the  mother  country,  particularly  during  the  reign  of  Queen 
Mary,  and  it  is  a  curious  side-light  on  the  mutations  of 
human  affairs  that  the  only  religious  persecution  that  oc- 
curred in  the  colony  was  directed  against  the  Roman  Cath- 
olics, following  the  Puritan  Revolution. 

At  some  time  previous  to  1638  the  governor  of  the 
province  had  issued  a  proclamation  prohibiting  "  all  un- 
seasonable disputations  in  point  of  religion,  tending  to  the 
disturbance  of  public  peace  and  quiet  of  the  colony,  and 
the  opening  of  faction  in  religion,"  but  when  this  was 
issued  is  not  known,  for,  as  Bozman  states,  the  proclama- 
tion does  not  appear  in  the  records.  In  1648,  in  commis- 
sioning William  Stone  as  governor.  Lord  Baltimore  in- 
cluded in  the  oath  of  office  to  be  taken  by  the  governor  a 
provision  that  he  would  not  molest  or  discountenance  for 
his  religion  any  person  professing  to  believe  in  Jesus  Christ 
and,  in  particular,  no  Roman  Catholic,  if  he  were  neither 
unfaithful  to  the  Lord  Baltimore,  nor  conspired  against 
the  civil  government;  that  he  would  not  make  a  difference 
of  persons  in  conferring  office  or  favors,  because  of  reli- 
gion, but  would  regard  the  advancement  of  Baltimore's 
interests  and  the  public  unity  and  good  of  the  province 

most  laudable  motives — the  liberal  indulgence  of  all  men  in  their  religious 
opinions.  But,  whoever  is  acquainted  with  the  history  of  Europe,  during 
the  seventeenth  century,  must  know  that  no  genuine  Roman  Catholic  at 
that  time  could  entertain  these  liberal  sentiments,  or  at  least  openly  avow 
them.  All  Protestants  were  deemed  by  them  heretics,  and  liable  to  the 
strong  arm  of  persecution  for  their  impious  and  presumptuous  doctrines. 
We  must,  therefore,  unavoidably  confess  that  this  liberal  and  tolerant 
measure  of  Lord  Baltimore  wears  very  much  the  appearance  of  that  policy 
of  conduct,  just  herein  before  alluded  to,  which  the  English  Catholics  are 
accused  of  having  pursued,  that  is  in  joining  the  two  great  fanatic  sects 
— the  Presbyterians  and  the  Independents,  in  their  united  endeavours  to 
effectuate  the  destruction  of  the  Church  of  England. — Bozman's  "  History 
of  Maryland,"  Vol.  II.,  p.  336. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      91 

without  partiality;  and  that  if  any  person  in  the  prov- 
ince should  molest  any  Christian  for  his  religion  he  would 
apply  his  power  to  protect  the  person  so  molested  and 
punish  the  person  troubling  him.^^ 

In  1649  the  assembly  enacted  a  law  providing  for  reli- 
gious toleration  which  was  in  force  for  nearly  half  a  cen- 
tury. During  this  time  there  was  no  established  church; 
each  sect  or  denomination  conducted  its  affairs  as  it  saw 
fit,  and  all  support  of  churches  and  ministers  was  volun- 
tary. But  in  1692  the  assembly  passed  an  act  malcing  the 
Protestant  Episcopal  church  the  established  church  of  the 
province,  and  imposing  an  annual  tax  of  forty  pounds  of 
tobacco  per  poll  on  all  taxables  for  the  purpose  of  building 
churches  and  maintaining  the  clergy.  This  law  was  very 
unpopular  and  many  of  the  Dissenters,  Quakers  and 
Roman  Catholics  paid  their  taxes  in  the  poorest  quality  of 
tobacco,  so  that  the  few  ministers  who  came  to  the  colony 
under  the  provisions  of  the  law  received  very  light  support. 
This  law  remained  in  force  until  the  Revolution,  but  there 
was  always  more  or  less  opposition  to  it  so  that  there  was 
great  difficulty  in  obtaining  competent  ministers. 

The  German  settlers  were  a  pious  God-fearing  set  of 
people,  and  their  first  thought,  after  settling  in  a  locality, 
was  to  provide  means  for  the  public  worship  of  God. 
After  securing  shelter  for  themselves  the  first  public  im- 
provement was  the  erection  of  a  building  to  be  used  as  a 
church.  A  history  of  these  churches  would  be  a  history  of 
the  people,  but,  unfortunately,  in  many  instances  the  early 
records  of  the  churches  have  been  lost  or  destroyed,  so 
that  the  history  of  these  congregations  has  to  be  con- 
structed from  a  few  fragments,  as  well  as  it  can  be.  The 
settlers  were  chiefly  members  of  the  Lutheran  and  German 

82  Steiner,  "  Maryland  during  the  Civil  Wars,"  Part  II.,  p.  io6. 

92  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Reformed  churches,  although  there  were  a  few  Moravians 
and  other  sectarians  among  them.  Their  greatest  trouble 
came  from  their  inability  to  secure  ministers.  There  were 
very  few  regularly  ordained  ministers  in  the  country  and 
those  who  were  sent  over  from  Germany,  as  a  rule,  re- 
mained at  the  older  settlements,  where  their  services  were 
more  in  demand;  and  for  many  years  the  religious  wants 
of  the  outlying  settlements  were  looked  after  by  travelling 
ministers,  or  missionaries,  who  were  able  to  hold  services, 
baptize  the  children,  and  perform  the  marriage  ceremony 
at  any  given  point  only  at  long  intervals.  Then,  too,  the 
people  were  often  imposed  upon  by  dissolute  intemperate 
men  who  posed  as  regularly  ordained  ministers,  who,  in 
this  capacity,  secured  control  of  the  congregations.  Some 
of  them  were  Indeed  such :  men  who  had  at  one  time  occu- 
pied positions  of  honor  In  their  churches,  and  had  fallen 
from  their  high  estate;  but  many  of  them  were  unprin- 
cipled adventurers  who,  in  the  dire  needs  of  the  different 
congregations,  saw  a  means  of  securing  a  livelihood  with 
the  least  possible  expenditure  of  energy.  A  great  deal  of 
the  trouble  which  subsequently  arose  in  the  various  congre- 
gations was  caused  by  men  of  this  sort.  It  was  not  only 
among  the  German  settlers  that  these  pretended  ministers 
were  to  be  found,  sowing  their  seeds  of  discord;  they  were 
equally  common  in  the  English  settlements.  In  the 
absence  of  regular  ministers  religious  services  were  usually 
conducted  by  the  schoolmaster,  who  would  read  sermons. 
The  church  buildings  erected  were  for  many  years  used 
jointly  by  the  Lutheran  and  German  Reformed  congre- 
gations, services  usually  being  held  by  each  congregation 
on  alternate  Sundays. 

Dr.  Schmauk  says^^  that  the  first  Lutheran  church  in 

«3  "  A  History  of  the  Lutheran  Church  in  Pennsylvania,"  in  Proc.  and 
Add.  of  the  Pennsylvania-German  Society,  Vol.  XII.,  p.  381 



Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      93 

Maryland  was  erected  in  what  is  now  Cecil  county  by 
Swedes  from  the  settlement  on  the  Delaware  in  1649,  but 
what  may  unquestionably  be  regarded  as  the  mother- 
church  of  the  Lutheran  denomination  in  Maryland  was 
the  little  log  church  erected  at  the  village  of  Monocacy 
about  1730.  It  is  unfortunate  that  nothing  is  now  pre- 
served which  shows  anything  about  the  organization  of 
this  congregation,  and  it  is  only  in  later  years  that  we  find 
anything  authentic  concerning  it.  From  the  records  of 
Rev.  John  Caspar  Stoever  we  get  the  names  of  a  number 
of  the  early  members  of  the  Monocacy  congregation,  as 
on  his  numerous  visits  to  that  section  of  the  country  he 
baptized  the  children  of  those  attached  to  the  congrega- 
tion. Thus,  in  1734,  four  children  of  John  Jacob 
Mattheis  were  baptized.  In  1735  we  find  the  names  of 
Heinrich  Sinn  and  Michael  Reusner;  in  1736,  John  and 
Balthasar  Fauth,  Matthias  Roessell,  Johannes  Mittag, 
George  Lathy,  John  Jacob  Hoof,  Adam  Baker  and  Henry 
Prey;  in  1737,  John  George  Geiger  and  George  Henckel; 
In  1738,  Heinrich  Fortunee,  Joseph  Mayhew,  Valentine 
Mueller,  Philip  Ernst  Grueber  and  George  Spengel;  in 
1739,  Wilhelm  Dorn  and  Bernhardt  Weinmer;  in  1740, 
John  George  Beer,  Herman  Hartman  and  Michael 
Schauffle;  in  1741,  Jacob  Verdriess  and  Jeremias  Ellradt, 
and  in  1742  Peter  Apfel.  Other  names  of  persons  con- 
nected with  the  Monocacy  congregation  at  that  period  are : 
Traut,  Baum,  Habach,  Berg,  Hutzel,  Schweinhardt, 
Schaefer,  Schaub,  Lein,  Teufersbiss,  Banckauf,  Bruschel, 
Bronner,  Lehnick,  Kuntz,  Gump,  Lutz,  Lay,  Schreyer, 
Bischoff,  Wetzel,  Beyer,  Rausch,  Boltz,  Ort,  Kleeman, 
Geyer,  Rudisiel,  Mausser  and  Kauth. 

The  chief  sources  of  information  concerning  the  early 
history  of  the  old  church  at  Monocacy  are  the  writings  of 

94  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Rev.  Michael  Schlatter  and  Rev.  Henry  Melchior  Muhlen- 
berg, both  of  whom  paid  visits  to  the  congregation.  Mr. 
Schlatter  was  the  first  to  visit  Monocacy.  He  had  been 
sent  to  America  by  the  authorities  of  the  German  Re- 
formed church  in  Holland  as  a  missionary  to  the  congre- 
gations scattered  through  Pennsylvania  and  Maryland. 
He  arrived  in  Philadelphia  in  the  autumn  of  1746  and 
made  numerous  journeys  to  the  outlying  settlements, 
organizing  congregations  where  there  were  none  and 
assisting  in  whatever  way  he  could  those  already  organ- 
ized. Early  the  next  spring  he  started  on  a  visit  to  the 
Maryland  settlements.  "On  the  29th  of  April,"  he 
says,^*  "  amid  earnest  prayers  that  the  presence  of  God 
might  go  with  me,  I  undertook  a  great  journey  to  Mono- 
cacy and  other  places  in  Maryland,  with  a  view  also  of 
visiting  the  congregations  on  the  borders  of  the  Susque- 
hanna, having  before  given  notice  to  each  congregation  of 
the  time  when  I  expected  to  be  with  them.  On  the  first 
day,  I  got  as  far  as  Lancaster,  and  the  following  day  I 
reached  the  Susquehanna,  a  distance  of  seventy-three  miles. 
This  is  the  largest  stream  in  the  English  colonies,  which, 
like  all  other  streams,  has  received  its  name  from  the 
Indians  and  until  now  has  retained  it.  In  like  manner, 
also,  do  the  regions  of  country  receive  their  names  from 
the  streams  which  flow  through  them.  Hence  if,  in  what 
follows,  I  shall  mention  any  places  not  referred  to  before, 
it  must  be  remembered  that  then  I  have  passed  over  some 
larger  or  smaller  stream,  a  matter  which  is  frequently  not 
accomplished  without  great  danger.  At  least,  when  I 
crossed  the  Susquehanna  it  was  greatly  swollen,  so  that  I 
crossed  it  with  twelve  men  at  the  oars  of  the  boat,  and 

8*  "  The  Life  of  Rev.  Michael  Schlatter,"  by  Rev.  H.  Harbaugh,  A.M., 
p.  152. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      95 

then  only  reached  the  opposite  shores  amid  dangers  which 
threatened  my  life,  the  river  being,  at  that  time,  about 
two  miles  wide." 

He  reached  York  on  May  2  and  held  services  there  and 
then  went  on  to  Conewago,  in  Adams  county,  where  he 
also  held  services.  He  then  goes  on  to  say:  "On  the  6th, 
I  journeyed  forty  miles  farther  to  Monocacy,  where,  on 
the  following  day,  I  held  preparatory  service  to  the  Holy 
Communion,  and  baptized  twenty-six  children,  and,  on  the 
8th,  administered  the  most  excellent  Supper  of  the  Lord, 
with  peculiar  interest  and  much  edification,  to  eighty-six 
members.  After  divine  service  was  ended,  I  read  my 
instructions  to  the  people.  The  congregation,  anxious 
after  spiritual  food,  listened  with  tears  of  joy  and  with 
gratitude  to  God,  and  forty-nine  heads  of  families  offered 
to  raise,  for  the  support  of  a  minister,  in  money  and  grain, 
the  amount  of  forty  pounds,  equal  to  266  Dutch  guilders. 
If  this  congregation  were  united  with  another  called 
Connogocheague,  lying  thirty  miles  distant,  these  two 
would  be  able  to  sustain  a  minister.  Farther,  I  must  say 
of  this  congregation,  that  it  appears  to  me  to  be  one  of 
the  purest  in  the  whole  country,  and  one  in  which  I  have 
found  the  most  traces  of  the  true  fear  of  God;  one  that  is 
free  from  the  sects,  of  which,  in  other  places,  the  country 
is  filled.  For,  on  7000  acres  of  land  in  that  neighborhood 
there  were  none  but  such  as  are  of  the  German  Reformed 

Just  seven  weeks  after  Mr.  Schlatter's  visit  to  Mono- 
cacy Mr.  Muhlenberg  arrived  there.  He  had  been  met 
at  Conewago  (now  Hanover)  by  two  men  from  the  Mono- 
cacy settlement  and  the  three  men  starting  out  in  a  pouring 
rain,  "  were  compelled  to  ride  all  night  through  the  wilder- 
ness with  the  rain  pouring  down  and  the  poor  horses  up  to 

g6  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

their  knees  in  water  and  mire."  In  this  manner  the  journey 
of  thirty-six  miles  was  accomplished  and  Monocacy  was 
reached  in  the  morning.  He  found  the  Lutheran  con- 
gregation divided  into  factions,  through  the  efforts  of 
Moravian  missionaries  and  of  men  who,  while  posing  as 
Lutheran  ministers,  were  secretly  trying  to  transfer  control 
of  the  congregation  to  the  Moravians.  Mr.  Muhlenberg 
called  the  congregation  together  and,  as  he  says : 

Before  we  began  the  service  I  had  them  give  me  the  church  book, 
and  I  wrote  in  it,  in  the  English  language,  several  articles,  among 
others  that  our  German  Lutherans  confess  the  holy  Word  of  God 
in  the  prophetic  and  apostolic  Scriptures,  and  besides  the  Augsburg 
Confession  the  other  symbolical  books;  and,  where  it  can  be  done, 
they  have  the  sacraments  administered  to  them  by  regularly  called 
and  ordained  ministers,  and,  according  to  their  rules,  do  not  allow 
open,  gross,  and  persistent  oifenders  against  the  Ten  Command- 
ments and  the  civil  laws  to  be  regarded  as  members,  etc.  This  I 
read  publicly  to  the  congregation,  and  explained  it  in  German,  and 
added  that  he  who  would  be  and  would  remain  such  a  Lutheran 
should  subscribe  his  name. 

This  book  in  which  Mr.  Muhlenberg  wrote  the  articles 
for  the  government  of  the  Lutheran  church  at  Monocacy 
is  now  in  the  possession  of  the  Lutheran  church  at  Fred- 
erick. The  articles,  with  the  names  signed  to  them  are  as 
follows : 

Whereas  we  the  Subscribers,  enjoy  the  inestimable  liberty  of 
Conscience  under  the  powerfuU  Protection  of  our  most  Gracious 
Sovereign  King  George  the  Second  and  His  Representatives  our 
gracious  Superiour  of  this  Province,  and  have  used  this  blessed 
liberty  since  our  first  settling  Here  at  Manakasy  till  this  day  in 
Worshipping  God  Allmighty  according  to  the  protestant  Lutheran 
persuasion,  grounded  in  the  old  and  New  Testament  and  in  the 


^4  c.  /ci(. 

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/  -  /■     //    /C?'    ^,/,      ■      '""/Jf"^  0n^aa  ^,.~//^//!  O^^   xv3 

SrUi.  /-  ,  •  >    /  /  /"■'/,       x^4l      '^y'^"  ae':^'-fi7 ^j^- fy  ^,         ,■■    /'^    \ 

ii  .V  Jw  ^/"*' y^" //^ ^'/.^v.  /,.„ ,  ^ .   ^  /  , ;:  /y,\L  '^^% 





-      ,^7^^^^  /\Z-  r/li^^l^t-/^  /PjenA.-^LT^    a^'ci'-^   fl.^At<^^^^Jie^ 

,■«».-  Wk  ■  -•;■  «. 




Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      97 

invariata  Augustana  Confessione  ceterisq.  libris  Symbolicis;  We  will 
therefore  endeavour  to  pray  for  our  Most  Gracious  Sovereign  and 
all  that  are  in  Authority,  that  we  may  lead  a  peaceable  and  quiet 
life  in  all  Godliness  and  Honesty. 

And  whereas  we  are  Several  times  disturbed  by  pretended  Min- 
isters that  Style  themselves  Lutherans,  but  can  not  produce  any 
lawfuU  Certificate  or  Credentials  of  their  Vocation  Ordination  of 
a  lawfull  Consistory  or  Ministry,  and  cause  Strife,  Quarrels  and 
Disputations  among  the  Congregations,  We  the  Subscribers,  the 
Church  Wardens  and  members  of  the  protestant  Lutheran  Con- 
gregation, erect  and  constitute  and  agree  and  bind  ourselves  to  the 
following  Articals  imprimis 

1.  The  Church  we  have  erected  and  built  at  Manakasy  and  used 
hitherto  shall  stand  and  remain  and  be  for  the  worship  of  our 
protestant  Lutheran  Religion  according  to  our  Confession,  and 
oeconomie  as  long  the  blessed  acts  of  Tolerance  and  of  our  liberty 
stand  forever.  And  the  Reformed  Congregation  shall  have  liberty 
for  their  lawfull  minister. 

2.  No  Minister  shall  be  admitted  and  permitted  to  preach  or 
administer  the  holy  ordinances  in  our  Church  without  a  lawfull 
Call  and  Certificate  of  His  lawfull  Lutheran  ordination  and  Ex- 
amination by  a  Lutheran  Consistory  or  Ministry,  and  without 
Consent  of  the  Church  Wardens. 

3.  Every  Year  shall  be  chosen  four  or  more  blameless  Members 
of  our  Congregation  for  Church  Wardens,  and  they  shall  be 
chosen  per  plurima  vota. 

4.  The  Church  Wardens  shall  hold  and  preserve  the  Key  of  the 
Church,  the  Vessels  and  Ornaments  that  belong  to  the  Church  and 
Congregation  and  deliver  every  piece  in  time  of  Worship  or  when 
Necessity  requireth  it. 

5.  Two  of  the  Church  Wardens  shall  keep  an  exact  account  of 
the  alms  and  be  ready  to  lay  at  the  end  of  the  Year  the  Reckoning 
before  the  rest  of  the  Church  Wardens  and  the  Congregation. 

6.  Whenever  a  Member  or  Church  Warden  of  our  Congrega- 
tion should  turn  to  an  other  persuasion,  or  lead  a  notorious  sinful! 



The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

life  against  the  ten  Commendments  or  against  the  Constitutions 
and  laws  of  our  most  Gracious  Superiours,  He  or  they  shall  not  be 
accounted  for  a  Member  of  our  Congregation  but  be  excluded.  To 
this  before  mentioned  Articals,  which  only  tend  to  promote  peace 
and  Quietness  we  set  our  Hands  this  24  day  of  June  1747,  in  the 
21  year  of  the  Reign  of  our  most  Gracious  Sovereign  King  George 
the  Second,  whom  the  Lord  preserve. 

Hans  Georg  Lay 
Johannes  Kritzman 
Johan  Michal  Romer 
Georg  Michal  Hoffman 
Peter  Apfel 
Henry  Sechs 
Jacob  HofE 
Martin  Wetzel 
Georg  Schweinhardt 
Georg  Hiitzel 
Gabriel  Schweinhard 
Fillip  Kiintz 
Ludwig  Weltner 
Johannes  Schmidt 

Johannes  Verdries 

Martin  Wetzel 

Michell  Reisner  Johan  Michal  Romer       I     Church 

Heinrich  Sechs  Georg  Michal  Hoffman   j  Wardens 

Dieder  Lehny 

Johannes  Stolmeyer 

Johan  Sechs 

Hans  Sigfried  Guy 

Valentine  Verdries 

Hans  Georg  Soldner 

Johan  Christoph  Schmidt 

Johannes  Vogler 

John  Davis 

Friedreich  Verdries 

Martin  Wetzel  Junior 

Nicolaus  Wetzel 

Friedreich  Willhaut 

Georg  Honig 

Jerg  Kolz 

Johannes  Schmidt 

Accompanying  these  articles  is  a  subscription  list^^  to 
which  Is  signed  the  following  additional  names : 

Fredreich  Sinn, 
Adam  Stoll, 
Mateus  Kesszele, 
Adam  Spach, 
Baltzer  Pfaut, 
Jacob  Mateus, 

Jacob  Bene, 
Conradt  Kiinz, 
Joh.  Battel  Meyer, 
Joh.  Georg  Gotz, 
Joh.  Georg  Gump, 
Jacob  Faut. 

«'  Nahmcn    der    Persohnen    welche    zu    Erkauftung   und    Einschreibung 
dieses  Kirchen  buchs  mit  Noch  werraogen  beigetragen  haben. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.      99 

But  in  spite  of  the  efforts  of  Mr.  Muhlenberg  there 
continued  to  be  more  or  less  discord  among  the  members, 
and  the  congregation  did  not  prosper,  and  about  the  time 
that  Rev.  Bernard  Michael  Hauseal  became  pastor  of  the 
Lutheran  church  at  Frederick,  in  1753,  the  Monocacy 
congregation  was  absorbed  by  the  former.  This  absorp- 
tion was  the  final  act  which  led  to  the  decadence  and  disap- 
pearance from  the  map  of  the  village  of  Monocacy.  The 
Lutheran  congregation  at  Fredericic,  which  was  virtually 
the  successor  of  the  one  at  Monocacy,  was  organized  about 
1735,  the  exact  date  not  being  on  record.  Among  the 
early  members  of  the  congregation  were  the  families  of 
Unsult,  Bechtel,  Schley,  Culler,  Angelberger  and  Metzger. 
For  many  years  there  was  no  regular  pastor,  services  being 
conducted  at  intervals  by  the  ministers  stationed  at  the 
Lutheran  church  at  Hanover,  Pa.  In  1753  Rev.  Bernard 
Michael  Hauseal  became  the  pastor  of  the  congregation 
and  remained  until  1758.  From  1763  to  1768  Rev.  John 
William  Samuel  Schwerdtfeger  was  pastor,  and  he  was 
followed  by  Rev.  John  Christopher  Hartwick.  Other 
ministers  connected  with  the  church  were  Rev.  John 
Andrew  Krug,  177 1;  Rev.  John  Frederick  Wildbahn, 
1796;  Rev.  Frederick  Moeller,  1799.  The  first  church 
was  a  wooden  one,  built  in  174 1-6,  which  was  replaced  by 
a  stone  one,  1754-60.  Among  the  members  of  the  con- 
gregation in  1777  were  John  George  Lay,  John  Michael 
Roemer,  George  Michael  Hoffman,  Peter  Apple  and 
Henry  Six,  all  of  whom  had  been  members  of  the  original 
congregation  at  Monocacy.  The  services  were  conducted 
in  German  until  18 10. 

The  German  Reformed  congregation  at  Frederick  was 
organized  before  1740.  When  Rev.  Michael  Schlatter 
visited  the  place  in  1748  he  found  a  congregation  of  con- 

icx)  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

slderable  size,  although  there  was  no  regular  pastor.  He 
preached  In  a  new  and  unfinished  church  and  administered 
communion  to  ninety-seven  persons.  Rev.  Theodore 
Frankenfeld  became  the  regular  minister  in  1753.  He 
was  succeeded,  in  1756,  by  Rev.  John  Conrad  Steiner. 
Other  pastors  of  the  congregation  were:  1760,  Rev.  Philip 
William  Otterbeln;  1766,  Rev.  Charles  Lange;  1768, 
Rev.  Frederick  L.  Henop;  1784,  Rev.  John  Runkel,  who 
retired  in  1801. 

One  of  the  historic  churches  in  western  Maryland  was 
the  old  Lutheran  church  near  Sharpsburg.  This  section 
was  settled  about  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century. 
The  church  was  built  on  ground  donated  by  Col.  Joseph 
Chapline,  who  laid  out  the  town  of  Sharpsburg.  The  deed 
for  this  property  is  recorded  in  Liber  L,  Folio  179,  of  the 
records  of  Frederick  county,  and  is  as  follows : 

At  the  request  of  Dr.  Christopher  Cruss  the  following  Deed 
was  recorded  the  i6th  day  of  March  1768. 

This  Indenture  made  this  5th  day  of  March,  One  Thousand 
Seven  Hundred  and  Sixty  Eight,  between  Col.  Joseph  Chapline  of 
Frederick  County  and  Province  of  Maryland  of  the  one  part,  and 
Dr.  Christopher  Cruss,  Matthias  Need,  Nicholas  Sam  and  William 
Hawker,  Vestrymen  and  Church  Wardens  of  the  Lutheran  Church 
in  the  Town  of  Sharpsburg,  in  the  County  aforesaid,  of  the  other 

Witnesseth  that  the  said  Col.  Joseph  Chapline,  for  and  in  con- 
sideration of  the  religious  regard  which  he  hath  and  beareth  to  the 
said  Lutheran  Church  as  also  for  the  better  support  and  main- 
tenance of  the  said  Church,  hath  given,  granted,  aliened,  enfeoffed 
and  confirmed,  and  by  these  presents  doth  give,  grant,  bargain, 
alien,  enfeoff  and  confirm  unto  the  said  Dr.  Christopher  Cruss, 
Mathias  Need,  Nicholas  Sam  and  William  Hawker,  Vestrymen 
and  Church  Wardens  and  their  successors,  members  of  the  above 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.    loi 

Church,  for  the  use  of  the  Congregation  that  do  resort  thereto, 
One  Lot  or  portion  of  ground,  No.  149,  containing  One  hundred 
and  fifty-four  feet  in  breadth  and  Two  hundred  and  six  feet,  more 
or  less,  in  length,  with  all  profits  advantages  and  appurtenances  to 
the  said  Lot  or  portion  of  ground  belonging  or  appertaining.  To  have 
and  to  hold  to  them  the  said  Dr.  Christopher  Cruss,  Mathias  Need, 
Nicholas  Sam  and  William  Hawker,  Vestrymen  and  Church 
Wardens,  and  to  their  successors  forever,  to  them  and  their  own 
use,  and  to  no  other  use,  intent  or  purpose  whatsoever  forever 
yielding  and  paying  unto  the  said  Col.  Joseph  Chapline,  his  heirs 
and  assigns,  One  Pepper  Corn,  if  demanded,  on  the  ninth  day  of 
July  One  Thousand  Seven  Hundred  and  Sixty  Eight,  and  yearly 
hereafter,  and  the  said  Col.  Joseph  Chapline  for  himself  and  his 
heirs  doth  covenant  and  agree  to  and  with  them  the  said  Dr. 
Christopher  Cruss,  Matthias  Need,  Nicholas  Sam  and  William 
Hawker,  Vestrymen  and  Church  Wardens  and  their  successors, 
that  them  and  they  shall  and  may  have,  hold,  and  peaceably  enjoy 
and  possess  the  said  Lot  or  portion  of  ground  and  other  the 
premises,  yielding  and  paying  the  rent  aforesaid  hereinbefore  re- 
served and  any  rent  that  may  grow  due  to  the  Lord  Proprietary 
freely  and  absolutely,  but  with  this  reserve,  that  if  the  above 
named  Dr.  Christopher  Cruss,  Matthias  Need,  Nicholas  Sam  and 
William  Hawker,  Vestrymen  and  Church  Wardens,  do  not  build 
or  cause  to  be  built  on  said  Lot  in  the  term  of  seven  years  then  the 
above  lot  to  revert  to  Col.  Joseph  Chapline  his  heirs  and  assigns. 

A  log  church  was  erected,  thirty-three  by  thirty-eight 
feet  in  size.  A  bell,  which  was  said  to  be  a  very  old  one, 
was  swung  from  a  pole  on  the  outside.  Later  a  cupola  was 
built  on  the  church  and  the  bell  was  placed  in  it.  The 
interior  of  the  church  was  arranged,  as  nearly  all  of  the 
old  churches  were,  with  a  very  high  pulpit,  reached  by 
nearly  a  dozen  steps.  Over  the  pulpit  was  an  umbrella- 
shaped  sounding-board.  There  was  an  elevated  platform 
for  the  elders  and  deacons,  while  the  congregation  sat  in 

I02  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

pews  with  very  high  backs.  In  1849  <^he  outside  of  the 
building  was  rough-casted.  During  the  battle  of  Antietam, 
in  September,  1862,  the  church  was  used  as  a  hospital,  but 
as  it  was  in  the  line  of  fire  from  the  cannon  it  was  so  much 
damaged  as  to  be  unfit  for  further  use,  and  shortly  after 
the  war  it  was  torn  down.  The  early  records  of  the 
church  are  all  lost:  probably  destroyed  during  the  war, 
so  that  nothing  is  known  of  its  early  history.  Among  the 
families  connected  with  this  church  at  an  early  date  were 
those  of  Roullett,  Hovermale,  Funk,  Nead,  Rohrback, 
Gardenour,  Sheeler  and  Harman. 

The  Germans  did  not  settle  in  Baltimore  in  any  con- 
siderable number  at  a  very  early  date,  the  greater  number 
of  that  nationality  going  to  the  rich  farming  lands  in  the 
western  part  of  the  colony,  yet  it  is  evident  that  shortly 
after  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century  there  was  quite 
a  number  of  them  there,  sufficient  to  organize  two  con- 
gregations: one  Lutheran  and  the  other  German  Re- 
formed. The  exact  date  when  these  congregations  were 
organized  is  not  known,  but  it  could  not  have  been  very 
long  after  1750.  In  the  early  records  of  the  first  Lutheran 
congregation  in  the  city  is  found  the  statement  that  "up 
to  the  year  1758  both  Lutherans  and  German  Reformed 
worshipped  together,  and  great  friendship  and  harmony 
prevailed.  In  that  year  they  resolved  to  erect  a  house  of 
worship  in  common,  as  each  party  was  too  weak  to  build 
one  alone;  and  it  was  at  the  same  time  determined  that  a 
pastor  should  be  called  by  either  church,  as  might  best 
suit."^"  At  first  there  was  no  regular  minister  attached  to 
the  congregation,  services  being  held  at  intervals  as  the 
presence  of  a  minister  would  permit.  According  to 
Scharf,   Rev.  J.  S.  Gerock  was  the  regular  minister  in 

88  Scharf's  "  Chronicles  of  Baltimore,"  p.  40. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.    103 

1758,  but  this  is  evidently  a  mistake,  as  at  that  time  Mr. 
Gerock  was  pastor  of  the  Lutheran  church  at  Lancaster, 
Pa.,  where  he  continued  until  1767,  when  he  removed  to 
New  York  city.^'^  It  is  probable  that  he  occasionally 
visited  the  church  in  Baltimore.  In  1773  among  those 
connected  with  this  church  were  the  families  of  Linden- 
berger,  Wershler,  Hartwig,  Hoecke,  Rock,  Grasmuck, 
Levely,  Barnitz  and  Dr.  Wiesenthall.  In  1758  a  lottery 
was  conducted  to  raise  funds,  with  which  the  new  church 
was  erected. 

The  first  German  Reformed  congregation  in  Baltimore 
was  organized  about  the  same  time  as  the  first  Lutheran 
one.  According  to  a  record  in  one  of  the  books  of  this 
congregation,  dated  January  25,  1769,  "the  first  minister 
of  this  congregation  was  John  Christian  Faber,  bom  in 
Mosback  on  the  Neckar,  in  the  Pfaltz,  in  Europe.  His 
father  was  a  preacher  at  Gimmeldingen  on  the  river 
Haardt.  May  the  blessing  of  God  attend  this  enterprise, 
and  may  the  church  increase  and  flourish."  Mr.  Faber 
was  pastor  of  this  congregation  for  about  fourteen  years, 
but  his  pastorate  was  far  from  being  a  harmonious  one. 
Concerning  Mr.  Faber,  Dr.  Ruetenik  says:®^  "He  proved 
cold  and  tedious  in  the  pulpit,  and  his  conversation  under 
the  pulpit  was  devoid  of  salt — entertaining  rather  than 
elevating."  For  this  reason  some  of  the  members  of  the 
congregation  wanted  a  younger  and  more  warm-hearted 
minister,  and  advocated  the  claims  of  Rev.  Benedict 
Schwob,  or  Swope.  This  resulted  in  a  division  in  the  con- 
gregation and  a  second  one  was  formed  in  1770  under  the 
leadership  of  Mr.  Swope.     Dissensions  continued  between 

^''  Schraauk.    "  The   Lutheran    Church    in    Pennsylvania,"    in    Proc.    and 
Add.  of  the  Pennsylvania-German  Societj',  Vol.  XI.,  p.  349. 

*8  "  The  Pioneers  of  the  Reformed  Church  in  the  United  States,"  p.  97. 

104  ^^^  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

the  two  congregations,  and  in  1774  Mr.  Swope  retired  and 
was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Philip  William  Otterbein,  who 
remained  in  charge  of  the  congregation  until  his  death 
in  1813. 

In  the  first  church  Mr.  Faber  was  succeeded  by  Rev. 
George  Frederick  Wallauer,  and  he  by  Rev.  Charles 
Louis  Boehme.  One  of  the  old  books  of  the  church 
records  that  "after  some  time  Mr.  Boehme  got  into 
trouble  and  at  a  meeting  of  the  Rev.  Synod  held  at  Read- 
ing, Pa.,  in  1782,  he  was  dismissed  from  the  ministry. 
At  the  same  time  liberty  was  given  to  call  another  minister, 
and  they  called  Rev.  Nicholas  Pomp,  who  delivered  his 
first  sermon  on  the  first  Sunday  in  September,  1783.  At 
this  period  Jacob  Coberts,  Frederick  Meyer,  Jacob  Meyer 
and  Henry  Zorah  were  the  elders  of  the  church;  and 
Philip  Cruslus,  Andrew  Granget,  and  Philip  Miller,  the 

One  of  the  early  congregations  established  by  the 
Lutherans  was  the  one  at  Middletown,  where  a  church 
was  erected  about  1755.  Among  the  pastors  of  this  con- 
gregation were  Rev.  Frederick  Gerresheim,  in  1779;  Rev. 
John  Andrew  Krug,  Rev.  Jacob  Goering,  Rev.  John 
George  Schmucker,  and  Rev.  Johan  George  Graeber,  who 
was  pastor  in  1796. 

The  Rocky  Hill  church,  near  Woodsborough,  was  built 
in  1768.  It  was  a  two-story  log  building  and  was  occu- 
pied by  the  Lutherans,  German  Reformed  and  Presby- 
terians. Until  1830  preaching  was  in  the  German  lan- 
guage. "Apple's  Church"  was  built  near  Mechanicstown 
about  1765  by  the  Lutherans  and  German  Reformed. 
Among  the  first  Reformed  ministers  of  this  church  were 
Rev.  Jonathan  Rahauser  and  Rev.  Mr.  Bassler.     At  a 

**  Scharf,  "  Chronicles  of  Baltimore,"  p.  42. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.    105 

much  later  period  the  congregation  was  served  by  Revs. 
S.  R.  Fisher  and  E.  E.  Higbee.  One  of  the  Lutheran 
ministers  who  was  pastor  of  this  congregation  was  Rev. 
Reuben  Weiser. 

St.  John's  Lutheran  church  in  Hagerstown  was  organ- 
ized in  1770.  Its  constitution  was  signed  by  sixty  mem- 
bers. Its  first  pastor  was  Rev.  J.  F.  Wildbahn.  From 
1773  to  1793  Rev.  John  George  Young  was  the  pastor, 
and  he  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Dr.  J.  G.  Schmucker.  In 
179 1  a  lottery  was  held  to  raise  money  for  the  church. 
The  trustees  and  managers  for  the  lottery  were  Peter 
Hoeflich,  Henry  Shryock,  Peter  Woltz,  Baltzer  Woltz, 
David  Harry,  Jacob  Harry,  William  Lee,  John  Lee, 
Rezin  Davis,  Alexander  Clagett,  Nathaniel  Rochester, 
Henry  Schnebly,  William  Reynolds,  Melchior  Beltz- 
hoover,  John  Geiger,  John  Protzman,  Adam  Ott,  Michael 
Kapp,  George  Woltz,  John  Ragan,  Abraham  Leider, 
Robert  Hughes,  Henry  Schroder,  Henry  Eckert,  William 
Van  Lear,  Jacob  Miller,  Frederick  Stempel,  Peter  White- 
sides,  Andrew  Kleinsmith,  Philip  Entlen  and  John  Ney. 

Rev.  Jacob  Weyman  became  the  pastor  of  the  German 
Reformed  church  in  Hagerstown  in  1770  and  remained  in 
charge  until  1790.  Among  the  members  of  the  first  con- 
gregation were  William  Baker,  William  Heyser,  Philip 
Osten,  Peter  Wagner,  Jacob  Hauser,  Jonathan  Hager, 
Ernst  Baker,  Yost  Weygand,  Esau  Gnadig,  Johannes 
Karr,  Frantz  Greilich,  Herman  Greilich,  Andreas  Link, 
Eustagines  Jung,  Wilhelm  Conrath,  Heinrich  Doutweiler, 
Jacob  Fischer,  Johannes  Steincyfer,  Frantz  Wagner, 
Ernst  Dietz,  Rudolph  Bly,  Johannes  Oster,  Michael 
Eberhart,  Matthias  Saylor,  George  Herdic,  George  Cam- 
pert,  Johannes  Nicholas  Schister,  Johannes  Frey,  Peter 
Diller,  George  Frey,  Conrad  Eichelberger,  Philip  Klein, 

io6  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

and  Ernst  Kremer.  In  1774  the  congregation  erected  a 
substantial  church  building,  and  it  was  during  the  erection 
of  this  structure  that  Jonathan  Hager,  the  founder  of 
Hagerstown,  was  killed  by  a  heavy  timber  falling  on  him. 

One  of  the  first  Lutheran  Churches  in  what  is  now 
Washington  county,  Maryland,  was  the  Antietam  church, 
situated  on  Antietam  creek,  about  four  miles  from  Hagers- 
town. Rev.  John  G.  Young,  writing  in  1786,  says  that 
this  church  was  built  in  1756,  but  the  will  of  Robert 
Downing,  who  owned  the  land  on  which  it  was  built, 
speaks  of  the  church  as  being  in  existence  at  the  time  the 
will  was  made,  in  1754.  Mr.  Young  says:  "About  thir- 
teen families  of  our  church  united,  purchased  ten  acres 
of  land,  and  built  a  sort  of  church,  as  their  circumstances 
allowed."  Rev.  Bernard  Michael  Hauseal,  of  the  Fred- 
erick congregation,  was  the  first  minister  to  hold  services 
at  this  church.  For  a  short  time  Rev.  J.  W.  S.  Schwerdt- 
feger  conducted  services  there,  and  when  Rev.  J.  G.  Young 
became  pastor  of  the  Hagerstown  church,  in  1773,  he 
held  services  at  the  Antietam  church  every  four  weeks. 
This  he  continued  to  do  until  1785.  At  that  time  the 
congregation  consisted  of  from  fifty-five  to  sixty  families. 

There  were  a  number  of  Brethren  located  in  that  section 
at  an  early  date.  Dr.  Martin  G.  Brumbaugh  says :  "  The 
Antietam  church  was  organized  in  1752.  William  Stover 
was  the  first  elder.  His  parents  were  not  members.  He 
was  born  about  1725  and  died  in  1795.  He  was  assisted 
in  the  ministry  for  some  time  by  George  Adam  Martin 
and  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Daniel  Stover,  who  died 
October,  1822.  This  church  extended  over  a  large  terri- 
tory and  was  a  midway  point  for  emigration  from  eastern 
Pennsylvania  to  Virginia  and  the  west.  This  church  was 
located  in  the  famous  Conococheague  country.    It  was  the 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.    107 

scene  of  many  Indian  depredations  during  the  French  and 
Indian  Wars  and  during  the  Revolution.  The  early  mem- 
bers suffered  greatly,  and  some  were  ruthlessly  murdered. 
There  was  no  meeting-house  for  the  congregation  until 
1798,  when  Price's  Church  was  erected. "^*^ 

'0"  History  of  the  Brethren,"  p.  512. 



Education,  Redemptioners,  Servitude. 


HEN  the  German  emi- 
grants began  to  ar- 
rive in  this  country,  and  more 
particularly  in  Pennsylvania, 
in  large  numbers  and  it  be- 
came apparent  that  unless  the 
influx  was  checked  the  Ger- 
man settlers  would  soon  out- 
number the  English,  the  lat- 
ter in  no  uncertain  terms 
voiced  their  objection  to  al- 
lowing the  Germans  to  come 
in  unlimited  numbers,  and 
found  all  sorts  of  reasons  for  this  objection.  One  of  the 
chief  reasons  advanced  on  all  sides  was  the  statement  that 
the  Germans  were  a  rude,  ignorant  and  uneducated  class 
of  people.  This  objection  was  frequently  urged,  and  from 
that  day  to  this  it  has  been  the  custom  for  those  who 
should  know  better  to  speak  of  the  Pennsylvania-German 
settlers  as  illiterate  and  uneducated.  No  doubt  this  was, 
in  some  degree,  due  to  the  fact  that  the  settlers  did  not, 
as  a  rule,  learn  to  speak  the  English  language,  but  ad- 


Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.    109 

hered  to  the  use  of  their  own  language  as  well  as  to  their 
manners  and  customs.  But  in  point  of  education,  as  that 
term  is  generally  understood,  it  is  very  probable  that 
among  the  German  settlers  there  was  as  large  a  percentage 
of  educated  people  as  among  those  speaking  the  English 
language,  if,  indeed,  the  percentage  was  not  greater. 

At  the  period  when  the  colony  of  Maryland  was  founded 
it  was  not  considered  necessary  for  everyone  to  be  edu- 
cated and  a  very  large  proportion  of  the  population,  even 
among  the  well-to-do,  were  not  able  to  write.  This  is 
plainly  shown  by  the  number  of  people  who  were  com- 
pelled to  make  their  marks  in  signing  legal  papers. 
Among  the  "gentlemen  adventurers"  who  came  over  in 
Lord  Baltimore's  first  colony  were  many  who  came  within 
this  category,  and  it  was  no  unusual  thing  to  find  that 
some  of  the  servants  brought  over  had  considerably  more 
of  an  education  than  their  principals.  Indeed,  it  was  quite 
customary  to  bring  over  among  the  servants  some  who 
were  able  to  act  as  scrivener  and  letter-writer.  The  matter 
of  securing  an  education  was  considered  of  minor  impor- 
tance, and  if  it  was  thought  necessary  with  some  of  the 
younger  generation,  they  were  sent  back  to  England  for 
the  purpose  of  securing  it;  but  what  they  considered  an 
education  to  be  obtained  in  this  way,  was  not  so  much  a 
knowledge  of  the  liberal  arts  as  it  was  of  the  manners  and 
customs  of  polite  society,  to  be  gained  through  visiting  in 
the  families  of  their  English  relatives. 

This  being  the  case,  there  was  little  interest  taken  in  the 
matter  of  establishing  schools,  and  it  was  many  years 
before  there  were  any  schools.  There  were  a  number  of 
causes  which  militated  against  the  establishment  of  schools, 
but  outside  of  the  lack  of  interest  and  the  absence  of  a  feel- 
ing of  necessity  for  an  education,  the  chief  cause  was  the 

I  lo  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

scattered  condition  of  the  population.  The  raising  of 
tobacco  was  the  chief  occupation,  and  of  necessity  the 
settlers  were  scattered  over  a  wide  extent  of  territory. 
There  was,  in  the  early  history  of  the  colony,  little  to  fear 
from  the  Indians,  owing  to  the  founder's  pacific  treatment 
of  them,  so  that  there  was  no  occasion  for  the  settlers  to 
gather  together  in  groups  for  protection,  and  towns  and 
villages  were  unknown.  So  much  so  was  this  the  case  that, 
as  one  writer  has  pointed  out,'^^  if  Maryland  had  had  a 
law  similar  to  the  Massachusetts  law  of  1647,  which  pro- 
vided that  every  township  of  fifty  householders  should 
appoint  some  one  "  to  teach  all  such  children  as  shall  resort 
to  him  to  write  and  read,"  it  would  not  have  required  the 
establishment  of  a  single  school,  as  there  was  no  portion 
of  the  province  thickly  enough  settled  to  have  fifty  house- 
holders in  an  area  equal  to  a  New  England  township. 

The  earliest  effort  to  establish  an  educational  institution 
was  made  in  1671,  but  the  bill  was  amended  by  the  lower 
house  of  the  assembly,  which  had  a  Protestant  majority, 
in  such  a  manner  as  to  render  it  distasteful  to  the  Roman 
Catholic  upper  house,  and  further  consideration  of  it  was 
dropped.  At  frequent  intervals  other  attempts  were  made 
to  found  a  system  of  schools,  but  they  were  generally  un- 
successful. There  were  a  number  of  reasons  for  this  lack 
of  success.  In  the  first  place,  the  country  was  so  sparsely 
settled  that  there  was  no  locality  in  which  a  central  point 
could  be  selected  for  a  school  which  would  be  convenient 
of  access  for  the  children  of  the  settlers.  Then,  too,  as  a 
rule,  the  schools,  if  they  were  established,  would  be  chiefly 
for  the  children  of  the  poorer  class  of  settlers,  for  those  of 
means  usually  had  their  children  taught  by  private  teach- 
ers, although  it  must  be  said  that  there  was  not  much  inter- 

'1  Sellers,  "  History  of  Education  in  Maryland,"  p.  r6. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.    1 1 1 

est  taken  in  the  matter  of  education  and  very  many  of 
the  wealthier  class  of  settlers  had  very  little  education, 
even  some  of  the  judges  being  unable  to  write  their  names. 
But  the  chief  difficulty  in  the  matter  of  providing  schools 
was  the  impossibility  of  finding  suitable  teachers.  As  a 
rule  the  men  who  were  secured  as  teachers  were  dissolute 
and  intemperate  individuals  who  were  unable  or  unwilling 
to  attempt  to  make  a  living  in  any  other  occupation. 
Large  landowners  who  brought  over  servants  frequently 
secured  one  who  was  competent  to  act  as  teacher  for  the 
younger  members  of  the  family.  In  this  way  the  questions 
of  education  and  servitude  are,  in  a  measure,  related  to 
each  other.  Sometimes  a  ne'er-do-well  son  of  a  wealthy 
English  family  was  sent  to  the  colony  to  get  rid  of  him, 
rather  than  with  an  expectation  of  his  bettering  himself, 
and  such  an  one  frequently  acted  as  teacher.  There  were 
instances,  too,  where  convicts  who  had  been  transported 
to  the  colony  were  employed  as  teachers.  In  1745  the 
officers  of  the  school  in  Talbot  county  offered  a  reward  of 
£5  currency  for  the  capture  of  their  Irish  schoolmaster, 
who  had  run  away  with  two  geldings  and  a  negro  slave. 

In  1696  a  law  was  passed  providing  for  the  erection  of 
a  school  in  each  county,  but  by  17 17  but  one  had  been 
erected,  at  Annapolis.  Every  few  years  a  new  law  was 
passed  providing  for  the  erection  of  schools,  but  from  one 
cause  or  another  they  proved  abortive,  and  as  late  as 
March  21,  1754,  a  writer  in  the  Maryland  Gazette  com- 
plained of  the  amount  of  money  that  was  every  year  being 
sent  to  the  neighboring  province  of  Pennsylvania  for  edu- 
cational purposes.  "  On  inquiry,"  he  says,  "  it  has  been 
found  that  there  are  at  least  100  Marylanders  in  the 
academy  at  Philadelphia,  and  it  is  experimentally  known 
that  the  annual  charges  for  clothes,  schooling,  board,  etc., 

112  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

amount  (at  least)  to  £75  Maryland  currency,  £50  sterling, 
for  each  youth  sent  thither — that  is,  to  be  genteelly  and 
liberally  educated.  Hence  it  is  evident  that  if  this  practice 
continues  but  twenty  years  (at  the  moderate  computation 
of  £5,000  sterling  per  annum)  there  must  be  remitted 
from  Maryland  for  the  benefit  of  the  Pennsylvanians  the 
round  plumb  or  sum  of  £100,000  sterling.  Besides  this, 
'tis  well  known  that  vast  sums  are  every  year  transmitted 
to  France,  etc.,  for  the  education  of  our  young  gentlemen  of 
the  popish  persuasion,  etc.  Though  perhaps  superior  poli- 
tics, interest  and  influence  may  render  the  saving  the  money 
in  the  latter  case  (entirely  lost  to  the  province)  impracti- 
cable, yet  certainly  our  Protestant  patriots  might  contrive 
ways  and  means  for  keeping  within  Maryland  the  cash 
advanced  (as  aforesaid  for  the  use  of  Pennsylvania),  by 
establishing  a  college  on  each  shore,  or  one  at  Annapolis, 
at  which  (if  duly  endowed  and  regulated  by  proper 
statutes)  our  Protestant  youth  might  be  educated  much 
better,  cheaper,  and  more  conveniently  accommodated,  and 
at  the  same  time  the  cost  expended  would  still  circulate 
within  the  province." 

In  1763  Governor  Sharpe  wrote:  "It  is  really  to  be 
lamented  that  while  such  great  things  are  being  done  for  the 
support  of  Colleges  and  Accademies  in  the  Neighbouring 
Colonies,  there  is  not  in  this  even  one  good  Grammar 
School.  I  should  be  glad  if  either  by  Donations  or  some 
other  Method  the  Fund  or  annual  Income  of  our  School 
in  this  City  could  be  augmented  so  as  to  enable  us  to  give 
such  a  Salary  to  a  Master  &  Usher  as  would  encourage 
good  &  able  Men  to  act  in  those  Capacities. "^^ 

The  matter  of  education  was  treated  in  a  very  different 
manner  by  the  German  settlers.     It  was  the  usual  custom 

^2  Archives  of  Maryland,  Vol.  XIV.,  p.  115. 


O     < 


i  i 

DC      Q. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.    113 

for  a  party  of  German  emigrants  starting  out  to  form  a 
settlement  to  take  with  them  a  schoolmaster.  One  of  the 
first  buildings  erected  was  a  schoolhouse,  very  often  before 
a  church,  and  until  the  church  building  was  provided  the 
schoolhouse  was  used  for  religious  services.  It  was  many 
years  before  the  different  settlements  and  villages  were 
able  to  have  a  regular  minister,  and  in  the  absence  of  a 
pastor  the  religious  services  were  usually  conducted  by  the 
schoolmaster.  The  latter  was  very  often  the  most  impor- 
tant person  in  the  settlement.  He  was  usually  well  edu- 
cated and  generally  he  was  the  one  to  whom  nearly  every- 
one went  for  advice  on  almost  any  matter.  He  was  the 
scrivener  for  drawing  up  legal  papers  or  writing  letters 
for  those  who  were  unable  to  write,  and  generally  being 
an  expert  penman  he  was  frequently  called  upon  to  draw 
up  marriage  certificates  or  certificates  of  baptism,  which 
very  often  were  executed  in  a  very  artistic  manner.  This 
facility  In  using  the  pen  was  put  to  use  in  making  Rewards 
of  Merit  for  the  children  in  the  school,  usually  comprising 
pictures  of  flowers  and  birds,  an  example  of  which  is 
shown  in  one  of  the  illustrations.  These  pen  drawings 
were  colored  with  inks  made  from  various  vegetables.  In 
the  original  of  the  one  illustrated  the  roses  are  colored 
different  shades  of  pink,  the  ribbon  with  which  they  are 
tied  is  blue,  and  the  eagle  yellow.  As  a  rule,  though  not 
always,  the  schoolmaster  was  an  elderly  man  and  not  un- 
frequently,  like  Goldsmith's  schoolmaster, 

"A  man  severe  he  was,  and  stern  to  view; 
I  knew  him  well,  and  every  truant  knew: 
Well  had  the  boding  tremblers  learned  to  trace 
The  day's  disasters  in  his  morning  face." 

Sometimes  in  employing  a  schoolmaster  the  German 

114  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

settlers  were  deceived  by  an  adventurer,  for  there  was  a 
considerable  number  of  unprincipled  dissolute  individuals 
travelling  about  through  the  colonies  seeking  employment 
wherever  they  could,  sometimes  even  posing  as  ministers 
and  securing  control  of  the  churches;  and  as  these  men 
were  usually  well  educated  they  sometimes  found  employ- 
ment as  schoolmaster,  though  there  were  not  very  many 
instances  of  this  sort. 

If  the  schoolmaster  was  unmarried  and  had  no  family 
of  his  own  he  generally  lived  with  the  families  whose  chil- 
dren came  to  his  school.  "  Children  were  not  merely  sent 
to  school  and  their  entire  mental  training  left  to  the  school- 
master. Parents  assisted  their  children  in  learning  their 
lessons  at  home,  and  when  schools  and  schoolmasters  were 
wanting  parents  were  the  teachers  of  their  children.  .  .  . 
The  German  ABC  Book  and  Spelling  Book  were  fre- 
quently printed  in  this  country,  also  Arithmetics,  Readers, 
including  the  New  Testament,  Psalter  and  other  books. 
The  Catechism  and  Hymn-Book  were  also  used  In  teach- 
ing the  young  to  read.  In  many  homes  children  would 
gather  in  the  long  winter  evenings  at  the  table  at  which 
meals  were  served  during  the  day,  that  parents  might 
assist  them  in  learning  their  lessons."'''^ 

The  best  known  of  the  early  German  schoolmasters  of 
Maryland  was  Thomas  Schley,  the  progenitor  of  Admiral 
Winfield  Scott  Schley,  who.  In  1735,  settled  In  the  locality 
where  ten  years  later  the  town  of  Frederick  was  laid  out. 
Mr.  Schley  is  said  to  have  built  the  first  house  in  Fred- 
erick. From  all  accounts  of  him  he  appears  to  have  been 
a  man  of  considerable  education,  but  his  abilities  were  not 

■^3  Rev.  Dr.  F.  J.  F.  Schantz,  "  The  Domestic  Life  and  Characteristics  of 
the  Pennsylvania-German  Pioneer,"  in  Proc.  and  Add.  of  the  Pennsylvania- 
German  Society,  Vol.  X.,  p.  54. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.    115 

confined  to  the  teaching  of  the  children,  for  he  took  an 
active  part  in  all  the  affairs  of  the  settlement.  Speaking 
of  him,  Rev.  Michael  Schlatter  says:'^*  "It  is  a  great  ad- 
vantage to  this  congregation  Frederick  that  they  have  the 
best  schoolmaster  that  I  have  met  in  America.  He  spares 
neither  labor  nor  pains  in  instructing  and  edifying  the 
congregation  according  to  his  ability,  and  by  means  of 
singing,  and  reading  the  word  of  God  and  printed  sermons 
on  every  Lord's  day." 

Another  Pennsylvania-German  schoolmaster  who  settled 
in  Maryland  and  took  an  active  part  in  affairs  was  Ben- 
jamin Spyker,  Jr.,  a  son  of  Peter  Spyker,  president  judge 
of  the  courts  of  Berks  county,  Pennsylvania.  He  was 
born  in  Berks  county  in  1747  and  was  given  an  unusually 
good  education  for  those  times.  Shortly  after  reaching 
his  majority  he  went  to  Sharpsburg,  Maryland,  which  had 
been  laid  out  about  five  years  before,  to  become  the  school- 
master of  the  German  Reformed  congregation  of  that 
place.  Steps  were  immediately  taken  to  build  a  school- 
house,  and  in  1769,  by  means  of  a  lottery,  the  sum  of  six 
hundred  dollars  was  raised  for  this  purpose  and  for  com- 
pleting the  church.  The  managers  for  this  lottery  were 
George  Strecher,  Christian  Orndorff,  Joseph  Smith,  Wil- 
liam Good,  Abraham  Lingenfelder,  John  Stull,  Michael 
Fockler,  George  Dyson,  and  Benjamin  Spyker.'^^  At  the 
outbreak  of  the  Revolution  Spyker  raised  a  company  and 
served  as  captain  in  the  Flying  Camp  and  later  in  the 
Maryland  Line. 

74  Harbaugh's  "  Life  of  Michael  Schlatter,"  p.  177. 
''^Maryland  Gazette,  June  8,  1769. 

ii6  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

The  first  settlers  of  Maryland  brought  with  them  a 
large  number  of  servants,  as  according  to  the  different 
"  Conditions  of  Plantation,"  the  amount  of  land  which  a 
settler  was  entitled  to  take  up  was  determined  by  the  num- 
ber of  servants  he  brought  in.  It  has  been  estimated  that 
among  the  original  emigrants  the  ratio  of  servants  to  free- 
men was  six  to  oneJ® 

Later  there  were  large  numbers  of  Redemptioners,  as 
they  were  called,  who  came  to  the  colony.  These  were 
people  whose  services  were  sold  to  the  settlers  for  a  term 
of  years,  in  order  to  pay  for  their  passage  to  the  colony. 
Some  of  the  Redemptioners  became  so  voluntarily  in  order 
to  obtain  passage  to  the  colony,  but  many  were  forced  into 
this  involuntary  servitude  through  misfortune  or,  as  was 
often  the  case,  through  the  criminality  of  the  captains  and 
owners  of  the  ships  which  brought  them  to  this  country. 
While  the  condition  in  which  these  people  found  them- 
selves was  one  of  servitude,  they  were,  as  a  rule,  not 
treated  badly,  and  many  of  them,  when  their  term  of 
service  was  ended,  became  landowners  themselves.  For 
many  years,  however,  there  were  few  Germans  among  the 
Redemptioners  who  came  to  Maryland,  for  the  reason 
that  very  few  German  emigrants  landed  at  Maryland 
ports;  but  as  the  German  settlers  increased  in  numbers  and 
prospered  and  required  additional  help,  it  was  no  unusual 
thing  for  them  to  obtain  Redemptioners  from  Philadel- 
phia. This  was  only  natural,  for  it  was  at  that  port  that 
most  of  the  Germans  landed,  and  as  the  settlers  naturally 
desired  those  of  their  own  nationality  as  servants,  it  was 
necessary  for  them  to  go  to  that  port  to  obtain  them. 
That  there  were  a  great  many  servants  obtained  in  this 
way  is  evident  from  the  fact  that  in  a  record  of  Redemp- 

'8 Johnson,  "Foundations  of  Maryland,"  p.  173. 


A     SPINSTER    OF    THE    OLDEN    TIME. 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.    117 

doners  bound  out  on  their  arrival  at  Philadelphia,  cover- 
ing a  period  of  only  two  years/'^  twenty-two  were  sold  to 
residents  of  Maryland.  This  record  is  interesting  as 
showing  the  length  of  time  these  Redemptioners  were  to 
serve,  as  well  as  the  amount  paid  for  their  services.  Their 
names  and  the  persons  who  secured  their  services  are  as 
follows ; 

October  8,  1771,  William  Harry,  of  "  Hagars  twp., 
Conecocheig,  Md.,"  secured  the  services  of  Jacob  Kreme- 
wald  for  3  years  and  6  months  for  £22.8.7. 

October  12,  177 1,  George  Burkhart,  of  Frederick, 
Maryland,  secured  Johan  Michael  Smith  and  his  wife  for 

3  years  and  9  months  at  £39.9.1,  and  Rosina  Trubb  for 

4  years  and  6  months  at  £19.10.7. 

October  16,  177 1,  Baltzer  Gole,  of  Hagar's-Town, 
Frederick  county,  secured  the  services  of  Peter  Drislaan 
and  his  wife  Elizabeth  Barbara,  for  5  years  for  £43.4.6. 
According  to  the  terms  of  the  indenture  they  were  to  be 
found  all  necessaries,  and  at  the  expiration  were  to  have 
one  new  suit  of  apparel,  besides  their  old  clothes. 

The  same  day  Nicholas  Houer,  of  Frederick,  obtained 
the  services  of  Johannes  Kast  and  his  wife,  Rachel  Bar- 
bara, for  5  years,  as  servants,  for  £42.0.6. 

October  29,  177 1,  Michael  Fockler,  of  Frederick, 
secured  Felix  Meyer  for  3  years  for  £16.11.6. 

November  11,  177 1,  Joseph  Neide,  of  Bohemia  Manor, 
Cecil  county,  secured  Christiana  and  Johannes  Sappor,  the 
former  for  5  years  at  £22,  and  the  latter  for  14  years,  i 

'''' "  Record  of  Indentures  of  Individuals  bound  out  as  Apprentices, 
Servants,  etc.,  and  of  German  and  other  Redemptioners,  in  the  office  of  the 
Mayor  of  the  City  of  Philadelphia,  October  3,  1771,  to  October  5,  1773,"  in 
Proc.  and  Add.  of  the  Pennsylvania-German  Society,  Vol.  XV.,  p.  9  et  seq. 

ii8  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

month  and  21  days  at  £23.10.10.  It  was  also  agreed  that 
Johannes  should  be  taught  to  read  in  the  Bible  and  write 
a  legible  hand. 

December  4,  1771,  Michael  Waggoner,  of  Pipe  Creek 
Hundred,  Frederick  county,  obtained  the  services  of 
Michael  Piltz  and  Barbara,  his  wife,  for  3  years  for  £25 ; 
Casper  Piltz  for  13  years  for  £10,  and  Rosina  Barbara 
Piltz  for  7  years  for  £18. 

December  11,  1771,  Martin  Rohrer,  of  Conecocheague, 
Frederick  county,  obtained  Peter  Schleitz  for  3  years  and 
6  months  for  £16.13,  and  Daniel  Volks  for  6  years  for 
£17.5.3.  ^t  the  expiration  of  their  terms  of  services  each 
was  to  receive,  besides  the  usual  two  suits  of  wearing 
apparel,  an  ax,  a  grubbing  hoe,  and  a  maul  and  wedges, 
or  40  shillings  in  money. 

December  17,  1771,  John  Innis,  "near  Conecocheig, 
Frederick  Town,  Frederick  co.,  Md.,"  obtained  Johannes 
Koch  and  Maria  Eliza,  his  wife,  for  4  years  each,  for 

July  22,  1772,  Jacob  Kimberlin,  Jr.,  of  Elizabeth  town- 
ship, Frederick  county,  obtained  Mary  Matthews  for  2 
years  at  £10.0.0. 

October  24,  1772,  Jacob  Bear,  of  Conecocheague, 
Frederick  county,  obtained  George  Frederick  Pindle  for 
II  years  for  £14.0.0. 

May  31,  1773,  Benjamin  Esteurn,  of  Kitochin  Hun- 
dred, Frederick  county,  obtained  Catherine  Manipenny  as 
a  servant,  for  5  shillings.  No  term  was  specified  in  this 

Negro  slaves  were  owned  in  Maryland  from  a  very 
early  period.  The  culture  of  tobacco  required  the  services 
of  a  large  number  of  servants  and  this  need  was  most 
readily  supplied  through  this   source.     As  the  German 

Pennsylvania-German  in  Settlement  of  Maryland.    119 

settlers  became  more  numerous  and  required  more  assist- 
ance they  naturally  adopted  the  customs  of  their  neighbors 
and  acquired  negro  slaves.  Some  of  them  had  religious 
scruples  against  slavery,  but,  as  a  rule,  they  followed  the 
custom  of  the  country  and  continued  owning  slaves  until, 
at  least,  the  early  years  of  the  nineteenth  century,  as 
shown  by  the  following  advertisement  in  the  Hagerstown 
Herald  of  Friday,  February  28,  1806,  by  the  son  of  a 
Pennsylvania-German  who  settled  in  Maryland  at  a  very 
early  date : 


Ran  away  from  the  subscriber,  living  near  the  Big 
Spring,  about  12  miles  from  Hagerstown,  in  Wash- 
ington county,  Maryland,  on  Sunday,  the  i6th 
inst.  a  Negro  Woman  named  Dinah,  about  5  feet 
3  or  4  inches  high,  23  or  24  years  of  age,  squints 
with  the  left  eye;  had  on  and  took  with  her  one 
light  calico  gown,  one  blue  and  one  dark;  two 
jackets,  one  blue  and  one  light;  a  white  petticoat, 
two  linsey  jackets  &  two  petticoats;  two  home  made 
shifts,  one  bonnet  of  lead  colour  trimmed  with  black, 
and  a  new  pair  of  shoes.  Whoever  takes  up  and 
secures  said  runaway  in  any  jail,  shall  have,  if  taken 
up  within  15  miles  of  home  Five  Dollars,  and  if  a 
greater  distance  the  above  reward,  to  which  will  be 
added  all  reasonable  charges  if  brought  back. 

Daniel   Nead. 

February  21,  1806. 

It  was  not  at  all  unusual  for  the  Germans  to  free  a 
slave  by  giving  him  manumission  papers,  and  much  more 
frequently  they  were  freed  by  will,  as  was  the  case  with 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Peter  Hoeflich,  one  of  the  first  settlers  In  Hagerstown, 
whose  will  directed  that  "  In  relation  to  my  negro  man 
Arnold,  it  is  my  will  that  he  be  emancipated  in  three  years 
from  the  ist  day  of  May,  A.  D.  eighteen  hundred  and 
twenty-five,  but  he  must  make  up  all  lost  time  during  the 
three  years  that  is  lost  from  my  death  until  he  becomes 


The  Border  Troubles. 

"J^HE  unfortunate  contro- 
^  versy  between  William 
Penn  and  his  heirs  and  the 
Lords  Baltimore  over  the 
boundary  between  the  colonies 
of  Maryland  and  Pennsylvania 
had  its  foundation  in  the  fact 
that  at  the  time  the  respective 
charters  were  granted  there 
was  no  accurate  map  of  the 
country  in  existence.  At  the  time  the  charter  was  Issued 
to  Lord  Baltimore  the  territory  It  embraced  was  an  un- 
known and  unexplored  wilderness.  At  that  time  It  was 
not,  relatively,  of  much  importance  to  have  the  northern 
boundary  of  the  colony  strictly  defined,  the  question  be- 
coming a  serious  one  only  after  William  Penn  had  received 
his  charter,  half  a  century  later. 

The  map  used  in  defining  the  boundary  between  the  two 
colonies  was  the  one  made  by  Captain  John  Smith,  in 
1606,  and  while  this  map  was  remarkably  accurate,  con- 
sidering the  difficulties  under  which  It  was  made,  yet  it 
was  not  absolutely  so,  particularly  in  the  marking  of  the 


122  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

various  parallels  of  latitude;  and  It  was  this  variation 
which  was  the  chief  cause  of  trouble  later  on.  The 
charter  granted  to  Lord  Baltimore  fixed  the  northern 
boundary  of  his  colony  at  the  fortieth  parallel  of  north 
latitude,  and  the  charter  granted  to  Penn,  fifty  years  later, 
defined  the  same  point  as  the  southern  boundary  of  his 
demesne.  Had  this  fortieth  parallel  been  where  It  was 
supposed  to  be,  and  where  the  maps  of  the  period  showed 
It  to  be,  there  probably  would  have  been  no  trouble.  At 
the  same  time,  the  wording  of  the  Maryland  charter  Is 
very  far  from  being  clear.  According  to  It  Maryland  was 
to  extend  "unto  that  part  of  the  bay  of  Delaware  on  the 
north,  which  lleth  under  the  fortieth  degree  of  north  lati- 
tude from  the  equinoctial."  It  will  be  noted  that  the 
charter  does  not  say  that  the  province  was  to  extend  to 
the  fortieth  parallel  of  north  latitude,  which  was  Lord 
Baltimore's  contention,  but  to  the  territory  on  Delaware 
Bay  "which  lieth  under  the  40th  degree."  Now  the 
fortieth  degree  begins  where  the  thirty-ninth  ends:  at  the 
thirty-ninth  parallel  of  north  latitude,  so  that  a  strict  con- 
struction of  the  letter  of  the  charter  would  fix  the  northern 
boundary  of  Maryland  at  the  thirty-ninth  parallel  of  north 

A  great  deal  has  been  written  on  this  controversy,  most 
of  which  Is  so  strongly  tinctured  with  the  partisan  bias  of 
the  writer,  that  it  is  difiicult  to  arrive  at  a  correct  under- 
standing of  the  subject.  It  Is  no  doubt  a  fact  that  both 
Penn  and  Baltimore  honestly  believed  in  the  correctness 
and  justice  of  their  respective  claims;  at  the  same  time, 
neither  one  can  be  absolved  from  the  charge  of  Indulging 
In  sharp  practices  in  their  efforts  to  fortify  those  claims. 

From  the  first  settlement  of  the  colony  of  Maryland 
Lord  Baltimore  was  more  or  less  active  in  looking  after 

The  Border  Troubles.  123 

his  rights  on  the  northern  boundary  of  his  colony,  but  the 
question  did  not  become  acute  until  about  the  close  of  the 
first  quarter  of  the  eighteenth  century.  Shortly  after  the 
Dutch  had  captured  the  Swedish  colony  on  the  Delaware, 
in  1659,  the  Maryland  authorities  sent  Col.  Nathaniel 
Utie  to  notify  Governor  Alrichs,  at  New  Amstel,  that  the 
settlers  on  the  Delaware  must  either  acknowledge  the 
jurisdiction  of  Maryland  over  that  colony  or  abandon  the 
settlement,  threatening  dire  consequences  in  the  event  of 
failure  to  comply  with  the  notice.  Col.  Utie  is  said  even 
to  have  taken  the  trouble  to  serve  similar  notices  on  the 
Individual  settlers.  However,  the  Dutch  authorities,  after 
threatening  to  arrest  Utie,  paid  little  attention  to  the 
notice  and  nothing  came  of  it. 

William  Penn  was  hardly  settled  in  the  possession  of 
his  colony  when  the  same  question  came  up.  At  a  meeting 
of  the  Provincial  Council,  on  April  3,  1684,  a  letter  was 
received  from  Samuel  Landis,  High  Sheriff  of  the  County 
of  Newcastle.  As  the  old  record  has  it,  "  Samuel  Lands' 
Letter  was  read.  Concerning  Coll.  Geo:  Talbot's  goeing 
with  three  Musqueters  to  y®  houses  of  Widdow  Ogle, 
Jonas  Erskin  &  Andreis  Tille,  and  tould  them  that  if  they 
would  not  forthwith  yield  Obedience  to  y®  Lord  Balte- 
more,  &  Own  him  to  be  their  Propor,  and  pay  rent  to  him, 
he  would  Tourne  them  out  of  their  houses  and  take  their 
Land  from  them."^^  This  information  caused  consider- 
able excitement,  particularly  as  Sheriff  Landis  reported 
that  Jonas  Askins  had  heard  Col.  Talbot  say  that  if 
William  Penn  himself  should  come  into  Maryland  on  his 
way  to  Susquehanna  Fort,  he  would  seize  him  and  retain 
him,  and  Penn  himself  wrote  out  a  com.mission  to  William 

'8  Colonial  Records  of  Pennsylvania,  Vol.  I.,  p.  113. 

124  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Welch,  John  Simcock  and  James  Harrison  to  investigate 
the  matter  and  reportJ^  But  outside  of  writing  some 
letters  back  and  forth  between  the  Pennsylvania  and 
Maryland  authorities  nothing  was  done. 

Two  years  later,  at  a  meeting  of  the  Provincial  Council, 
on  June  5,  1686,  the  record  states  that 

"  John  White  Informes  this  board  that  y®  Marylanders  have 
Lately  Reinforced  their  fort  at  Christina  and  y*  they  would  not 
suffer  him  to  Cutt  hay,  but  thrittend  those  he  Imployed  to  do  it 
w**^  their  gunns  presented  against  them,  and  y*^  what  hay  they  had 
Cutt  y®  Mary  Landers  would  not  suffer  them  to  Carry  it  away, 
and  if  they  did  Cutt  any  more  y®  Marylanders  sayd  they  would 
throw  it  in  to  y®  River.  And  further  Informs  that  Majr  English 
a  few  Days  past  came  in  to  y®  County  of  New  Castle  with  about 
fourty  armed  horse  men ;  Left  them  at  John  Darby's  whilst  Majr 
Inglish  and  a  Mary  Land  Capt  Came  to  New  Castle,  where  John 
White  meeting  him  made  Complaint  to  him  of  the  abuses  don 
him  by  y^  Mary  Landers  at  y®  fort.  Majr  English  tould  him  that 
if  Thou  wilt  say  you  Drunken  Dogg,  ned  Inglish  lett  me  Cutt 
hay,  I  will  give  you  Leave:  Whereupon  y®  sd  John  White  Re- 
quested y®  Councill's  advice  how  he  should  behave  himselfe  in  this 
affaire.  The  Councill  advised  him  to  use  no  Violence,  but  bear 
with  patience,  not  Doubting  but  y®  King  will  soon  put  an  End 
to  all  their  hostile  actions  against  his  Collony."^" 

The  boundary  between  Maryland  and  Pennsylvania  not 
being  clearly  defined,  and  the  authorities  of  both  colonies 
claiming  jurisdiction  over  certain  sections,  It  was  but 
natural  that  there  should  be  frequent  clashes  and  a  gen- 
erally unsettled  condition  of  affairs.  As  both  colonies  de- 
manded taxes  from  the  settlers  in  the  disputed  territory  the 
latter  scarcely  knew  what  to  do,  although  some  of  them 

^*  Pennsylvania  Archives,  First  Series,  Vol.  I.,  p.  85. 
80  Colonial  Records,  Vol.  I.,  p.  \%%\ 

The  Border  Troubles.  125 

acknowledged  allegiance  to  that  province  which  seemed 
most  likely  to  further  their  own  plans. 

The  lands  lying  to  the  west  of  the  Susquehanna  river 
were  among  the  most  fertile  to  be  found  in  either  of  the 
two  provinces  and  being,  therefore,  very  desirable,  every 
opportunity  was  sought  to  gain  access  to  and  settle  upon 
them.  When  William  Penn  made  his  early  treaties  with 
the  Indians  it  was  agreed  that  he  should  have  the  right 
to  take  up  lands  in  that  section  on  either  side  of  the 
Susquehanna,  but  it  was  mutually  understood  that  the  lands 
lying  to  the  west  of  the  Susquehanna  should  not  be  settled 
until  they  had  been  formally  purchased  from  the  Indians. 
There  was  no  written  agreement  to  this  effect,  at  least  none 
has  ever  been  found,  but  frequent  references  to  it  indicate 
that  it  was  in  existence,  at  least  verbally.  The  desirable 
lands  along  the  west  bank  of  the  Susquehanna  within  the 
territory  in  dispute  were  eagerly  desired,  and  It  was  in 
connection  with  them  that  the  chief  trouble  arose. 

The  controversy  over  the  disputed  territory  became 
prominent  at  an  early  date.  At  a  meeting  of  the  Provin- 
cial Council  of  Pennsylvania,  on  February  15,  17 17, 

"  the  Governr  acquainted  the  Board  that  the  Proprietors  Com- 
missioners of  Property  had  lately  Represented  to  him  in  Writing, 
that  certain  persons  from  Maryland  had,  Under  Colour  of  Rights 
from  that  province,  lately  Survey'd  out  Lands  not  far  from  Con- 
estogo,  &  near  the  thickest  of  our  settlements  to  the  Great  Dis- 
turbance of  the  Inhabitants  there,  and  that  for  preventing  the 
Disorders  which  might  arise  from  such  Incroachments,  they  De- 
sir'd  that  magistrates  &  proper  officers  should  be  appointed  in  those 
parts  in  order  to  Prevent  the  like  for  the  ffuture.  The  Governour 
also  imparted  to  the  Board  the  Copy  of  a  Letter  which  he  had 
wrote  on  this  Occasion  to  Collo.  Hart,  Governour  of  Maryland, 
and  further  added,  that  this  Day  the  Secretary  had  shewn  him  a 

126  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Letter  from  Collo.  ffrench,  Informing  of  ffurther  Designs  of  the 
same  kind,  that  the  same  persons  from  Maryland  was  Immediately 
upon  putting  in  Execucon;  That  hereupon  he  thought  it  neces- 
sary fforthwith  to  Call  the  Council,  as  he  now  did,  and  Desired 
their  Advice  what  methods  might  be  most  proper  to  be  taken  in 
the  premises."*^ 

The  members  of  the  Council  recognized  the  importance 
of  the  matter  and  ordered  that  a  commission  be  prepared 
appointing  Col.  French  ranger  and  keeper,  with  instruc- 
tions to  take  such  steps  as  might  be  agreed  upon.  It  was 
also  decided  to  appoint  magistrates  for  that  section.  But 
the  trouble  was  not  to  be  so  easily  allayed.  The  settlers 
from  the  south  wanted  those  fertile  lands  and  were  de- 
termined to  have  them,  if  it  were  possible. 

It  was  not  very  difficult  to  prevent  the  Pennsylvania 
settlers  from  crossing  the  Susquehanna  and  occupying 
lands  to  the  west  of  that  river,  but  it  was  altogether  dif- 
ferent with  those  who  came  up  from  Maryland.  The 
authorities  of  the  latter  colony  claimed  jurisdiction  over 
the  territory  In  dispute,  and  If  they  did  not  actually  Issue 
warrants  for  land  in  that  section  they  at  least  made  no 
efforts  to  prevent  the  Maryland  settlers  from  taking  up 
land  in  the  territory  which  the  Pennsylvania  authorities 
claimed  to  belong  to  that  province.  Although  It  had  been 
agreed  between  Penn  and  the  Indians  that  no  settlements 
should  be  made  to  the  west  of  the  Susquehanna  until  the 
land  was  actually  purchased,  the  aggressive  actions  of  the 
Marylanders  in  taking  up  lands  alarmed  the  Indians,  who 
complained  to  Governor  Keith,  of  Pennsylvania,  and  the 
latter,  in  the  hope  that  further  trouble  might  be  avoided 
by  taking  up  the  land,  persuaded  the  Indians  to  allow  a 

81  Colonial  Records  of  Pennsylvania,  Vol.  III.,  p.  37. 

The  Border  Troubles.  127 

large  tract  of  land  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Susquehanna  to 
be  surveyed  into  a  manor  for  the  use  of  Sprlngett  Penn, 
and  to  be  known  at  Springettsbury  Manor.  Writing  to 
the  Pennsylvania  Council  from  Conestoga  on  June  18, 
1722,  Governor  Keith  says: 

"Finding  the  Indians,  since  I  came  last  here,  to  be  very  much 
alarmed  with  the  noise  of  an  intended  survey  from  Mary  Land, 
upon  the  Banks  of  Sasquehannah,  I  held  a  Council  with  them  at 
Conestogoe,  upon  Tuesday  &  Saturday  last,  wherein  I  proposed 
to  them  to  Cause  a  large  Tract  of  Land  to  be  surveyed  on  the 
Side  of  that  River  for  the  Proprietor,  to  begin  from  the  Upper 
Line  of  my  new  settlement  six  miles  back,  &  extending  downwards 
upon  the  River  as  far  as  over  against  the  mouth  of  Conestogoe 

He  went  on  to  say  that  the  Indians  were  pleased  with 
the  proposition,  and  that  having  heard  that  the  Mary- 
landers  proposed  setting  out  for  Pennsylvania  on  that  day 
he  intended  having  the  survey  made  at  once.  The  land 
was  surveyed  on  June  19  and  20,  1722,  but  this  action  did 
not  have  the  efFect  Intended,  In  keeping  the  colonists  from 
Maryland  from  settling  on  the  land.  In  the  following 
year  a  number  of  people  from  Maryland  took  up  land  In 
that  locality,  among  them  being  Edward  Parnell,  Jeffrey 
Summerfield,  Michael  Tanner  and  Paul  Williams,  who 
settled  near  the  Indian  town  of  Conejohela.  In  1728 
these  settlers  were  driven  off  by  the  Pennsylvania  authori- 
ties, and  as  no  warrants  for  the  land  could  be  Issued,  the 
Proprietary  land  office  having  been  closed  from  17 18  to 
1732,  during  the  minorities  of  Thomas  and  Richard  Penn, 
and  the  land  not  having  been  purchased  from  the  Indians, 
Samuel  Blunston,  of  Wright's  Ferry,  v/as  authorized  to 

82  Ibid.,  p.  178. 

128  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

issue  licenses  to  settlers  to  take  up  land  on  the  west  of  the 
Susquehanna  river.  These  licenses  were  promises  to  grant 
the  holders  patents  for  the  land  they  settled,  and  about 
twelve  thousand  acres  were  taken  up  under  these  licenses, 
and  after  the  territory  was  purchased  from  the  Indians,  in 
1736,  the  patents  were  signed  by  the  Proprietary,  Thomas 
Penn,  at  Lancaster.^^ 

But  even  these  proceedings  could  not  keep  back  the 
settlers  from  Maryland.  In  March,  1730,  Thomas 
Cresap  received  a  grant  from  Maryland  for  the  land  from 
which  the  Pennsylvanians  had  driven  Parnell  and  others  a 
couple  of  years  before,  and  settled  upon  it.  With  the 
coming  of  Cresap  the  trouble  among  the  settlers  in  the 
disputed  territory  became  more  acute,  and  it  was  not  very 
long  before  it  culminated  in  a  condition  of  actual  warfare 
along  the  border.  It  is  difficult  at  this  day  to  form  an 
accurate  opinion  of  the  character  of  Cresap.  According 
to  the  Pennsylvanians  he  was  a  quarrelsome,  lawless  in- 
dividual whose  home  was  a  rendezvous  for  criminals  and 
fugitives  from  justice  and  other  disreputable  characters, 
who  were  banded  together  under  the  leadership  of  Cresap ; 
while  from  the  viewpoint  of  the  Marylanders  he  was  a 
law-abiding  citizen  of  that  province  who  was  continually 
being  interfered  with  in  his  efforts  to  develop  the  land 
which  had  been  granted  to  him.  It  is  a  pretty  well  estab- 
lished fact,  however,  that  either  under  an  agreement  with 
Governor  Ogle,  of  Maryland,  or,  at  least,  with  the  con- 
nivance of  the  latter,  Cresap  made  his  advent  and  organ- 
ized a  body  of  followers  numbering  about  fifty  for  the 
express  purpose  of  driving  the  settlers  from  the  territory 
along  the  west  bank  of  the  Susquehanna ;  those  settlers,  at 
least,  who  acknowledged  the  jurisdiction  of  Pennsylvania, 

88  "History  of  Waynesboro,"  by  Benjamin  M.  Nead,  p.  25. 

The  Border  Troubles.  129 

and  it  is  evident  that  whatever  the  character  of  Cresap  may 
have  been  he  proposed  to  accomplish  that  end,  no  matter 
what  means  might  have  to  be  employed.  A  campaign  of 
bluster  was  started  and  many  of  the  settlers  were  ordered 
to  leave  under  threats  of  dire  punishment  in  case  they  did 
not  heed  the  notice  to  leave. 

A  good  idea  of  the  state  of  affairs  may  be  gathered 
from  a  letter  written  to  the  Governor  of  Pennsylvania  by 
John  Wright  and  Samuel  Blunston,  under  date  of  October 
30,   1732,  in  which  they  say: 

"  About  two  years  Since,  Thomas  Cressop,  and  some  other  people 
of  Loose  Morals  and  Turbulent  Spirits,  Came  and  disturbed  the 
Indians,  our  friends  and  Allies,  who  were  peaceably  Settled  on 
those  Lands  from  whence  the  said  Parnel  and  others  had  been 
removed.  Burnt  their  Cabbins,  and  destroyed  their  Goods,  And 
with  much  threatening  and  Ill-usage,  drove  them  away;  and  by 
pretending  to  be  under  the  Maryland  government  (as  they  were 
got  far  from  their  Laws,  Sought  to  Evade  ours).  Thus  they 
proceeded  to  play  booty.  Disturbing  the  Peace  of  the  Government, 
Carrying  people  out  of  the  Province  by  Violence,  Taking  away 
the  Guns  from  our  friends,  the  Indians,  Tying  and  making  them 
Prisoners,  without  any  offence  given;  And  threatening  all  who 
should  oppose  them;  And  by  Underhand  and  Unfair  practices, 
Endeavoring  to  Alienate  the  minds  of  the  Inhabitants  of  this 
Province,  and  Draw  them  (from  Obedience)  to  their  party. 
Their  Insolence  Increasing,  they  Killed  the  horses  of  Such  of  our 
people  whose  trade  with  the  Indians  made  it  Necessary  to  Keep 
them  on  that  Side  of  the  river,  for  Carrying  their  Goods  &  Skins; 
Assaulted  those  who  were  sent  to  look  after  them,  and  threatened 
them  Highly  if  they  should  Come  there  again. "^* 

Among  those  who  sought  a  refuge  in  Cresap's  house 
was  Samuel  Chance,  a  debtor  of  Edward  Carthdge,  an 

8*  Pennsylvania  Archives,  First  Ser.,  Vol.  I.,  p.  364. 

130  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Indian  trader.  Cartlidge's  son  arranged  to  capture 
Chance  and  bring  him  back.  Cresap  was  operating  a 
ferry  across  the  Susquehanna  river  and  Chance  was  help- 
ing him  in  running  his  boats.  On  one  occasion,  on  the 
last  day  of  October,  1730,  when  Cresap  and  Chance  were 
called  to  the  east  side  of  the  river,  they  found  there  a 
party  consisting  of  Edward  Beddock,  Rice  Morgan,  and  a 
negro  belonging  to  Cartlidge.  The  party  embarked  in 
the  boat  and  when  in  mid-stream  they  attacked  Cresap, 
threw  him  overboard  and  rowed  back  to  land  with  Chance. 
Cresap  succeeded  in  landing  on  an  island  in  the  river, 
from  which  he  was  later  taken  by  an  Indian.  He  made 
a  report  of  this  proceeding  to  the  Governor  of  Maryland, 
embodied  in  a  deposition  made  before  Benjamin  Tasker,^^ 
in  which  he  claimed  that  Chance  was  a  debtor  of  hi«  and 
was  working  for  him  to  discharge  part  of  his  indebtedness. 
In  sending  this  deposition  to  Governor  Gordon,  of  Penn- 
sylvania, the  Governor  of  Maryland  wrote  that  he  had 
been  told  by  some  Indians  "  that  they  were  offered  a  good 
reward  by  one  Cartlidge,  of  Conestogoe,  to  drive  Said 
Cresap  and  his  family  off  his  land  and  bum  his  home." 

Disturbances  were  continually  breaking  out,  armed 
parties  coming  up  from  Maryland  and  threatening  the 
settlers,  and  being  met  by  armed  posses  of  Pennsylvanians. 
As  a  rule,  these  encounters  were  bloodless  battles,  although 
not  always  was  this  the  case.  In  the  early  part  of  1734 
John  Emerson,  a  Lancaster  lawyer  who  had  been  ap- 
pointed ranger  and  keeper  of  Conestoga  manor,  went  to 
Cresap's  house  to  arrest  him.  He  took  with  him  his 
servant,  Knowles  Daunt,  and  five  others.  Cresap  fired  on 
the  party  and  Daunt  received  a  wound  from  the  effects 
of  which  he  died. 

88  Ibid.,  p.  311. 

The  Border  Troubles.  13 1 

In  July,  1735,  Cresap  came  to  the  plantation  of  John 
Wright  with  an  armed  party  and  announced  that  they  had 
come  to  fight,  but  his  blustering  attitude  had  little  effect 
upon  Wright  and  the  party  retired  without  opening  hostili- 
ties. Shortly  after  this  Governor  Ogle,  of  Maryland, 
ordered  the  militia  of  Baltimore  and  Harford  counties, 
under  Colonels  Rigsbe  and  Hall,  to  muster  for  the  purpose 
of  going  up  into  the  disputed  territory  to  distrain  for  the 
Maryland  levies  which  had  been  made  among  the  inhabi- 
tants of  that  region.  Information  to  this  effect  having 
reached  the  Lancaster  county  magistrates,  they  induced 
Benjamin  Chambers,  of  the  Conococheague  settlement 
(now  Chambersburg) ,  to  go  to  the  muster  and  learn  all 
he  could  concerning  it.  Colonel  Chambers  made  the  trip 
and  although  he  was  at  first  regarded  as  a  spy  he  was 
finally  allowed  to  depart,  and  hurrying  to  Donegal  where 
many  of  the  settlers  had  gathered  for  a  house-raising,  he 
reported  the  results  of  his  investigations,  and  a  large  party 
of  armed  men  immediately  left  for  Wright's  ferry,  where 
they  met  the  Marylanders,  and  the  latter,  considering 
themselves  overmatched,  returned  to  Maryland.^^ 

In  1736,  in  a  letter  to  the  President  and  Council  of 
Pennsylvania,  John  Wright  describes  another  invasion. 
Under  date  of  Tuesday,  September  7th,  he  writes: 

"After  our  Sheriff  and  People  had  waited  some  time  in  ex- 
pectation of  the  Marylanders  arrival,  &  were  mostly  Dispersed,  on 
Saturday  night  last,  the  Sheriff  of  Baltimore  and  the  greater  part 
of  their  Military  officers,  with  upwards  of  two  Hundred  Men, 
arrived  at  Cressap's,  and  about  noon  on  Saturdays  came  in  Arms, 
on  horseback,  with  Beat  of  Drum  and  sound  of  Trumpet,  to  Hen- 
dricks, their  Sheriff,  and  several  other  Gentlemen,  that  afternoon, 
at  different  times,  came  to  John  Wright,  Jun.,  where  about  thirty 

88  Pennsylvania  Archives,  First  Ser.,  Vol.  IV.,  p.  535. 

132  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

of  our  People  were  Lodged,  to  Demand  the  Dutch  who  were  some 
of  them  in  his  house.  Our  sheriff  sent  them  a  written  message, 
desireing  to  know  the  Reason  of  their  coming  in  that  Hostile 
manner,  to  threaten  the  peace  of  our  Province,  They  Dated  their 
answer  from  John  Hendricks,  in  Baltimore  County.  However, 
Justice  Guest,  one  of  their  Company,  appointed  ten  o'clock  the 
next  day  to  speak  with  some  of  our  People;  but  about  five  that 
evening,  they  left  Hendricks  with  great  Precipitation,  and  went 
to  Cressap's.  Yesterday  our  Sheriff  sent  a  written  message  that 
he  had  orders  to  Command  them  peacably  to  Depart;  But  if 
any  of  their  Company  would  meet  the  Magistrates,  and  some  other 
Persons  of  our  County,  who  were  with  him,  and  endeavour  ami- 
cably to  settle  those  unhappy  Differences  at  present  subsisting  in 
these  parts,  they  sho^  receive  no  Insults  or  111  usage.  To  which 
their  sheriff  return'd  a  Insolent  and  threatening  answer  in  writing, 
&  much  more  by  word  of  mouth.  Soon  after  John  Wilkins,  one 
of  our  Company,  unknown  to  the  rest,  went  down  to  Cressap's, 
whom  they  took  prisoner,  upon  pretence  of  his  having  been  in  a 
former  Riot,  &  sent  under  a  Guard  towards  Maryland.  Our 
Magistrates  sent  them  a  Letter,  to  desire  Wilkins  might  be  suf- 
fered to  return  home,  which  they  refused  to  receive.  'Tis  said 
a  messenger  is  sent  down  to  their  Governor,  who  is  still  waiting 
in  Baltimore  County,  and  is  expected  up  this  day  w*'*  considerable 
more  force. 

"  Our  Sheriff  with  about  a  hundred  and  fifty  people,  have  been, 
since  Sunday  evening,  at  John  Wright's,  Jun.  No  hostilitys  have 
as  yet  been  Committed,  except  the  taking  of  Wilkins;  But  they 
have  sent  our  People  word  this  day  to  take  care  of  their  Buffs. 
Had  we  arms  &  ammunition,  of  which  we  are  almost  Destitute, 
we  Judge,  from  the  Disposition  of  our  People,  that  we  might  come 
of  with  Honour;  But  for  want  of  them,  they  think  it  not  safe 
to  wait  upon  such  a  number  of  armed  men  to  the  limits  of  our 
promise;  But  to  endeavor  to  Defend  such  of  his  Majesties  peace- 
able subjects,  as  are  fled  from  their  own  Houses,  and  come  to 
them  for  Refuge.     Sam^  Blunston  came  home  from  the  other  side 

The  Border  Troubles.  133 

the  River  in  the  night,  last  night,  and  Immediately  return'd.  He 
desired  this  account  might  be  sent  to  you;  which  for  the  want  of 
a  better  Hand  to  do  it,  I  have  very  faithfully  performed."^^ 

The  Pennsylvania  authorities  finally  came  to  the  con- 
clusion that  matters  had  been  allowed  to  drift  long  enough, 
and  decided  to  have  Cresap  arrested  for  the  murder  of 
Knowles  Daunt.  A  warrant,  dated  September  5,  1736, 
was,  therefore,  issued  by  Jeremiah  Langhorne  and 
Thomas  Greeme,  magistrates  of  Philadelphia.^^  This 
was  placed  in  the  hands  of  Samuel  Smith,  sheriff  of  Lan- 
caster county,  and  on  the  night  of  November  24,  1736, 
with  a  posse  of  about  thirty  men,  he  surrounded  Cresap's 
house.  Cresap's  party  at  once  opened  fire  on  the  posse 
and  In  the  fight  one  of  the  sheriff's  party  was  wounded. 
Finding  that  nothing  could  be  accomplished  In  this  way, 
the  sheriff  ordered  Cresap's  house  to  be  set  on  fire.  This 
was  done,  and  when  the  fire  had  gained  considerable  head- 
way the  entire  party  rushed  out,  firing  as  they  came.  In 
the  confusion  of  their  escape  from  the  burning  building, 
Michael  Relsner,  one  of  Cresap's  party,  accidentally  shot 
and  killed  Lauchlan  Malone,  another  of  the  party.  As  he 
came  from  the  house  Cresap  was  overpowered,  and  with 
several  of  his  party  was  sent  to  Philadelphia,  where  he  was 
confined  In  jail.  It  Is  said  that  when  he  was  being  taken 
through  the  streets  of  Philadelphia  he  looked  around  and 
said:  "Why,  this  Is  the  finest  city  In  the  province  of  Mary- 
land !"^^  He  was  confined  In  jail  for  over  a  year  and 
when  finally  released  returned  to  Maryland  and  settled 
at  Antletam. 

87  Pennsylvania  Archives,  Second  Ser.,  Vol,  VII.,  p.  213. 

88  Pennsylvania  Archives,  First  Ser.,  Vol.  I.,  p.  489. 
s'Scharf's  "History  of  Western  Maryland,"  Vol.  I.,  p.  114. 

134  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

About  the  same  time  the  following  communication  was 
sent  to  the  Governor  of  Maryland  :^*^ 

_,  Lancaster  County  in  Pensilvania 


The  Oppression  and  ill  Usage  We  have  met  with  from  the 
Government  of  Maryland,  or  at  least  from  such  Persons  who  have 
been  empovuered  thereby  and  their  Proceedings  connived  at,  has 
been  a  Treatment  (as  We  are  well  informed)  very  different  from 
that  which  the  Tenants  of  your  Government  have  generally  met 
with,  which  with  many  other  cogent  Reasons,  give  Us  good  Cause 
to  conclude  the  Governor  and  Magistrates  of  that  Province  do 
not  themselves  believe  Us  to  be  settled  within  the  real  Bounds  of 
his  Lordships  Dominions,  but  we  have  been  seduced  &  made  Use 
of,  first  by  fair  Promises,  and  afterwards  by  Threats  and  Punish- 
ments to  answer  Purposes  which  are  at  present  unjustifiable,  and 
will  if  pursued  tend  to  Utter  Ruin. 

We  therefore  the  Subscribers  with  many  Others  Our  Neigh- 
bours being  become  at  last  truly  sensible  of  the  Wrong  we  have 
done  the  Proprietors  of  Pensilvania  in  settling  on  their  Lands 
without  paying  Obedience  to  their  Government  do  resolve  to  re- 
turn to  our  Duty  and  live  under  the  Laws  and  Government  of 
Pensilvania,  in  which  Province  We  believe  Our  selves  seated. 

To  this  We  unanimously  resolve  to  adhere  'till  the  Contrary 
shall  be  determined  by  a  legal  Decision  of  the  Disputed  Bounds, 
and  Our  honest  and  just  Intention  we  desire  may  be  communicated 
to  the  Governor  of  Maryland  or  whom  else  it  may  concern. 

Signed  with  Our  Own  hands  this  Eleventh  day  of  August 
Anno  Dom.  1736. 

Michael  Tanner  Jacob  Welshoffer  Charles  Jones  Nicholas  Baun 
Henry  Lib  Hart       Henry  Hendrix       Jacob  Lawnius 

Martin   Schultz    Christian  Crowler    Francis  Worley  jun"" 
Tobias   Fray    Balthar   Shambargier    Jacob   Seglaer  his   X   mark 

Martin  Fray    George  Scobell    Nicholas  Birij    Jacob  Grable 

Jacob  Seglaer    Philip  Sanglaer    Henry  Stantz 

Caspar  Sanglaer  Tobias  Bright  &  al 

»o  Archives  of  Maryland,  Vol.  XXVIIL,  p.   100. 

The  Border  Troubles.  135 

Two  days  later  the  following  communication  was  sent 
by  the  same  persons  and  others  to  the  Governor  and 
Council  of  Pennsylvania  :^^ 

The  Petition  of  most  of  the  Inhabitants  on  the  west  side  of  the 
Sasquehanna  River,  opposite  to  Hempfield,  in  the  County  of  Lan- 
caster, Humbly  Sheweth,  that  your  petitioners,  two  or  three  years 
past,  (Being  many  of  us  newly  arrived  in  America,)  and  altogether 
strangers  to  the  Boundaries  of  the  two  Provinces  of  Pennsylvania 
&  Maryland,  were,  by  many  plausable  pretences  and  fair  promises, 
persuaded  to  settle  under  the  Government  of  the  latter,  supposing 
from  what  we  were  then  told,  that  these  lands  were  within  that 
Province,  And  that  the  River  Sasquehanna  was  the  Division.  But 
after  we  were  seated,  finding  the  usage  we  received  was  very 
different  from  that  to  the  rest  of  the  Government,  and  what  small 
substance  we  had,  was  made  a  pray  to  some  persons  impowered 
by  them.  And  th"  we  often  made  known  our  cause  of  complaint, 
could  have  no  redress,  nor  the  promises,  which  had  been  first  made 
us,  in  the  least  Regarded.  Being  also  lately  told  by  some  in 
power  there  that  we  were  worse  than  Negroes,  for  that  we  had  no 
Master,  nor  were  under  the  protection  of  any  laws,  and  since 
informed  by  them,  that  the  River  Sasquehanna,  could  not  be  the 
bounds,  as  we  had  been  at  first  told,  but  that  an  East  and  West 
Line  would  Divide  the  Provinces.  And  also,  observing  that  the 
People  on  the  East  side  of  said  River,  Inhabitants  of  Pennsylvania, 
who  live  much  more  to  the  Southward  than  we  Do,  Enjoyed  their 
possessions  peaceably,  without  any  Disturbance  or  claim  from  the 
Province  of  Maryland.  We,  from  these  reasons.  Concluded  we 
had  been  imposed  upon  and  Deluded,  to  answer  some  purposes  of 
the  Government  of  Maryland,  which  are  not  justifiable,  and 
might,  in  the  end,  tend  to  our  Ruin;  and  that  we  were  not  settled 
within  the  true  and  Real  bounds  of  that  Province,  as  we  had  been 
made  to  believe.  And  from  a  sense  thereof,  and  of  the  wrong  we 
were  doing  to  the  Proprietors  of  Pennsylvania,  in  Living  on  their 

*^  Pennsylvania  Archives,  Second  Set.,  Vol.  VII.,  p.  215. 

136  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Lands,  (as  we  now  conceive  we  are,)  without  paying  the  acknowl- 
edgements due  to  them  for  the  same,  and  in  denying  Obedience 
to  the  Laws  of  your  Government,  Unanimously  Resolved  to  Re- 
turn to  our  Duty.  Your  Humble  Petitioners,  therefore,  pray  you 
would  Impute  our  late  Errors  to  our  want  of  better  Information, 
And  would  be  pleased  to  Receive  us  under  the  Protection  of  your 
Laws  and  Government.  To  which  for  the  future  we  promise  all 
faithful  obedience  and  submission  and  in  Granting  this  our  humble 
Petition  your  petitioners  as  in  Duty  bound  shall  ever  pray  for 
your  Health  and  Prosperity.  Signed  with  our  own  hands  and 
Dated  the  thirteenth  day  of  August,  one  thousand  seven  hundred 
and  thirty-six. 

The  receipt  of  this  paper,  together  with  the  knowledge 
that  a  similar  communication  had  been  sent  to  the  Presi- 
dent and  Council  of  Pennsylvania,  angered  the  Maryland 
authorities,  and  at  a  meeting  of  the  Maryland  Council, 
held  on  October  21,  1736,  it  was  put  on  record  that  the 
Council  had  good  reason  to  be  assured  that  this  action  on 
the  part  of  the  settlers  in  the  disputed  territory  had  been 
Instigated  and  countenanced  "  by  some  who  pretended  to 
be  Magistrates  and  Residents  of  Pennsylvania."  The 
Council  went  on  to  say  that  such  proceedings  "may  have 
the  most  mischievous  Consequences,  not  only  to  the  Peace 
of  this  Province,  but  also  in  the  Example  which  may  be 
thereby  given  to  any  other  of  his  Majestys  Subjects  dar- 
ing to  refuse  Subjection  to  the  Government  in  which  they 
live  and  reside. "^^  They,  therefore,  adopted  a  resolution 
directing  that  a  proclamation  be  Issued  offering  a  reward 
for  the  arrest  of  "  all  who  have  acted,  countenanced  or 
abetted  the  Actors  in  any  of  the  Matters  aforesaid." 

In  accordance  with  this  resolution,  on  October  21,  1736 
Governor  Ogle  Issued  a  proclamation  offering  a  reward  of 

»2  Archives  of  Maryland,  Vol.  XXVIIL,  p.  loi. 

The  Border  Troubles.  137 

one  hundred  pounds  each  for  the  arrest  of  Samuel 
Blunston  and  John  Wright,  magistrates,  Samuel  Smith, 
sheriff,  and  Edward  Smoute;  twenty  pounds  each  for  the 
arrest  of  Michael  Tanner,  Christian  Crowie,  Mark  Evans, 
Charles  Jones,  the  constable,  and  Joshua  Minshall;  and 
ten  pounds  each  for  the  arrest  of  the  following  persons: 
Jacob  Grabill,  Jacob  Seglaer,  Conrad  Lowe,  Christian 
Lowe,  Jacob  Seglaer,  Jr.,  Michael  Aringall,  Philip 
Seglaer,  Dennis  Myer,  Hance  Stanner,  Tobias  Spright, 
Tobias  Henricks,  Leonard  Immel,  Balchar  Sangar, 
Michael  Wallack,  Michael  Evat,  Michael  Miller,  Jasper 
Carvell,  George  Swope,  George  Philler,  Nicholas 
Butchlere,  Andrew  Phlavlere,  Henry  Stantz,  Henry  Lep- 
hart,  Peter  Gartner,  Jacob  Lawnious,  Nicholas  Conn, 
Conrad  Strlcklaer,  Henry  Bowen,  Francis  Worley,  Jun""., 
Martin  Sluys,  Jacob  Hoopinder,  Michael  Raishlere, 
Tobias  Fry,  Martin  Fry,  Henry  Smith,  Jacob  Welshoffer, 
Henry  Henricks,  Adam  Byard,  Godfrey  Fry,  Methusalem 
Griffith,  Bartholomew  Shambarriere,  Nicholas  Hatchey, 
Yorrick  Cobell,  Henry  Young,  Michael  Waltz,  Kelyon 
Smith,  Caspar  Varglass,  Martin  Wyngall,  Nicholas  Peery, 
Bryonex  Tandre  and  Eurick  Myer. 

Michael  Tanner,  Joshua  Minshall  and  Charles  Jones 
were  arrested  and  confined  In  the  jail  at  Annapolis. 

In  spite  of  these  actions  the  disorder  along  the  border 
continued,  and  finally  the  matter  was  brought  to  the  atten- 
tion of  the  King,  and  by  an  order  In  council,  dated  August 
18,  1737,  the  Governors  of  Maryland  and  Pennsylvania 
were  commanded  to  put  a  stop  to  the  disorders  and  grant 
no  more  warrants  for  land  in  the  disputed  territory  until 
the  boundary  question  was  settled.  In  1738  an  agreement 
was  made  for  the  running  of  a  provisional  line  between  the 
provinces  which  was  not  to  interfere  with  the  actual  pos- 

138  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

sessions  of  the  settlers,  but  was  merely  to  suspend  all  grants 
in  the  disputed  territory  until  the  final  settlement  of  the 
boundary  question. 

This  settled  the  border  warfare,  but  some  years  later 
another  matter  came  up  which,  for  a  time,  threatened  to 
drive  a  large  number  of  the  German  settlers  from  western 
Maryland.  It  was  but  natural  that  quite  frequently  some 
of  the  settlers  were  not  able  to  meet  the  payments  of  quit- 
rents  as  they  fell  due  and  at  length  it  became  the  custom  to 
turn  these  claims  over  to  the  sheriffs  for  collection,  and 
these  officers  frequently  added  such  an  exorbitant  amount 
as  commissions  and  penalties,  that  it  finally  became  a  ques- 
tion whether  many  of  the  Germans  would  remain  in  the 
province.  The  matter  was  brought  before  the  Council  by 
Governor  Ogle  at  a  meeting  held  on  June  7,  1748.  In 
his  statement  he  says: 

"  Sometimes  Lists  (which  the  People  call  Black  lists)  have  been 
Delivered  to  the  Sheriffs  of  arrears  of  Rents  due  and  when  such 
lists  have  been  so  Delivered,  the  Sheriffs  have  not  only  Charged 
the  People  a  Commission  of  Ten  p  Cent  for  Receiving  the  Money 
but  also  a  fee  of  168  pounds  of  Tobacco,  till  Lately  it  has  been 
reduced  to  126  or  15  shillings  Altho  the  Money  has  been  Paid 
them  and  they  never  made  any  Distress;  This  has  been  Submitted 
to  by  Several  because  they  did  not  know  but  that  the  demand 
was  lust,  and  if  otherwise  they  knew  not  how  to  obtain  any  Relief 
without  Puting  themselves  to  a  greater  expence  in  seeking  Relief 
than  the  fees  and  ten  p  Cent  were  worth.  But  of  Late  these 
particulars  have  been  carried  to  so  great  a  length  that  it  has  made 
a  great  many  People  Resolve  to  Leave  their  habitations  and  the 
Province,  rather  than  to  submit  to  such  Impositions  (as  they  have 
been  lately  informed  they  were)  and  Several  are  actually  gone, 
and  others  Intend  to  follow  as  soon  as  they  can  dispose  of  what 
they  have,  at  any  rate:  The  Present  Sheriff  having  one  of  these 

The  Border  Troubles.  139 

Black  Lists  on  or  about  the  eighth  day  of  March  last  past,  an  under 
sheriff  Summoned  the  Persons  to  attend  the  high  Sheriff  at  Fred- 
erick Town,  which  they  accordingly  did,  and  Paid  down  all  that 
was  Demanded  of  them  together  with  Ten  p  Cent  (except  Stephen 
Ranspergen  who  did  not  Pay  the  ten  p  Cent)  and  every  one  of 
them  Paid  fifteen  shillings  to  the  Sheriff."^' 

The  Governor  also  submitted  the  names  of  the  follow- 
ing persons  who  had  paid  the  fifteen  shillings  penalty: 
Jacob  Foot,  Peter  Apple,  Henry  Trout,  Melcar  Wher- 
field,  Christian  Thomas,  Peter  Hoffman,  Christian  Get- 
soner,  Stephen  Ransbergen,  Henry  Roads,  Conrad  Kemp, 
Francis  Wise,  Jacob  Smith,  George  Lye,  Isaac  Miller, 
Thomas  Johnson,  Joseph  Browner,  Henry  Browner,  Nick 
Frisk,  John  Smith,  John  Browner,  Jacob  Browner,  Ken. 
Backdolt,  Nicholas  Reisner,  David  Delaitre,  Martin 
WIsell,  Casper  WIndred  and  Peter  Shaffer. 

In  a  deposition  by  Stephen  Ransbergen,  dated  May  6, 
1748,  he  says: 

"A  Great  Number  of  the  Germans  and  some  others  were 
so  much  alarmed  by  the  Sheriffs  Proceedings,  that  Several  of  them 
have  already  left  the  Province,  and  others  have  declared,  that  as 
soon  as  they  could  sell  what  they  are  Possessed  off,  they  would  go 
away,  many  of  the  Germans  declaring  that  they  being  Oppressed 
in  their  Native  Country,  Induced  them  to  Leave  it,  and  that  they 
were  Apprehensive  of  being  Equally  oppressed  here,  and  that  there- 
fore they  would  go  away  to  avoid  it."®* 

Several  other  depositions  to  the  same  effect  were  read  at 
this  meeting  of  the  Council,  and  the  sheriff  of  Prince 
George's  county  and  the  farmer  of  quit-rents  being  present, 
Governor  Ogle  Instructed  the  sheriff  that  he  should  be 

»3  Archives  of  Maryland,  Vol.  XXVIII.,  p.  420. 
**  Ibid.,  p.  423. 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

very  careful  in  exacting  no  fees  from  the  people  and  in 
doing  nothing  that  was  not  warranted  by  law,  and  to  the 
farmers  he  said  that  "  they  should  use  all  the  lenity  possible 
in  collecting  the  quit-rents  from  the  people."  This  dis- 
position of  the  matter  seems  to  have  settled  the  trouble,  as 
nothing  further  is  heard  of  it. 

The  boundary  question  was  not  finally  settled,  however, 
until  the  two  English  surveyors,  Charles  Mason  and 
Jeremiah  Dixon,  ran  the  line  which  has  gone  into  history 
as  Mason  and  Dixon's  Line.  This  survey  was  started  in 
December,  1763,  and  the  surveyors  were  finally  discharged 
in  December,  1767.  This  line  was  marked  at  intervals  of 
a  mile  by  stone  monuments,  every  fifth  monument  having 
carved  on  the  northern  side  the  arms  of  Penn  and  on  the 
southern  side  the  arms  of  Lord  Baltimore. 

The  French  and  Indian  War. 


HE  amicable  relations  with  the 
Indians  established  by  the  first 
colonists  in  Maryland  continued  for 
more  than  a  century.  There  was  never 
any  trouble,  at  least  with  the  southern 
Indians,  and  the  latter  assisted  the  col- 
onists in  defending  themselves  when 
the  northern  Indians  became  threaten- 
ing. It  was  not  until  the  redmen  were 
drawn  into  the  quarrels  between  Eng- 
land and  France  that  trouble  arose  for 
the  Marylanders. 
The  war  between  England  and  France  was  ended  by 
the  treaty  signed  at  Aix-la-Chapelle  in  1748,  but  that  treaty 
did  not  settle  the  question  of  the  boundaries  between  the 
colonies  of  the  two  countries  in  America.  At  that  time 
the  territory  under  the  control  of  England  embraced  only 
a  rather  narrow  strip  along  the  Atlantic  coast,  and  did  not 
extend  very  far  to  the  westward,  although  the  English 


142  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

claimed  the  country  westward  to  the  Pacific  ocean.  In  the 
possession  of  France  was  Canada,  on  the  north,  and  the 
Louisiana  territory,  on  the  south,  and  the  French  claims 
included  all  the  territory  between  these  two  sections.  It 
was  the  design  of  the  French  to  connect  these  two  colonies 
by  a  line  of  forts  extending  from  the  Bay  of  Fundy  to  the 
Gulf  of  Mexico,  by  way  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  the  lakes, 
and  the  Ohio  and  Mississippi  rivers.  As  early  as  1745 
the  Marquis  de  la  Galissoniere,  the  Governor-general  of 
Canada,  had  begun  putting  this  scheme  into  execution. 

The  British  government  naturally  made  its  own  prep- 
arations to  check  this  advance  of  the  French,  which  would 
cut  off  the  English  from  pushing  farther  westward,  and 
in  pursuance  of  its  plans  in  1749  made  a  grant  of  five 
hundred  thousand  acres  of  land  to  the  Ohio  Company,  an 
association  made  up  of  a  number  of  residents  of  Mary- 
land and  Virginia.  The  territory  covered  by  this  grant 
lay  on  the  south  side  of  the  Ohio  river,  between  the 
Kanawha  and  Monongahela  rivers.  According  to  the 
terms  of  this  grant  a  large  part  of  the  land  was  to  be 
settled  immediately,  one  hundred  families  were  to  settle 
upon  it  within  seven  years  and  a  fort  was  to  be  erected  and 
maintained  as  a  defense  against  the  Indians. 

When  the  Marquis  Du  Quesne  de  Menneville  succeeded 
the  Marquis  Galissoniere  as  Governor-general,  in  1752, 
he  continued  the  policy  of  his  predecessor  and  rapidly  ex- 
tended the  fortifications  along  the  lakes,  and  in  1753 
erected  a  fort  at  Presque  Isle,  now  Erie,  Pennsylvania,  and 
one  on  the  Riviere  aux  Boeufs,  now  French  Creek.  In 
working  out  their  plan  the  French  endeavored  as  far  as 
possible  to  make  friends  with  the  Indians  and  turn  the 
latter  against  the  English.  In  this  design  they  were 
largely  successful,  being  aided  by  the  fears  of  the  Indians 

The  French  and  Indian  War.  143. 

on  account  of  the  encroachment  of  the  English  settlers  on 
the  redmen's  domain.  Through  the  intrigues  of  the 
French,  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  spreading  out  of  the 
English  settlements,  on  the  other,  it  required  but  a  small 
spark  to  fire  the  train  already  laid  and  cause  it  to  break 
out  into  a  fierce  conflagration. 

The  Ohio  Company  proceeded  to  carry  out  the  terms  of 
its  grant  and  at  the  beginning  of  1754  a  small  company  of 
militia  furnished  by  Governor  Dinwiddie,  of  Virginia, 
started  to  build  a  fort  at  the  Forks  of  the  Ohio.  The 
officers  of  this  company  were  William  Trent,  captain; 
John  Frazer,  Lieutenant,  and  Edward  Ward,  Ensign. 
On  April  17,  1754,  during  the  absence  of  both  the  captain 
and  lieutenant,  Contrecoeur,  the  French  commander  at 
Riviere  aux  Boeufs,  made  his  appearance  with  a  force  of 
several  hundred  men  and  compelled  Ensign  Ward  to  sur- 
render. The  Frenchman  at  once  went  ahead  with  the 
erection  of  the  fort,  enlarging  it  and  making  it  more 
formidable,  and  named  it  Fort  Du  Quesne.  At  the  time 
of  the  surrender  a  body  of  three  hundred  militia,  sent  by 
Governor  Dinwiddle  to  garrison  the  fort,  were  on  their 
way  to  the  Forks  of  the  Ohio.  These  troops  were  under 
the  command  of  Colonel  Joshua  Fry  and  Lieutenant- 
colonel  George  Washington.  News  of  the  surrender  of 
the  fort  by  Ensign  Ward  reached  these  officers  while  at 
Will's  Creek,  and  they  advanced  very  cautiously.  Hear- 
ing that  a  French  force  under  Coulson  de  Jumonville  was 
not  far  away,  Washington  went  out  to  meet  them,  and  in 
the  fight  that  ensued  de  Jumonville  and  a  number  of  his 
men  were  killed  and  the  rest  of  them  taken  prisoners.  Not 
long  after  this  Colonel  Fry  being  killed  by  a  fall  from  his 
horse,  Washington  became  the  commander  of  the  expedi- 
tion.     When   Contrecoeur,   the  commander  at  Fort  Ehi 

144  ^^^  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Quesne,  heard  of  this  fight,  he  sent  a  party  of  six  hundred 
men  against  Washington's  force  The  latter  hastily  con- 
structed a  fortification  at  Great  Meadows,  which  he  called 
Fort  Necessity.  Here  he  was  attacked  on  July  3,  1754, 
and  not  being  able  to  hold  the  place  against  a  superior 
force,  he  was  compelled  to  surrender.  He  retreated  to 
Will's  Creek,  now  Cumberland,  where  his  force  went  into 
camp,  and  he  returned  to  Virgina  to  acquaint  Governor 
Dinwiddie  with  the  result  of  the  expedition. 

This  was  the  beginning  of  the  struggle  that  was  to  last 
for  years  and  to  almost  depopulate  some  sections  of  the 
country.  The  German  settlers  of  western  Maryland  were 
nearest  to  the  scene  of  hostilities  and  they  were,  for  a  time 
at  least,  to  endure  all  the  horrors  of  a  bloody  warfare  with 
a  savage  foe.  They  did  their  part,  too,  in  defending  the 
country  against  the  invaders,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that 
Governor  Sharpe  did  not  have  much  faith  in  their  willing- 
ness to  do  so.     On  November  3,  1754  he  wrote: 

"It  is  expected  I  apprehend  from  your  letter  that  the  Germans 
who  have  imported  themselves  into  these  Provinces  will  be  found 
as  ready  as  they  are  capable  of  bearing  Arms  on  the  Occasion,  but 
I  can  assure  you  that  whatever  Character  they  may  deserve  for 
Courage  or  military  skill  I  despair  of  seeing  any  of  them  so  for- 
ward as  to  offer  themselves  Voluntiers  under  my  Command  unless 
the  Enemy  was  to  approach  so  far  as  actually  to  deprive  them  of 
their  Habitations  &  Possessions  of  which  alone  they  are  found 

The  provinces  of  Pennsylvania  and  Virginia  were  the 
ones  which  were  chiefly  interested  in  holding  back  the 
French,  for  the  reason  that  French  occupation  of  the  terri- 
tory along  the  Ohio  would  prevent  their  expansion  to  the 

86  Archives  of  Maryland,  Vol.  VI,  p.  no. 

The  French  and  Indian  War.  145 

westward;  and  for  this  reason,  because  the  territory  be- 
longing to  Maryland  was  not  involved  in  the  contest,  the 
Maryland  assembly  was  lukewarm  in  making  preparations 
for  taking  part  in  the  war.  The  perennial  controversy 
between  the  upper  and  lower  houses  also  had  a  great  deal 
to  do  with  the  negligence  of  the  authorities  in  this  respect. 
On  the  part  of  all  the  colonies  there  was  a  feeling  that 
this  was  a  war  between  England  and  France,  although  the 
scene  of  it  was  on  the  western  continent,  and  this  being 
the  case,  it  was  thought  that  the  mother  country  should 
provide  for  the  expenses  of  carrying  it  on.  The  Mary- 
land assembly  put  itself  on  record  as  being  opposed  to 
helping  in  a  war  of  conquest  but  was  ready  to  do  its  part 
in  defending  the  province  against  invasion.  The  German 
settlers  on  the  frontier,  however,  knew  only  too  well  what 
to  expect,  and  at  once  made  what  preparations  they  could 
to  protect  themselves,  no  matter  what  the  attitude  of  the 
authorities  might  be.  Companies  of  riflemen  and  rangers 
were  organized  and  scouts  were  sent  out  to  give  warning 
of  approaching  danger.  Many  of  the  settlers  of  the  more 
outlying  sections  abandoned  their  homes  and  with  their 
families  went  to  the  more  thickly-settled  regions 

As  soon  as  the  news  of  the  defeat  of  the  provincials  at 
Fort  Necessity  reached  the  east  Governor  Sharpe  called 
the  Maryland  assembly  into  session  on  July  17th,  and 
asked  for  an  appropriation  for  raising  troops.  The  legis- 
lature passed  an  act  appropriating  six  thousand  pounds  to 
be  used  by  Governor  Sharpe  "  for  his  majesty's  use, 
towards  the  defence  of  the  colony  of  Virginia,  attacked  by 
the  French  and  Indians,  and  for  the  relief  and  support 
of  the  wives  and  children  of  the  Indian  allies  that  put 
themselves  under  the  protection  of  this  government." 
Three  companies  were  raised  to  be  sent  to  Will's  Creek, 


146  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

where  Colonel  Innes,  who  commanded  the  North  Carolina 
troops,  had  erected  a  fort  which  was  named  Fort  Cumber- 
land Besides  the  men  from  North  Carolina  the  troops 
under  Colonel  Innes'  command  consisted  of  three  com- 
panies from  New  York,  one  company  from  South  Carolina 
and  a  company  of  one  hundred  Marylanders,  altogether  a 
little  more  than  one  thousand  men.®® 

In  the  autumn  of  1754  Governor  Sharpe  was  appointed 
commander-in-chief  of  all  the  forces  engaged  against  the 
French  on  the  Ohio,  and  he  at  once  set  out  for  Fort  Cum- 
berland, where  he  arrived  in  November  He  proceeded 
to  prepare  for  active  operations  in  the  spring  and  gathered 
large  quantities  of  military  stores  and  provisions,  although 
he  was  greatly  handicapped  by  the  refusal  of  the  assembly 
to  appropriate  money  to  carry  on  the  war,  except  under 
such  conditions  as  the  Governor  could  not  approve.  In 
December  the  assembly  passed  a  law  for  levying  troops 
and  provided  that  if  in  the  service  any  citizen  should  be  so 
maimed  as  to  be  incapable  of  maintaining  himself  he 
should  be  supported  at  the  public  expense  There  was  no 
difficulty  in  obtaining  volunteers.  The  settlers  in  the 
western  part  of  the  province  promptly  enrolled  themselves, 
and  even  in  the  eastern  section  calls  for  volunteers  were 
promptly  met. 

In  February,  1755,  Major  General  Edward  Braddock  ar- 
rived from  England  to  take  command  of  the  forces  engaged 
against  the  French.  Braddock's  plan  of  campaign  was 
laid  out  for  him  before  he  left  England,^^  and  on  his 
arrival  he  called  a  council  of  the  colonial  governors,  which 
was  held  at  Alexandria,  before  which  the  plans  were  dis- 
ss Archives  of  Maryland,  Vol.  XXVIII.,  p.  77. 

s^  See    secret   instructions   to    Gen.   Braddock   from    George    III.,   Penn- 
sylvania Archives,  Second  Sen,  Vol.  VI.,  p,  z^s. 

The  French  and  Indian  War. 


cussed  and  three  expeditions  were  arranged  for:  the  one 
against  Fort  Duquesne,  to  be  commanded  by  Gen.  Brad- 
dock,  with  the  regulars,  reinforced  by  troops  from  Mary- 
land and  Virginia;  one  against  Niagara  and  Fort  Fron- 
tenac,  to  be  led  by  Governor  Shirley,  of  Massachusetts, 
and  one  against  Crown  Point,  under  Sir  William  Johnson. 
In  preparing  for  his  campaign  Braddock  made  his  head- 
quarters at  Frederick.  The  expedition  started  for  the 
Ohio  on  May  30,  and  after  it  had  left  large  numbers  of 
Maryland  troops  marched  to  the  frontiers  to  garrison  the 
posts  and  protect  the  settlers  As  the  assembly  failed  to 
appropriate  money  for  maintaining  these  troops  the  ex- 
pense was  met  by  private  subscription. 

The  details  of  the  disastrous  Braddock  campaign  are 
outside  the  scope  of  this  work  and  cannot  be  given  here. 
The  effects  of  it  were  prompt  and  overwhelming.  The 
extreme  western  settlements  of  Maryland  were  abandoned, 
the  settlers  flying  for  protection  to  more  eastern  points, 
some  of  them,  however,  stopping  at  Fort  Cumberland  and 
others  at  the  block-house  of  Col.  Thomas  Cresap.  Terror 
and  desolation  reigned  everywhere.  Hostile  bands  of 
Indians  made  raids  on  unprotected  outposts,  massacreing 
the  garrisons  and  such  settlers  as  they  were  able  to  capture. 
Even  before  the  defeat  of  Braddock  the  Indian  raids  had 
begun.  On  June  28  Governor  Sharpe  sent  the  following 
message  to  the  lower  house : 

I  have  just  received  letters  from  Col.  Innes  at  Fort  Cumber- 
land, and  from  the  back  inhabitants  of  Frederick  County,  advising 
me  that  a  party  of  French  Indians  last  Monday  morning  (June 
23)  fell  on  the  inhabitants  of  this  province,  and  killed  two  men 
and  one  woman  (who  have  been  since  found  dead),  eight  other 
persons  they  have  taken  prisoners  and  carried  off.  The  names  of 
the  persons  who  were  murdered  and  left  are  John  Williams,  his 

148  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

wife,  and  grandson,  and  with  their  bodies  also  was  found  that 
of  a  French  Indian.  The  persons  carried  o£E  are  Richard 
Williams  (a  son  of  John  who  was  murdered),  with  two  children, 
one  Dawson's  wife  and  four  children.  Richard  William's  wife 
and  two  brothers  of  the  young  man  that  is  killed  have  made  their 
escape.  This  accident,  I  find,  has  so  terrified  the  distant  in- 
habitants that  many  of  them  are  retiring  and  forsaking  their 
plantations.  Another  letter  from  Winchester,  in  Virginia,  in- 
forms me  that  a  party  of  Indians  have  also  attacked  the  back 
inhabitants  of  that  province,  of  whom  they  have  killed  eleven  and 
carried  away  many  captives.  Apprehending  the  French  would 
proceed  in  this  manner  as  soon  as  Gen.  Braddock  and  the  troops 
under  his  control  should  have  passed  the  mountains,  and  being 
confirmed  in  my  opinion  by  an  intimation  in  the  general's  letter, 
I  issued  a  proclamation  near  a  month  since,  cautioning  the  distant 
and  other  inhabitants  of  this  province  to  be  on  their  guard,  and 
unite  for  their  common  defence  and  safety.  At  the  same  time  I 
sent  peremptory  orders  and  instructions  to  the  officers  of  the 
militia  of  Frederick  County  frequently  to  muster  and  discipline 
their  several  troops  and  companies,  once  a  fortnight  at  least,  and 
in  case  of  alarm  that  the  enemy  was  approaching  or  had  fallen  on 
the  inhabitants,  to  march  out  and  act  either  offensively  or  de- 
fensively, and  use  all  means  to  protect  and  defend  the  inhabitants 
from  the  devastations  of  the  French  or  Indians.  However,  I  find 
neither  the  proclamation  nor  instructions  will  be  effective  unless 
the  militia  can  be  assured  that  they  shall  receive  satisfaction,  and 
be  paid  for  the  time  they  are  out  on  duty.  I  should  consider  it 
highly  proper  for  us  to  have  about  one  hundred,  or  at  least  a 
company  of  men,  posted  or  constantly  ranging  for  some  time  on  the 
frontiers  for  our  protection.  In  this  I  desire  your  advice,  and 
that  you  will  enable  me  to  support  such  a  number. 

Shortly  after  this  a  party  of  settlers  on  their  way  to 
Fort  Cumberland  was  attacked  and  fifteen  of  them  killed, 
three  escaping.  The  following  account  from  the  Mary- 
land Gazette  of  October  9,  1755,  gives  some  idea  of  the 
state  of  affairs  that  followed  Braddock's  defeat : 

The  French  and  Indian  War.  149 

By  a  person  who  arrived  in  town  last  Monday  from  Col 
Cresap's,  we  are  told  that  last  Wednesday  morning  the  Indians 
had  taken  a  man  prisoner  who  was  going  from  Frazier's  to  Fort 
Cumberland,  and  had  also  carried  oflE  a  woman  from  Frazier's 
plantation,  which  is  four  miles  on  this  side  Fort  Cumberland. 
The  same  morning  they  fell  in  with  a  man  and  his  wife  who  had 
left  their  plantations,  and  were  retiring  into  the  more  populous 
part  of  the  country;  they  shot  the  horse  on  which  the  man  was 
riding,  but  as  it  did  not  fall  immediately  he  made  his  escape.  The 
woman,  it  is  supposed,  fell  into  their  hands,  as  neither  she  or  the 
horse  on  which  she  was  riding  have  been  seen  since  or  heard  of. 
The  same  party  of  Indians  also  have  carried  off  or  killed  Benjamin 
Rogers,  his  wife,  and  seven  children,  and  Edmund  Marie,  one 
family  of  twelve  persons,  besides  fifteen  others,  all  in  Frederick 
County.  On  Patterson's  Creek  many  families  have  within  this 
month  been  murdered,  carried  away,  or  burnt  in  their  houses  by  a 
party  of  these  barbarians,  who  have  entirely  broke  up  that 

Another  person,  who  left  Stoddert's  fort  last  Sunday,  acquaints 
us  that  the  inhabitants  in  that  part  of  the  country  were  in  the 
greatest  consternation.  That  near  eight  persons  were  fled  to  the 
said  fort  for  protection,  and  many  more  gone  ofiE  in  the  greatest 
confusion  to  Pennsylvania.  This,  it  seems,  had  been  occasioned 
by  a  dispatch  sent  to  Lieut.  Stoddert  and  the  neighborhood  by 
Col.  Cresap,  advising  them  that  a  party  of  seventeen  Indians  had 
passed  by  his  house  and  had  cut  off  some  people  who  dwelt  on  the 
Town  Creek,  which  is  a  few  miles  on  this  side  of  Cresap's.  One 
Daniel  Ashloff,  who  lived  near  that  creek,  is  come  down  towards 
Conococheague,  and  gives  the  same  account.  He  also  says  that  as 
himself  and  father,  with  several  others,  were  retiring  from  their 
plantations  last  Saturday  they  were  attacked  by  the  same  Indians, 
as  he  supposes,  and  all  but  himself  were  killed  or  taken  prisoners. 
It  is  said  that  Mr.  Stoddert,  who  has  command  of  fifteen  men, 
invited  a  few  of  the  neighbors  to  join  him  and  to  go  in  quest  of 
the  enemy,  but  they  would  not  be  persuaded,  whereupon  he  applied 

150  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

himself  to  Maj.  Prather  for  a  detachment  of  the  militia,  either  to 
go  with  a  party  of  his  men  in  pursuit  of  the  savages,  or  garrison 
his  fort  while  he  made  an  excursion.  We  hope  there  will  be  no 
backwardness  in  the  militia  to  comply  with  such  a  reasonable  re- 
quest, especially  as  any  party  or  person  that  shall  take  an  enemy 
prisoner  will  be  rewarded  with  six  pounds  currency,  and  the  person 
who  will  kill  an  enemy,  with  four  pounds,  provided  he  can  pro- 
duce witnesses,  or  the  enemy's  scalp,  in  testimony  of  such  action. 

The  whole  country  to  the  west  was  in  a  condition  of 
terror.  Indian  raids  were  constantly  occurring,  small 
parties  attacking  the  settlers  whenever  their  unprotected 
condition  made  it  possible.  Even  the  severity  of  winter 
did  not  serve  to  lessen  the  danger.  In  a  resume  of  the 
operations  of  the  French  Governor-General  Vaudreuil 
writes : 

"A  detachment  commanded  by  M.  de  Niverville  came,  after  a 
campaign  of  thirty-three  days,  within  reach  of  Fort  Cumberland, 
and  though  it  was  impossible  for  him  to  approach  it,  in  consequence 
of  the  dread  our  Indians  had  of  being  surrounded,  there  being  con- 
siderable snow  on  the  ground,  he  nevertheless,  took  four  prisoners 
in  the  settlements  bordering  on  the  river  called  Potomak,  in 
Virginia,  about  fifteen  leagues  from  Fort  Cumberland ;  burned  ten 
houses  and  the  like  number  of  barns  full  of  wheat;  killed  twenty 
horses  or  cows.  This  trifling  success  ought  to  show  the  enemy 
that  the  severest  season  of  the  year  does  not  protect  them  against 
our  incursions."^* 

With  the  opening  of  the  year  1756  the  attacks  became 
more  frequent.  Captain  Dagworthy  still  occupied  Fort 
Cumberland,  but  the  territory  around  it  was  almost  de- 
serted. In  March,  the  commander  at  Fort  Duquesne 
sent  a  small  force  of  Indians  under  Ensign  Douville  with 
orders  to  "  make  it  his  business  to  harass  their  convoys  and 

88  Pennsylvania  Archives,  Second  Scr.,  Vol.  VI.,  p.  423. 

The  French  and  Indian  War.  151 

endeavor  to  burn  their  magazines  at  Canagiechuie  [Cono- 
cocheague]  if  possible. "^^  Commenting  on  this  order, 
Washington  wrote  to  Governor  Dinwiddie,  on  April  7, 
"  I  have  ordered  the  party  there  to  be  made  as  strong  as 
time  and  our  present  circumstances  will  afford,  for  fear 
they  should  attempt  to  execute  the  orders  of  Dumas. "^""^ 
On  the  1 6th  Washington  wrote: 

All  my  ideal  hopes  of  raising  a  number  of  men  to  scour  the 
adjacent  mountains  have  vanished  into  nothing.  Yesterday  was 
the  appointed  time  for  a  general  rendezvous  of  all,  who  were 
willing  to  accompany  me  for  that  desirable  end,  and  only  fifteen 
appeared.  ...  I  have  done  everything  in  my  power  to  quiet  the 
minds  of  the  inhabitants  by  detaching  all  the  men  I  have  any  com- 
mand over  to  the  places  more  exposed.  There  also  have  been 
large  detachments  from  Fort  Cumberland  in  pursuit  of  the  enemy 
these  ten  days  past,  yet  nothing,  I  fear  will  prevent  the  people  from 
abandoning  their  dwellings  and  flying  with  the  utmost  precipita- 

Again,  on  the  22d,  he  says: 

The  supplicating  tears  of  the  women  and  moving  petitions  of 
the  men  melt  me  into  such  deadly  sorrow,  that  I  solemnly  declare, 
if  I  know  my  own  mind,  I  could  offer  myself  a  willing  sacrifice 
to  the  butchering  enemy,  provided  that  would  contribute  to  the 
people's  ease.^°^ 

The  Maryland  Gazette  of  March  1 1  contains  the  fol- 
lowing letter  from  Isaac  Baker,  dated  at  Conococheague : 

My  last  was  of  the  26th  instant.  On  our  march  to  Toona- 
loways,  about  five  miles  this  side  Stoddert's  Fort,  we  found  John 
Meyers'  house   in   flames,  and  nine  or  ten  head  of  large  cattle 

»9Ibid.,  p.  361. 

io<>  Ford,  "  The  Writings  of  George  Washington,"  Vol.  I.,  p.  238. 

101  Sparks's  Washington,  Vol.  II.,  p.  138. 

102  Ford's  Washington,  Vol,  I.,  p.  250. 

152  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

killed.  About  three  miles  and  a  half  farther  up  the  road  we  found 
a  man  (one  Hynes)  killed  and  scalped,  with  one  arm  cut  off  and 
several  arrows  sticking  in  him;  we  could  not  bury  him,  having 
no  tools  with  us  for  that  purpose.  Half  a  mile  farther  (within  a 
mile  of  Stoddert's  Fort)  we  found  Ralph  Watson's  house  burnt 
down,  and  several  hogs  and  sheep  killed.  When  we  came  to 
Stoddert's  Fort  we  found  them  all  under  arms,  expecting  every 
minute  to  be  attacked.  From  thence  we  went  to  Combe's  Fort, 
where  we  found  a  young  man  about  twenty-two  years  of  age 
killed  and  scalped;  there  were  only  four  men  in  this  fort,  two  of 
which  were  unable  to  bear  arms,  but  upwards  of  forty  women  and 
children,  who  were  in  a  very  poor  situation,  being  afraid  to  go  out 
of  the  fort,  even  for  a  drink  of  water.  The  house  caught  fire 
during  the  time  the  Indians  were  surrounding  the  fort,  and  would 
have  been  burnt  down,  but  luckily  there  was  some  soapsuds  in  the 
house,  by  which  they  were  extinguished.  The  young  man  men- 
tioned above  was  one  Lynn's  son,  and  was  sitting  on  the  fence  of 
the  stockyard  with  Combe's  son,  when  they  discovered  the  In- 
dians, upon  which  they  ran  to  get  into  the  fort,  and  before  they 
reached  it  Lynn's  son  was  shot  down,  and  an  Indian  pursued  the 
other  man  with  a  tomahawk  within  thirty  yards  of  the  fort,  but  he 
luckily  got  into  the  fort  and  shot  the  Indian.  We  searched  the 
woods  to  see  if  we  could  see  where  the  Indian  was  buried  (as 
they  supposed  him  to  be  mortally  wounded).  We  found  in  two 
places  great  quantity  of  blood,  but  could  not  find  the  body.  We 
saw  several  creatures  shot,  some  dead,  and  others  going  around 
with  arrows  sticking  in  them.  About  half  a  mile  on  this  side  Mr. 
Kenney's  (in  Little  Toonaloways)  we  found  a  load  of  oats  and  a 
load  of  turnips  in  the  road,  which  two  boys  were  bringing  to 
Combe's,  and  it  is  imagined  the  boys  are  carried  off  by  the  Indians. 
When  we  came  to  Mr.  Kenney's  we  saw  several  sheep  and  cattle 
killed.  From  thence  we  went  to  one  Lowther's,  about  two  miles 
farther,  where  we  found  his  grain  and  two  calves  burnt,  two 
cows  and  nine  or  ten  hogs  killed,  and  about  fifty  yards  from  the 
house  found   Lowther  dead   and  scalped,   and  otherwise  terribly 

The  French  and  Indian  War,  153 

mangled ;  his  brains  were  beat  out,  as  it  is  supposed,  with  his  own 
gun  barrel,  which  we  found  sticking  in  his  skull,  and  his  gun 
broken;  there  was  an  axe,  two  sc)'thes,  and  several  arrows  stick- 
ing in  him.  From  here  we  returned  to  Combe's  and  buried  the 
young  man,  and  left  ten  of  our  men  here  to  assist  them  to  secure 
their  grain,  which  soon  as  they  have  done  they  purpose  to  leave 
that  fort  and  go  to  Stoddert's,  from  hence  we  went  to  Stoddert's 
Fort,  where  we  laid  on  Friday  night  and  yesterday.  On  our  way 
down  here  we  buried  the  man  we  left  on  the  road. 

The  two  houses  of  the  legislature  continued  their 
wrangling  over  appropriating  money  to  carry  on  the  war, 
the  lower  house  insisting  that  the  estates  of  the  Proprietor 
should  bear  their  share  of  the  taxes,  while  the  upper  house 
and  the  governor  refused  to  consent  to  this,  and  the  result 
was  that  nothing  was  done.  The  settlers  became  ex- 
asperated at  this  do-nothing  policy,  and  finally  a  body  of 
armed  men  assembled  at  Frederick,  under  the  leadership  of 
Col.  Thomas  Cresap,  and  threatened  that  unless  the  legis- 
lature ceased  wrangling  and  made  some  effort  to  provide 
for  the  defense  of  the  province,  they  would  march  to 
Annapolis  and  compel  action  A  bill  was  then  passed  ap- 
propriating forty  thousand  pounds.  Of  this  amount 
eleven  thousand  pounds  were  to  be  used  in  building  a  fort 
and  several  block-houses  on  the  western  frontier,  and  for 
levying,  arming,  paying  and  maintaining  a  body  of  troops, 
not  exceeding  two  hundred  men,  to  garrison  these  posts. 
As  Fort  Cumberland  was  too  far  to  the  westward  to  afford 
much  protection  to  the  settlers  Governor  Sharpe  deter- 
mined to  build  another  fort  nearer  the  frontier,  and  in 
1756  Fort  Frederick  was  erected,  concerning  which  more 
will  be  said  later. 

All  through  the  summer  of  1756  the  Indians  raids  con- 
tinued, many  of  the  settlers  being  killed  and  others  carried 

154  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

off  prisoners.     On  August  29,  Washington  wrote  to  Lord 

"  It  is  with  infinite  concern,  that  I  see  the  distresses  of  the 
people,  and  hear  their  complaints,  without  being  able  to  afford 
them  relief.  I  have  so  often  troubled  your  Honor  for  aid  from  the 
militia,  that  I  am  almost  ashamed  to  repeat  my  demands;  nor 
should  mention  them  again,  did  I  not  think  it  absolutely  neces- 
sary at  this  time  to  save  the  most  valuable  and  flourishing  part  of 
this  county  from  immediate  desertion.  And  how  soon  the  re- 
mainder part,  as  well  as  the  adjacent  counties,  may  share  the  same 
fate,  is  but  too  obvious  to  reason,  and  to  your  Lordship's  good 
sense,  for  me  to  demonstrate.  The  whole  settlement  of  Cono- 
cocheague  in  Maryland  is  fled,  and  there  now  remain  only  two 
families  from  thence  to  Fredericktown  which  is  several  miles  below 
the  Blue  Ridge.  By  which  means  we  are  quite  exposed  and  have 
no  better  security  on  that  side,  than  the  Potomac  River,  for  many 
miles  below  the  Shenandoah;  and  how  great  a  security  that  is  to 
us,  may  easily  be  discerned,  when  we  consider,  with  what  facility 
the  enemy  have  passed  and  repassed  it  already.  That  the  Mary- 
land settlements  are  all  abandoned  is  certainly  a  fact,  as  I  have  had 
the  accounts  transmitted  to  me  by  several  hands,  and  confirmed 
yesterday  by  Henry  Brinker,  who  left  Monocacy  the  day  before, 
and  also  affirms,  that  three  hundred  and  fifty  wagons  had  passed 
that  place  to  avoid  the  enemy,  within  the  space  of  three  days."^°^ 

Ten  days  later  he  wrote  to  Gov.  Dinwiddle  that  the 
frontiers  of  Maryland  were  abandoned  for  many  miles 
below  the  Blue  Ridge,  as  far  as  Frederick. 

Wherever  it  was  possible  the  settlers  raised  companies 
of  rangers  for  their  protection.  At  Conococheague  a  sub- 
scription was  raised  and  a  company  of  twenty  men,  under 
Lieutenant  Teagard,  was  equipped.  "  Their  services 
were  soon  required,"  says  Scharf,^*^^  "  for  on  August  i8th 

103  Ford's  Washington,  Vol.  I.,  p.  329. 

10*  History  of  Western  Maryland,  Vol.  I.,  p.  97, 

The  French  and  Indian  War.  155 

the  enemy  plundered  the  settlers  near  Baker's  Ridge,  and 
on  the  20th  attacked  a  funeral  train,  killing  two  persons, 
George  Hicks  and  Lodovick  Claymour.  They  were  fol- 
lowed by  a  party  of  thirteen  of  Teagard's  men,  under 
Luke  Thompson,  until  they  came  within  two  miles  of  the 
mouth  of  the  Conococheague,  on  the  Pennsylvania  road, 
when  five  shots  were  heard  about  three  hundred  yards  in 
advance,  which  threw  the  pursuing  party  into  some  con- 
fusion; but  Matthias  Nicholls,  a  young  man  of  eighteen, 
insisted  that  they  should  run  up  and  come  upon  the  enemy 
while  their  pieces  were  unloaded,  and  set  off  immediately. 
The  others,  however,  ran  off,  but  he  continued  the  pursuit, 
and  rescued  William  Postlewaite,  who  had  been  seriously 
wounded  by  the  Indians." 

That  the  French  looked  with  equanimity  on  the  outrages 
committed  by  the  Indians  is  shown  by  a  letter  written  to 
his  brother  by  the  Rev.  Claude  Godfroy  Cocquard,  in 
which  he  says : 

"  You  will  learn,  first,  that  our  Indians  have  waged  the  most 
cruel  war  against  the  English;  that  they  continued  it  throughout 
the  spring  and  are  still  so  exasperated  as  to  be  beyond  control; 
Georgia,  Carolina,  Marrelande,  Pensilvania,  are  wholly  laid 
waste.  The  farmers  have  been  forced  to  quit  their  abodes  and  to 
retire  into  the  town.  They  have  neither  ploughed  nor  planted, 
and  on  their  complaining  of  the  circumstance  to  the  Governor  of 
Boston,  he  answered  them  that  people  were  ploughing  and  plant- 
ing for  them  in  Canada.  The  Indians  do  not  make  any  prisoners; 
they  kill  all  they  meet,  men,  women  and  children.  Every  day 
they  have  some  in  the  kettle,  and  after  having  abused  the  women 
and  maidens,  they  slaughter  or  burn  them."^°^ 

Up  to  this  time  the  war  had  been  allowed  to  drag  along 
in  a  desultory  sort  of  way,  no  really  active  operations  being 

105  Pennsylvania  Archives,  Second  Series,  Vol.  VI.,  p.  409. 

156  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

undertaken,  but  in  1758  William  Pitt  became  prime 
minister  and  he  determined  that  a  very  different  sort  of 
campaign  should  be  started.  There  had  been  great  diffi- 
culty In  securing  enough  troops  to  carry  on  the  war,  and 
in  1756  the  British  government  decided  to  enlist  a  regi- 
ment made  up  of  the  foreign  settlers  in  the  British  posses- 
sions in  America,  principally  Germans.  In  order  that 
those  who  enlisted  in  this  regiment  might  have  over  them 
officers  who  were  able  to  speak  their  own  language,  an  act 
of  parliament  was  passed  authorizing  the  king  to  grant 
commissions  to  a  certain  number  of  German,  Swiss  and 
Dutch  officers  This  regiment,  when  formed,  was  known 
as  the  Sixty-second,  or  Royal  American  Regiment  of  Foot, 
and  was  made  up  almost  entirely  of  Germans  from  Mary- 
land and  Pennsylvania.  Later  it  was  changed  to  be  the 
Sixtieth  Regiment,  and  is  in  existence  today.  The  first 
battalion  of  the  regiment  was  placed  under  the  command 
of  Colonel  Henry  Bouquet,^"^  a  native  of  Switzerland  who 
had  settled  in  Pennsylvania.  This  battalion  was  made  up 
of  Germans  from  Pennsylvania  and  Maryland. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  year  1758  plans  were  made  for 
an  expedition  against  Fort  Duquesne,  under  the  command 
of  General  John  Forbes.  The  troops  under  his  command 
numbered  between  six  and  seven  thousand  and  consisted 
of  provincials  from  Pennsylvania,  Maryland,  Virginia  and 
North  Carolina,  some  Highlanders  and  the  Royal  Ameri- 
cans. The  expedition  started  from  Philadelphia  the  latter 
part  of  June,  the  Maryland  troops,  with  those  from  Vir- 
ginia and  North  Carolina,  assembling  at  Winchester,  Va., 
under  Colonel  George  Washington.  Colonel  Bouquet 
reached  Raystown,  now  Bedford,  Pa.,  early  In  July  but 

108  H.  A.  Rattermann  in  "  Deutscher  Pionier,"  Vol.  X.,  p.  217',  says  that 
Bouquet's  real  name  was  Strauss.  , 

The  French  and  Indian  War.  157 

the  main  body  of  troops  did  not  arrive  until  September. 
The  details  of  this  expedition  cannot  be  entered  into  here, 
but  there  was  one  engagement  in  which  the  Maryland 
troops  played  a  conspicuous  part  At  the  earnest  solicita- 
tion of  Major  James  Grant,  of  the  Highlanders,  Colonel 
Bouquet  allowed  the  former  to  make  a  reconnoissance  in 
order,  if  possible,  to  discover  the  position  of  the  enemy  at 
Fort  Duquesne  This  expedition  started  on  September  9, 
and  consisted  of  thirty-seven  officers  and  805  privates, 
among  whom  were  eighty-one  Marylanders.  With  the 
usual  disregard  shown  by  the  British  officers  of  the  In- 
dian methods  of  warfare,  Major  Grant  allowed  his  force 
to  be  led  into  an  ambuscade,  and  on  the  14th  he  was  at- 
tacked by  the  French  and  Indians  with  disastrous  results, 
270  of  his  men  being  killed  and  42  wounded.  As  usual 
under  such  circumstances,  the  British  troops  became  de- 
moralized under  the  Indian  method  of  attack,  but  the 
Marylanders  conducted  themselves  gallantly.  As  one  ac- 
count of  the  affair  gives  it,  "  the  Carolinians,  Marylanders, 
and  Lower  Countrymen,  concealing  themselves  behind 
trees  and  the  bushes,  made  a  good  defence;  but  were  over- 
powered by  numbers,  and  not  being  supported,  were 
obliged  to  follow  the  rest."^^^  Of  the  Maryland  force  of 
eighty-one  men,  twenty-seven  privates  and  one  officer, 
Lieutenant  Duncan  McRae,  were  killed. 

The  French,  knowing  that  Colonel  Bouquet's  troops 
were  only  the  advance  guard,  determined  to  attack  them 
before  the  arrival  of  the  main  body,  and  on  October  12  a 
force  of  1,200  French  and  200  Indians  attacked  Bouquet's 
camp  at  Loyalhanna.  After  several  hours  of  hard  fight- 
ing the  enemy  was  repulsed.  In  this  attack  the  Mary- 
landers had  three  men  killed,  Lieutenant  Prather  and  two 

lOTenna.  Archives,  Second  Series,  Vol.  VI.,  p.  455. 

158  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

privates,  six  privates  were  wounded  and  eleven  were  miss- 
ing. General  Forbes  did  not  reach  Loyalhanna  until  No- 
vember. Numerous  skirmishes  followed,  but  the  French 
realizing  that  they  could  not  hold  Fort  Duquesne,  set  fire 
to  it  and  abandoned  it  The  English  pushed  forward,  and 
on  November  25,  1758,  took  possession  of  the  ruins  of 
Fort  Duquesne,  which  was  rebuilt  and  named  Fort  Pitt. 

With  the  abandonment  of  Fort  Duquesne  by  the  French 
the  troubles  of  the  settlers  of  western  Maryland  were 
greatly  modified,  although  there  were  occasional  raids  by 
bands  of  hostile  Indians  until  the  end  of  the  war,  in  1763. 
With  the  end  of  the  war  the  settlers  began  to  return  to 
their  deserted  homes  and  advance  further  toward  the  west. 
Seeing  this,  Pontiac,  an  Ottawa  chief,  determined  to  pre- 
vent it  and  drive  the  English  from  the  western  frontier. 
With  this  end  in  view  he  secretly  traveled  from  tribe  to 
tribe  and  formed  an  alliance,  and  without  any  warning  the 
blow  fell  upon  the  unsuspecting  settlers.  The  savages 
planned  to  attack  the  settlers  during  harvest  and  destroy 
their  crops  and  cattle  and  kill  the  men  This  plan  was  put 
into  execution  in  June,  1763.  Bands  of  raiding  Indians 
spread  over  western  Maryland,  killing  the  settlers  and  de- 
stroying their  property.  Describing  the  condition  of 
affairs  at  this  time,  in  a  letter  to  Robert  Stewart,  dated 
August  13,  1763,  Washington  wrote : 

"  Another  tempest  has  arisen  upon  our  frontiers,  and  the  alarm 
spread  wider  than  ever.  In  short,  the  inhabitants  are  so  appre- 
hensive of  danger,  that  no  families  remain  above  the  Conoco- 
cheague  road,  and  many  are  gone  from  below  it.  The  harvests 
are,  in  a  manner  lost,  and  the  distresses  of  the  settlements  are 
evident  and  manifold."^*'^ 

108  Sparks'  Washington,  Vol.  II.,  p.  339. 

The  French  and  Indian  War.  159 

The  condition  of  the  settlers  at  this  time  is  well  shown 
in  a  letter  in  the  Maryland  Gazette,  written  at  Frederick, 
under  date  of  July  19,  1763,  which  says: 

Every  day,  for  some  time  past,  has  ofEered  the  melancholy  scene 
of  poor  distressed  families  driving  downwards  through  this  town 
with  their  effects,  who  have  deserted  their  plantations  for  fear  of 
falling  into  the  cruel  hands  of  our  savage  enemies,  now  daily  seen 
in  the  woods.  And  never  was  panic  more  general  or  forcible  than 
that  of  the  back  inhabitants,  whose  terrors  at  this  time  exceed 
what  followed  on  the  defeat  of  Gen.  Braddock,  when  the  frontiers 
lay  open  to  the  incursions  of  both  French  and  Indians.  While 
Conococheague  settlement  stands  firm  we  shall  think  ourselves  in 
some  sort  of  security  from  their  insults  here.  But  should  the 
inhabitants  there  give  way,  you  would  soon  see  your  city  and  the 
lower  counties  crowded  with  objects  of  compassion,  as  the  flight 
would  in  that  case  become  general.  Numbers  of  those  who  have 
betaken  themselves  to  the  fort,  as  well  as  those  who  have  actually 
fled,  have  entirely  lost  their  crops,  or  turned  in  their  own  cattle 
and  hogs  to  devour  the  produce,  in  hopes  of  finding  them  again  in 
better  condition  should  it  hereafter  appear  safe  for  them  to  return. 
The  season  has  been  remarkably  fine,  and  the  harvest  in  general 
afforded  the  most  promising  appearance  of  plenty  and  goodness 
that  has  been  known  for  many  years.  But  alas!  how  dismal  an 
alteration  of  the  prospect!  Many  who  expected  to  have  sold  and 
supplied  the  necessities  of  others  now  want  for  themselves,  and 
see  their  warmest  hopes  defeated,  the  fruits  of  their  honest  in- 
dustry snatched  from  them  by  the  merciless  attack  of  these  blood- 
thirsty barbarians,  whose  treatment  of  such  unhappy  wretches  as 
fall  into  their  hands  is  accompanied  with  circumstances  of  in- 
fernal fury,  too  horrid  and  shocking  for  human  nature  to  dwell 
upon  even  in  imagination.  We  were  so  sensible  of  the  importance 
of  Conococheague  settlement,  both  as  a  bulwark  and  supply  to 
this  neighborhood,  that  on  repeated  notice  of  their  growing  dis- 
tress Capt.  Butler,  on  Wednesday  last,  called  the  town  company 

i6o  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

together,  who  appeared  under  arms  on  the  court-house  green  with 
great  unanimity.  Just  as  the  drum  beat  to  arms  we  had  the  agree- 
able satisfaction  of  seeing  a  wagon  sent  up  by  his  excellency 
(whose  tender  care  for  the  security  of  the  province  raised  senti- 
ments of  the  highest  gratitude  in  the  breast  of  every  one  present) 
loaded  with  powder  and  lead, — articles  of  the  greatest  importance 
at  this  critical  juncture,  when  the  whole  country  had  been  drained 
of  those  necessary  articles  by  the  diligence  of  our  Indian  traders, 
who  had  bought  up  the  whole  for  the  supply  of  our  enemies,  to  be 
returned,  as  we  have  dearly  experienced,  in  death  and  desolation 
among  us.  A  subscription  was  then  set  on  foot  and  cheerfully 
entered  into,  in  consequence  of  which  twenty  stout  young  men 
immediately  enlisted  under  Mr.  Peter  Grosh  to  march  immediately 
to  the  assistance  of  the  back  inhabitants,  and  with  other  volunteers 
already  there  raised,  to  cover  the  reapers,  in  hopes  of  securing  the 
crops.  Had  not  the  Governor's  supply  arrived  so  reasonably  it 
was  doubted  whether  the  whole  town  could  have  furnished  am- 
munition sufficient  for  that  small  party,  half  of  which  marched 
backwards  in  high  spirits  on  Thursday,  and  the  remainder  on 
Friday  morning.  And  on  Sunday  subscriptions  were  taken  in  the 
several  congregations  in  town  for  sending  up  further  assistance. 
On  Sunday  afternoon  we  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  Mr.  Michael 
Cresap  arrive  in  town  with  mokosins  on  his  legs,  taken  from  an 
Indian  whom  he  had  killed  and  scalped,  being  one  of  those  who 
had  shot  down  Mr.  Wilder,  the  circumstances  of  whose  much- 
lamented  murder  and  the  success  of  Col.  Cresap's  family  you  no 
doubt  have  received  from  other  hands.  Money  has  been  cheer- 
fully contributed  in  our  town  towards  the  support  of  the  men  to 
be  added  to  Col.  Cresap's  present  force,  as  we  look  upon  the 
preservation  of  the  Old  Town  to  be  of  great  importance  to  us, 
and  a  proper  check  to  the  progress  of  the  savages;  but  notwith- 
standing our  present  efforts  to  keep  the  enemy  at  a  distance,  and 
thereby  shelter  the  whole  province,  our  inhabitants  are  poor,  our 
men  dispersed,  and  without  a  detachment  from  below  it  is  to  be 
feared  we  must  give  way,  and  the  inundation  break  upon  the 
lower  counties. 

The  French  and  Indian  War. 


The  Indian  depredations  continuing,  early  in  1764  two 
expeditions  were  planned,  one  under  Colonel  Bradstreet, 
against  the  Wyandots,  Ottawas,  Chippewas  and  other 
nations  near  the  great  lakes;  the  other,  under  Colonel 
Bouquet,  against  the  Delawares,  Shawnese,  Mingoes, 
Mohickans,  and  other  nations  between  the  Ohio  and  the 
lakes.  Colonel  Bouquet's  force  was  made  up  of  part  of 
the  Forty-second  and  Sixtieth  Regiments,  some  troops 
from  Pennsylvania,  and  two  companies  of  volunteers  from 
Maryland,  riflemen  from  Frederick  county,  one  com- 
manded by  Captain  William  McClellan,  the  other  by  Cap- 
tain John  Wolgamott  These  two  companies  were  made 
up  as  follows: 


William  McClellan. 

John  Earl, 

David  Blair, 

Joseph  Hopewell, 


James  Dougherty. 


John  Moran, 
Edmund  Moran. 


Henry   Graybill. 

David  Shelby, 
George  Rout, 
William  Beadles, 
John  Dean, 
Richard  Arsheraft, 
Nicholas  Carpenter, 
Thomas  Vaughan, 


James  Ross, 
Isaac  Flora, 
Richard  Coomore, 
William  Sparks, 
Thomas  Clemens, 
John  Sealon, 
John  Doughland, 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Patrick  O'Gullen, 
Robert  Ford, 
Joseph  Clemens, 
James  Small, 
Joshua  Young, 
George  Mathison, 
Isaac  Wilcocks, 
William  Hanniel, 
John  Dougherty, 
William  Colvin, 
William  Flora, 

James  Booth, 
James  Dulany, 
William  Fife, 
William  Dunwidie, 
Peter  Ford, 
Thomas  Davis, 
David  Johnson, 

Thomas  Edington, 
James  Bradmore, 
William  Lockhead, 
James  Ware, 
Thomas  Williams, 
John  Masters, 
John  Murray, 
Felix  Leer, 
Bartholomew  Pack, 
Charles  Hays, 
William  Polk. 

John  Wolgamott. 


Matthew  Nicholas. 


John  Blair. 


Samuel  McCord, 
Robert  Blackburn, 
Abraham  Enocks, 
James  Myers, 
William  Marshal, 
James  Fox. 

The  Indians  did  not  make  any  resistance,  but  sued  for 
peace,  and  thus  ended,  for  the  time  being,  the  Indian 
troubles  which  for  years  had  made  the  western  frontiers 
of  Maryland  the  scene  of  terror  and  bloodshed. 


Fort  Frederick. 

uiiil      imiiiOBiia 

LU1UU  uiuiinifiiiiii 
iiuu  .  luinu  ,iU  - 
lum  II  iiiiii  II  ,  V 
uiiii  i  '  II  nil  nr/^  = 

iiiiu  r::::ui  II  (iju^^i^ 
!in»  1  mi  uaii  rrt 
iiui  I  aniuiiu  \'v 
[iiijili  I  iiiiiuiiii  n 
iiuui  I  lujuiiiiinii 
Miun  I  jwiiiiiijii  '^ju 
iiuii   I   luinui    "^11 

HEN  the  first  settlement 
was  made  by  the  Ohio 
Company,  about  the  middle  of  the 
eighteenth  century,  upon  the  land 
they  had  obtained  under  their 
grant,  in  accordance  with  the 
terms  of  that  grant  a  minor  forti- 
fication was  built  at  the  junction 
of  Will's  Creek  with  the  Poto- 
mac river,  for  the  purpose  of 
affording  protection  to  the  settlers.  At  this  time  that  sec- 
tion of  territory  was  supposed  to  be  in  the  colony  of  Vir- 
ginia. After  the  defeat  at  Great  Meadows,  Washington 
retreated  to  Will's  Creek,  and  while  he  went  back  to  Vir- 
gnia  to  report  to  Governor  Dinwiddie,  he  left  his  force  in 
charge  of  Colonel  Innes,  who  commanded  several  com- 
panies of  North  Carolina  troops.  Acting  under  instruc- 
tions from  the  Virginia  government,  during  the  autumn  of 
1754  Colonel  Innes  constructed  a  fort  at  this  point,  which 


164  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

he  called  Fort  Mount  Pleasant.  This  fort  was  little  more 
than  a  blockhouse,  and  a  series  of  stockades.  About  the 
close  of  the  year  Governor  Dinwiddle  received  Instructions 
from  England  to  build  a  fort  at  Will's  Creek  of  such  dimen- 
sions and  character  of  construction  as  the  Importance  of  the 
position  seemed  to  require.  These  Instructions  were  trans- 
mitted to  Colonel  Innes,  who  proceeded  to  build  the  fort. 
The  men  engaged  In  its  construction  were  three  companies 
from  North  Carolina,  under  Colonel  Innes,  two  companies 
from  New  York,  one  from  South  Carolina  and  one  from 
Maryland.  When  it  was  completed  It  was  named,  at  the 
request  of  General  Braddock,  Fort  Cumberland,  in  honor  of 
the  commander-in-chief  of  the  British  army.  This  fort 
was  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Virginia  government. 
For  some  time  it  was  the  sole  protection  for  the  western 
frontier  of  Maryland  against  the  hostile  Indians.  The 
Maryland  settlement  did  not  extend  beyond  the  mouth  of 
the  Conococheague  creek,  in  what  is  now  Washington 
county,  and  this  left  a  wide  extent  of  territory,  about  sixty 
miles,  which  was  without  protection. 

After  the  defeat  of  Braddock  the  Indian  raids  became 
more  frequent  and  a  number  of  blockhouses  were  built 
between  Fort  Cumberland  and  the  western  frontier  to 
which  the  settlers  could  flee  upon  the  raising  of  an  alarm. 
These,  however,  had  but  little  effect  in  preventing  the  raids 
or  In  affording  protection  to  the  settlers.  As  Judge  Stock- 
bridge  says,  "  a  period  of  terror  and  desolation  ensued. 
The  borders  of  Maryland,  Pennsylvania  and  Virginia  be- 
came one  extended  field  of  petty  battles,  murder  und 
devastation.  The  outposts  were  driven  in,  and  some  of 
the  smaller  posts  captured  and  their  garrisons  massacred; 
and  Frederick,  Winchester  and  Carlisle  became  the 
frontiers  of  the  colonies.  Fort  Cumberland  was  still  held 
by  the  troops  under  Captain  Dagworthy,  but  this  Isolated 

Fort  Frederick.  165 

fortress  could  afford  no  protection  against  roving  bands 
of  savages  who  passed  around  it  to  seek  their  prey  in  the 
settlements  beyond.  The  panic  spread  by  the  flying 
British  troops  spread  even  to  the  bay  shore.  Many  of  the 
inhabitants  of  the  interior  fled  to  Baltimore,  and  there 
preparations  were  made  by  the  citizens  to  embark  their 
women  and  children  on  board  the  vessels  in  the  harbor 
preparatory  to  a  flight  to  Virginia,  while  some  of  the 
Virginians  even  believed  that  there  was  no  safety  short  of 
England  itself."^^^ 

The  need  of  further  defenses  was  evident  and  Governor 
Sharpe  did  all  in  his  power  to  procure  the  means  of  secur- 
ing them,  but  the  assembly  was  slow  in  meeting  the  need 
of  the  hour.  Finally,  in  response  to  the  appeals  of  the 
Governor  and  the  urgent  demands  of  the  people,  on  March 
22,  1756,  a  bill  was  passed  appropriating  forty  thousand 
pounds  for  the  defense  of  the  colony,  of  which  eleven 
thousand  pounds  were  to  be  used  for  the  erection  of  a  fort 
and  several  blockhouses  on  the  western  frontier,  and  for 
the  levying,  arming,  paying  and  maintaining  a  body  of 
troops  to  garrison  these  posts.  Governor  Sharpe  at  once 
proceeded  to  put  into  execution  the  plans  he  had  formu- 
lated. He  purchased  from  Peter  and  Jacob  Cloine  a  tract 
of  land  consisting  of  about  one  hundred  and  forty  acres, 
in  Frederick  county,  near  where  Hancock,  Washington 
county,  now  stands.  The  deed  for  the  land  is  dated 
August  19,  1756,  but  Sharpe  was  so  anxious  to  provide 
defenses  that  he  secured  possession  of  the  land  and  began 
the  erection  of  the  fort  before  the  deed  was  executed.  On 
August  21,  1756,  he  wrote  to  Lord  Baltimore: 

As  I  apprehended  that  the  French  would  e'er  long  teach  their 
Indian  Allies  to  approach  &  set  fire  to  our  Stoccado  or  Wooden 

100  « American  Historical  Register,"  Vol.  II.,  p.  748. 

1 66  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Forts  I  thought  proper  to  build  Fort  Frederick  of  Stone,  which 
steps  I  believe  even  our  Assembly  now  approve  of  tho  I  hear  some 
of  them  sometime  since  intimated  to  their  Constituents  that  a 
Stoccado  would  have  been  sufficient  &  that  to  build  a  Fort  with 
Stone  would  put  the  Country  to  a  great  &  unnecessary  Expence, 
but  whatever  their  Sentiments  may  be  with  respect  to  that  matter 
I  am  convinced  that  I  have  done  for  the  best  &  that  my  Conduct 
therein  will  be  approved  by  any  Soldier  &  every  impartial  person. 
The  Fort  is  not  finished  but  the  Garrison  are  well  covered  & 
will  with  a  little  Assistance  compleat  it  at  their  leisure.  Our 
Barracks  are  made  for  the  Reception  &  Accommodation  of  200 
Men  but  on  Occasion  there  will  be  room  for  twice  that  number. 
It  is  situated  on  North  Mountain  near  Potowmack  River,  about 
14  miles  beyond  Conegocheigh  and  four  on  this  Side  of  Licking 
creek.  I  have  made  a  purchase  in  the  Governor's  Name  for  the 
use  of  the  Country  of  150  Acres  of  Land  that  is  contiguous  to  it, 
which  will  be  of  great  Service  to  the  Garrison  &  as  well  as  the 
Fort  be  found  of  great  use  in  case  of  future  Expeditions  to  the 
Westward  for  it  is  so  situated  that  Potowmack  will  be  always 
navigable  thence  almost  to  Fort  Cumberland,  and  the  Flatts  or 
Shallows  of  that  River  lying  between  Fort  Frederick  and  Conego- 
cheigh. It  is  probable  this  Fortification  will  cost  the  Province 
£2000,  but  I  am  told  that  one  is  raising  at  Winchester  in  Virg* 
that  will  not  be  built  for  less  than  four  times  that  Sum,  and 
when  finished  will  not  be  half  so  good.^^° 

This  structure  was  named  Fort  Frederick  in  honor  of 
the  proprietor,  Frederick,  sixth  Lord  Baltimore.  Some 
confusion  has  arisen  from  the  fact  that  there  were  two 
structures  known  as  Fort  Frederick.  During  the  Revolu- 
tion the  general  assembly  of  Maryland,  in  1777,  passed 
an  act  providing  that  there  should  be  erected  "  in  or  near 
Fredericktown  In  Frederick  County,  a  number  of  fit,  con- 
venient and  proper  barracks  of  plain  brick  or  stone  work, 

110  Archives  of  Maryland,  Vol.  VI.,  p.  466. 

Fort  Frederick.  167 

with  a  block  house  at  each  corner  and  ditched  and  palisaded 
in,  sufficient  for  the  reception  of  two  battalions,  with 
officers."  Schultz  says:  "There  is  ground  for  the  belief, 
however,  that  there  was  a  stockade  fort,  or  something  of 
that  character,  on  or  near  their  site  at  the  time  of  the 
French  and  Indian  Wars,  similar  to  those  erected  by  the 
early  settlers  near  the  present  Clearspring  and  Williams- 
port,  to  which  the  women  and  children  retreated  when 
the  Indians  became  troublesome."^^ ^ 

Fort  Frederick  was  built  on  a  hill  about  one  hundred 
feet  above  the  level  of  the  Potomac  and  about  one-third 
of  a  mile  from  the  river.  From  its  position  it  commanded 
the  surrounding  country.  Describing  its  construction, 
Scharf  says : 

"The  old  fort  occupied  an  acre  and  a  half  of  ground,  and  Its 
massive  walls  of  hard  magneslan  limestone  are  four  feet  thick  at 
the  bottom,  and  two  feet  at  the  top.  The  stone,  which  Is  mostly 
in  large,  Irregular  blocks,  was  brought  from  the  mountain  three 
miles  distant,  and  Is  laid  In  such  excellent  mortar  that  nothing  but 
an  earthquake  or  the  hand  of  man  will  ever  shatter  the  walls. 
These  are  seventeen  and  a  half  feet  In  height  at  the  highest  point, 
and  are  very  fairly  preserved.  The  greatest  damage  that  has  been 
done  was  the  cutting  of  a  wagon-gate  through  the  west  curtain 
sixty  years  ago,  and  now  Nathan  Williams,  Its  present  owner,  has 
pulled  down  the  west  bastion  to  make  room  for  his  barn.  The 
fort  Is  square,  with  a  bastion  at  each  angle.  The  south  bastion  Is 
the  best  preserved,  but  the  whole  structure  Is  very  far  from  being 
a  ruin.  The  portal  was  twelve  feet  wide,  and  the  immensity  of 
the  gates  may  be  judged  by  the  fact  that  one  of  the  iron  hinges, 
which  Williams  kept  until  a  few  years  ago,  weighed  forty-two 
pounds.  There  is  not  a  piece  of  the  old  wood-work  left,  some 
curiosity-seekers  having  carried  off  the  last  bit  In  1858.  Gen. 
Kenly's  First  Maryland  Regiment  occupied  the  fort  In  1861,  and 

m  "  First  Settlements  of  Germans  in  Maryland,"  p.  56. 

1 68  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

knocked  a  hole  in  the  wall  through  which  to  point  a  gun  for  taking 
pot  shots  at  the  Confederates  across  the  Potomac.  The  original 
armament  of  the  fort  was  a  gun  in  each  bastion,  worked  en  bar- 
bette, and  within  the  enclosure  were  the  barracks."^^^ 

But  Governor  Sharpe's  troubles  over  the  building  of 
Fort  Frederick  were  far  from  being  ended.  His  original 
estimate  of  the  cost  of  building  the  structure  fell  far  short 
of  the  actual  cost,  and  he  was  compelled  to  ask  the  as- 
sembly for  more  money  with  which  to  complete  it.  Then, 
too,  the  cost  of  maintaining  the  garrison  and  paying  the 
troops  was  no  small  item.  The  residents  of  the  eastern 
section  of  the  colony,  at  a  distance  from  the  scene  of  the 
Indian  raids,  did  not  realize  just  what  they  meant,  and 
could  not  see  why  so  much  money  was  required  for  the 
protection  of  the  western  settlers.  Their  idea  was  to 
keep  down  the  expenditures  as  much  as  possible,  so  that 
there  were  constant  disputes  between  the  executive  and  the 
assembly  on  the  question  of  providing  means  to  carry  on 
the  war.  On  December  15,  1757,  the  House  of  Delegates 
made  the  following  address  on  the  subject  of  Fort 
Frederick : 

"  Near  the  sum  of  £6000  has  been  expended  in  purchasing  the 
ground  belonging  to  and  constructing  Fort  Frederick,  and  though 
we  have  not  any  exact  information  what  sum  may  still  be  wanting 
to  complete  it  (if  ever  it  should  be  thought  proper  to  be  done),  yet 
we  are  afraid  the  sum  requisite  for  that  purpose  must  be  con- 
siderable, and  we  are  apprehensive  that  the  fort  is  so  large  that,  in 
case  of  attack,  it  cannot  be  defended  without  a  number  of  men 
larger  than  the  province  can  support,  purely  to  maintain  a  forti- 

On  June  9,   1758,  Governor  Sharpe  wrote  to  General 
Forbes,"^  giving  a  detailed  account  of  the  trouble  over 

112  History  of  Western  Maryland,  Vol.  II.,  p.  1298. 

113  Archives  of  Maryland,  Vol.  IX.,  p.   1-98. 

Fort  Frederick.  169 

the  payment  of  the  troops.  Lord  Loudoun  had  proposed 
that  Maryland  should  raise  and  support  five  hundred  men 
to  garrison  Fort  Cumberland  and  Fort  Frederick,  but  in- 
stead of  agreeing  to  this  proposal  the  assembly  included  in 
the  bill  which  they  passed  a  provision  which  prohibited  the 
Maryland  troops  from  garrisoning  Fort  Cumberland,  or 
at  all  events,  giving  fair  warning  that  if  these  troops  did 
go  to  Fort  Cumberland  they  would  not  be  paid  by  the 
province  of  Maryland.  Fuel  was  added  to  the  flames  of 
the  dispute  by  Virginia  turning  over  Fort  Cumberland  to 
Maryland.  When  the  Virginia  troops  retired  from  the 
fort  it  was  necessary  for  their  place  to  be  taken  by  Mary- 
landers,  but  the  Maryland  assembly  absolutely  refused  to 
agree  to  this.  However,  Governor  Sharpe  took  the 
matter  into  his  own  hands  and  sent  Captain  Dagworthy 
with  one  hundred  and  fifty  of  his  men  from  Fort  Fred- 
erick, to  garrison  Fort  Cumberland.  As  the  assembly 
would  not  authorize  the  enlistment  of  more  troops, 
Governor  Sharpe  called  for  volunteers  and  his  call  was 
promptly  answered  by  the  settlers  of  Frederick  county,  so 
that  Fort  Frederick  was  soon  garrisoned  by  a  force  of  two 
hundred  and  fifty  hardy  pioneers,  under  Captain  Alexander 
Beall.  As  the  assembly  refused  to  appropriate  money  to 
pay  and  maintain  the  garrison,  the  cost  had  to  be  met  by 
private  subscriptions.  Writing  to  Sir  John  St.  Clair,  on 
March  27,   1758,  Governor  Sharpe  says: 

I  am  obliged  to  you  for  encouraging  General  Forbes  to  enter- 
tain a  favourable  opinion  of  me  &  of  my  Desires  to  forAvard  the 
Service,  but  I  am  much  afraid  that  it  will  not  be  in  my  power  to 
confirm  it.  In  short,  I  cannot  promise  him  any  men  from  this 
Province  unless  He  or  General  Abercromby  will  engage  to  pay 
them  &  I  have  taken  the  Liberty  to  tell  him  as  much  in  the  Letter 
I  have  now  sent.     It  is  well  Capt  Dagworthy  &  the  Rest  of  our 

170  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Officers  taught  their  men  to  live  without  Victuals  last  Summer; 
otherwise  they  may  not  have  found  it  so  easy  a  matter  to  keep  them 
together  6  months  without  pay  in  the  Winter.  How  much  longer 
they  will  be  contented  to  serve  on  this  Footing  I  cannot  tell,  but 
lest  Accidents  should  happen  I  hope  some  other  Troops  will  be 
ordered  to  Fort  Cumberland  as  soon  as  possible.^^* 

The  difficulty  about  the  payment  of  the  troops  was 
partially  overcome  by  taking  some  of  them  into  the  king's 
service,  and  on  one  occasion  General  Forbes  advanced 
sufficient  money  to  pay  them  something,  although  he  said 
that  he  could  not  undertake  to  take  care  of  the  arrearage. 

The  road  between  Fort  Frederick  and  Fort  Cumberland 
was  a  rough  and  circuitous  one,  and  several  attempts  to 
remedy  this  were  made.  Writing  to  Governor  Sharpe 
from  "  Conlgogegh,"  on  June  13,  1758,  Colonel  Bouquet 

As  it  will  be  of  the  greatest  benefit  to  His  Majesty's  Service, 
to  have  a  road  of  communication  open  from  Each  of  the  Provinces 
to  Fort  Cumberland  I  am  under  the  necessity  of  requesting  you 
to  have  the  straightest  Road  reconnoitred,  leading  from  Fort 
Frederick  to  Fort  Cumberland:  Recommanding  to  those  you  ap- 
point to  mark  it  out  to  report  the  time  that  500  men  will  take  to 
cut  it:  any  Expence  you  may  be  at  shall  be  paid  by  Sir  John  S* 
Clair;  as  he  will  be  the  nearest  to  you.  Please  to  send  him  the 
Report  of  it,  that  if  found  practicable  he  may  send  Troops  to 
work  at  it.^^® 

Two  days  later  Sharpe  directed  Captain  Evan  Shelby 
to  survey  a  route  for  a  road  and  make  a  report  as  to  the 
cost  and  the  time  required  to  make  it,  and  on  the  25th 
of  the  same  month  Captain  Shelby  reported  that  "Upon 

11*  Archives  of  Maryland,  Vol.  IX.,  p.  164. 
116  Archives  of  Maryland,  Vol.  IX.,  p.  205. 

Fort  Frederick.  171 

the  whole,  it  is  my  opinion  that  a  Road  might  be  made 
between  the  two  Forts  which  will  not  be  60  miles  in  Length 
&  there  will  be  no  bad  Pinches  for  Waggons  to  ascend 
nor  any  bad  Fords."  The  road  was  evidently  not  con- 
structed at  that  time,  for  in  the  following  December  the 
assembly  appointed  a  commission  to  determine  whether  a 
better  road  could  not  be  built.  This  commission  consisted 
of  Colonel  Thomas  Cresap,  Joseph  Chapline,  E.  Dorsey, 
Josias  Beall,  Francis  King  and  Captain  Crabb.  After 
investigating  the  subject  the  commission  reported  as 
follows : 

Your  committee  have  made  an  inquiry  into  the  situation  of  the 
present  wagon-road  from  Fort  Frederick  to  Fort  Cumberland, 
and  are  of  the  opinion  that  the  distance  by  that  road  from  one 
fort  to  the  other  is  at  least  eighty  miles,  and  find  that  the  wagons 
which  go  from  one  fort  to  the  other  are  obliged  to  pass  the  river 
Potowmack  twice,  and  that  for  one-third  of  the  year  they  can't 
pass  without  boats  to  set  them  over  the  river. 

Your  committee  have  also  made  an  inquiry  into  the  condition  of 
the  ground  where  a  road  may  be  made  most  conveniently  to  go 
altogether  on  the  north  side  of  the  Potowmack,  which  will  not 
exceed  the  distance  of  sixty-two  miles,  at  the  expense  of  £250 
current  money. 

Your  committee  are  of  the  opinion  that  a  road  through  Mary- 
land will  contribute  much  to  lessen  the  expense  of  carrying 
provisions  and  warlike  stores  from  Fort  Frederick  to  Fort  Cum- 
berland, and  will  induce  many  people  to  travel  and  carry  on  a 
trade  in  and  through  the  province,  to  and  from  the  back  country.^^® 

This  report  was  accompanied  by  an  itemized  account  of 
the  distances  and  the  probable  cost  of  building  each  stretch 
of  the  road.  This  road  was  eventually  built,  and,  as  the 
commission's  report  had  indicated,  did  prove  of  great  ad- 
vantage to  the  province. 

11''  Scharf's  "  History  of  Western  Maryland,"  Vol.  II.,  p.  1328. 

172  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

The  erection  and  occupation  of  Fort  Frederick  gave  the 
settlers  in  that  section  the  protection  they  needed.  The 
Indians  soon  learned  to  avoid  the  locality  of  the  fort. 
Writing  to  Lord  Loudoun,  on  October  12,  1756,  Gov- 
ernor Sharpe  says:  "No  Indians  have  been  down  among 
the  Inhabitants  for  a  considerable  time,  nor  appeared  on 
this  side  of  Fort  Frederick."  After  the  fall  of  Fort  Du- 
quesne  and  the  withdrawal  of  the  French  from  the  Ohio 
river,  the  necessity  for  the  continued  maintenance  of  Fort 
Frederick  ceased.  Governor  Sharpe  accordingly  leased  the 
property  on  which  it  was  built  to  Henry  Heinzman,  for 
a  rental  of  thirty  pounds  yearly.  The  lease  was  dated 
December  25,  1762,  and  provided  that  "whereas  there  is 
not  any  garrison  or  soldiers  at  the  said  Fort  Frederick,  and 
several  persons  who  live  at  or  near  the  said  fort  do,  and 
if  not  prevented,  will  continue  to  make  great  waste  and 
destruction  of  the  said  fort  and  improvements  by  burning 
the  plank  and  other  materials, "^^'''  possession  of  it  was 
to  be  given,  the  Governor  reserving  the  right  to  enter  upon 
the  property  and  annul  the  lease  at  any  time  when  he 
might  need  the  same  for  military  purposes. 

Scarcely  had  Fort  Frederick  been  turned  over  to  the 
uses  of  peace  when  another  war-cloud  began  to  gather  on 
the  horizon.  The  tension  between  the  colonies  and  the 
mother-country  grew  greater  and  greater,  and  finally  the 
cords  which  bound  them  together  were  broken  and  the 
struggle  was  on;  but  still  the  tide  of  warfare  did  not 
surge  near  the  old  fort.  Its  walls  looked  down  upon 
peace  and  quiet,  for  the  German  settlers  in  western  Mary- 
land were  not  slow  in  going  to  the  defense  of  the  liberties 
of  their  adopted  country,  and  many  of  the  fields  and 
plantations   in   the   neighborhood  were   almost   deserted. 

11'^  Stockbridge  in  "  American  Historical  Register,"  Vol.  II.,  p.  75+. 

Fort  Frederick.  lyt 

During  the  earlier  years  of  the  Revolutionary  War  the 
British  and  Hessian  prisoners  were  confined  at  various 
points  in  Pennsylvania :  Reading,  Lancaster,  York,  Bethle- 
hem and  Lebanon,  but  after  the  occupation  of  Philadelphia 
by  the  British,  particularly  as  there  were  rumors  of  an 
uprising  among  the  prisoners,  the  War  Office  decided  to 
transfer  some  of  the  prisoners  to  some  point  further  inland, 
and  Fort  Frederick  was  investigated  to  determine  whether 
it  would  be  a  suitable  place  for  the  purpose.  On  Decem- 
ber 1 6,  1777,  the  following  letter  was  written  to  Colonel 
Moses  Rawlins: 

As  you  are  about  returning  home  by  way  of  Fort  Frederick  in 
Maryland,  the  Board  of  War  request  you  will  take  a  view  of 
the  situation  of  that  place  and  represent  the  state  you  find  it  in 
immediately.  As  it  is  proposed  to  send  a  number  of  prisoners  of 
war  thither,  you  will  examine  it  with  a  view  to  this  design.  You 
will  see  how  many  men  it  is  capable  of  holding,  what  repairs  are 
wanting,  how  soon  those  repairs  can  be  made,  whether  workmen 
can  be  procured  in  this  vicinity  to  do  the  work,  and  whether 
materials  are  within  reasonable  distance.  You  will  also  report 
how  many  men  you  think  it  will  be  necessary  to  employ  as  guards 
for  the  number  of  prisoners  the  place  is  capable  of  receiving,  and 
every  other  matter  which  shall  occur  to  you  as  necessary  for  the 
information  of  the  Board. 

Colonel  Rawlins  reported  that  the  fort  could  easily 
be  put  in  condition  for  the  confinement  of  the  prisoners,  and 
the  Maryland  assembly  directed  that  the  necessary  repairs 
be  made.  The  assembly  also  provided  for  a  guard  for 
the  prisoners.  During  part  of  the  time  this  guard  con- 
sisted of  Captain  John  Kershner's  company.  On  July  27, 
1778,  this  company  was  made  up  as  follows: 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Jno.  McLaughlin, 

Luke  Sholly, 
Martain  Phipher, 

Jacob  Craver, 
Jacob  Barnt, 

John  Oster, 

Michael  Hartly, 
George  Stuart, 
George  Hudson, 
Jno.  Shriber, 
Ellas  Reeter, 
George  Carter, 
Abraham  Bower, 

John  Kershner. 


Peter  Backer. 

Wm.  Conrod. 


David  Wolgamot, 
George  Fanglar. 


Peter  Conn, 
John  Conn. 

Drum  and  Fife. 

Peter  Lighter. 


Christlain  Kirgery, 
James  Flack, 
George  May, 
Chris.  Shock, 
Jno.  Robinson, 
Jacob  Geerhert, 
David  Fosney, 

Martain  Harry  (or  Narry),  Richd.  Menson, 

Andrew  Miller, 

Peter  Haflegh  (Hoeflich), 

Fredk.  Craft, 

Henry  Tyce, 

Goodhert  Tressel, 

Peter  Oster, 
Thos.  McCullim, 
Casper  Snider, 
Peter  Rough, 
Adam  Sydey, 

Fort  Frederick.  175 

Jacob  Binkler,  Abraham  Feeter, 

Abraham  Troxal,  Jr.,  John  Augusteen, 

Jacob  Rldenour,  Jacob  Rorer, 

Peter  Adams,  Peter  Sybert, 

Abraham  Leedy,  Michl.  Spesser, 

Jno.  Gable,  Fredk.  Deefhem  (or  Deef- 

Mlchael  Kernam,  herr), 

Danl.  Kemmer,  Fredk.  Shackler, 

Adam  Coon,  Phillip  Criegh, 

Jacob  Adams,  David  Wirley, 

Jno.  FIche,  Chrlstiain  Nockey 

Mathw.  Williams,  (or  Hockey), 

Wm.  Allin,  Jacob  Tysher. 

A  number  of  prisoners  from  various  points  in  Pennsyl- 
vania were  transferred  to  Fort  Frederick.  At  first  some 
of  the  prisoners  were  allowed  to  work  for  the  neighboring 
farmers,  but  it  was  found  that  this  plan  had  disadvantages 
and  in  the  autumn  of  1778  the  Board  of  War  directed 
Colonel  Rawlins  to  *'  call  in  all  the  prisoners  In  the  neigh- 
borhood of  your  post  or  its  dependencies  and,  as  the 
practice  of  letting  them  out  to  farmers  and  suffering  them 
to  go  at  large  is  attended  with  great  mischiefs,  you  will  in 
future  keep  them  in  close  confinement." 

After  the  surrender  of  Cornwallls  a  large  number  of 
the  prisoners  taken  at  that  time  were  sent  to  Fort 

In  September,  1791,  by  direction  of  the  Legislature  of 
Maryland,  Fort  Frederick  was  sold  to  Robert  Johnson,  of 
Frederick  county,  for  three  hundred  and  seventy-five 
pounds,  ten  shillings,  since  which  time  it  has  belonged  to 
a  number  of  different  people.  For  a  short  time  during 
the  Civil  War  the  fort  was  occupied  by  some  of  General 
Kenly's  command. 

The  Pre-Revolutionary  Period. 


ITH  the  end  of  Pon- 
tiac's  war  and  the  sign- 
ing of  the  treaty  between  Eng- 
land and  France  peace  and 
quiet  returned  to  the  western 
part  of  Maryland,  and  the 
settlers  returned  to  their  de- 
serted homes.  Many  of  them, 
however,  were  in  almost  a  desti- 
tute condition.  Not  only  had 
their  crops  been  destroyed  and 
their  domestic  animals  driven 
off  or  killed,  but,  in  many  cases, 
all  their  buildings  with  their  contents  had  been  burned. 
Then,  too,  many  of  them  had  fallen  in  arrears  in  the  pay- 
ment of  their  rents,  so  that  their  situation  was  deplorable. 
Their  poverty  was  emphasized  by  the  fact  that  there  were 
constant  demands  upon  them  for  fees  and  taxes.  The 
British  government,  at  the  close  of  the  French  and  Indian 

The  Pre-Revolutionary  Period.  177 

War,  found  itself  staggering  under  an  immense  debt,  and 
as  it  had  been  incurred  in  a  war  in  America,  although  the 
underlying  principles  which  led  to  it  had  their  foundations 
at  home,  it  was  speciously  assumed  that  the  colonies  should 
defray  the  expenses  of  the  war,  and  steps  were  taken  to 
bring  this  about. 

In  March,  1765,  the  Stamp  Act  was  passed.  This  pro- 
vided that  all  bills,  bonds,  leases,  notes,  ships'  papers,  in- 
surance policies,  and  legal  documents,  to  be  valid  in  the 
courts,  must  be  written  on  stamped  paper.  The  passage 
of  this  act  was  instantly  resented  by  the  colonists,  and 
nowhere  were  the  indignation  and  determination  to  resist 
the  enforcement  of  the  law  more  pronounced  than  among 
the  German  settlers  in  western  Maryland.  Indeed,  the 
first  open  stand  against  the  use  of  the  stamped  paper  and 
the  determination  to  transact  business  without  the  use  of 
stamps  was  made  in  Frederick  county,  which  at  that  time 
Included  the  whole  of  western  Maryland. 

Zachariah  Hood,  a  native  of  Maryland,  and  a  mer- 
chant of  Annapolis,  who  was  In  England  at  the  time,  was 
appointed  stamp  distributor  for  the  province  of  Mary- 
land. So  Intense  was  the  feeling  of  the  Inhabitants  of 
Maryland  that  when  Hood  returned  with  the  stamps  and 
a  cargo  of  goods  he  was  not  allowed  to  land.  Knowing 
that  the  open  threats  of  the  people  to  burn  the  stamps  if 
they  were  brought  on  shore  would  be  carried  out,  the 
authorities  deemed  It  advisable  that  no  opportunity  should 
be  given  for  such  proceedings,  and  the  stamps  were  kept 
on  board  ship  and  finally  taken  to  Virginia,  where  they 
could  be  held  under  the  protection  of  a  British  ship  of  war. 
In  the  meantime  business  of  all  kinds  was  held  up.  There 
were  many  legal  papers  which  could  not  be  issued  except 
on  stamped  paper,  and  there  were  no  stamps  In  the  colony. 


178  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Indignation  meetings  were  held  everywhere  and  resolu- 
tions were  passed  condemning  the  passage  of  the  Stamp 
Act  and  refusing  to  use  the  stamps,  and  in  many  places 
Zachariah  Hood,  the  stamp  distributor,  was  burned  in 
effigy.  The  matter  was  brought  to  a  head  in  Frederick 
county.  At  a  meeting  of  the  Frederick  county  court,  on 
November  18,  1765,  Judges  Joseph  Smith,  David  Lynn, 
Charles  Jones,  Samuel  Beall,  Joseph  Beall,  Peter  Bain- 
bridge,  Thomas  Price,  Andrew  Hugh,  William  Blair,  Wil- 
liam Luckett,  James  Dickson  and  Thomas  Beatty  being 
present,  the  following  order  was  made : 

Upon  application  of  Michael  Ashford  Dowden,  bail  of  James 
Veach,  at  the  suit  of  a  certain  Stephen  West  to  surrender  said 
James  Veach  in  discharge  of  himself,  which  the  court  ordered  to 
be  done,  and  an  entry  of  the  surrender  to  be  made  accordingly, 
which  John  Darnall,  Clerk  of  the  Court,  refused  to  make,  and 
having  also  refused  to  issue  any  process  out  of  his  office,  or  to  make 
the  necessary  entries  of  the  Court  proceedings,  alleging  that  he 
conceives  there  is  an  Act  of  Parliament  imposing  stamp  duties  on 
all  legal  proceedings,  and  therefore  that  he  cannot  safely  proceed 
in  exercising  his  office  without  proper  stamps. 

It  is  the  unanimous  resolution  and  opinion  of  this  Court  that  all 
the  business  thereof  shall  and  ought  to  be  transacted  in  the  usual 
and  accustomed  manner,  without  any  inconvenience  or  delay  to  be 
occasioned  from  the  want  of  Stamped  Paper,  Parchment,  or  Vel- 
lum, and  that  all  proceedings  shall  be  valid  and  effectual  without 
the  use  of  Stamps,  and  they  enjoin  and  order  all  Sheriffs,  Clerks, 
Counsellors,  Attorneys,  and  all  officers  of  the  Court  to  proceed  in 
their  several  avocations  as  usual,  which  Resolution  and  Opinion 
are  grounded  on  the  following  and  other  reasons: 

1st.  It  is  conceived  that  there  has  not  been  a  legal  publication 
yet  made  of  any  Act  of  Parliament  whatever  imposing  a  Stamp 
Duty  on  the  Colonies.  Therefore  this  Court  are  of  opinion  that 
until  the  existence  of  such  an  Act  is  properly  notified,  it  would  be 

The  Pre-Revolutionary  Period.  179 

culpable  in  them  to  permit  or  suffer  a  total  stagnation  of  business^ 
which  must  inevitably  be  productive  of  innumerable  injuries  to 
individuals,  and  have  a  tendency  to  subvert  all  principles  of  civil 

2d.  As  no  Stamps  are  yet  arrived  in  this  Province,  and  the  in- 
habitants have  no  means  of  procuring  any,  this  Court  are  of 
opinion  that  it  v^^ould  be  an  injustice  of  the  most  v^^anton  oppres- 
sion to  deprive  any  person  of  a  legal  remedy  for  the  recovery  of 
his  property  for  omitting  that  w^hich  it  is  impossible  to  perform.^^' 

The  clerk  of  the  court,  to  protect  himself,  refused  to 
comply  with  this  order,  whereupon  the  Court  ordered 

That  John  Darnall,  clerk  of  this  Court,  be  committed  to  the 
custody  of  the  sheriff  of  this  county  for  a  contempt  of  the  authority 
of  this  court,  he  having  refused  to  comply  with  the  foregoing 
order  of  this  Court  relative  to  the  execution  of  his  office  in  issuing 
processes  and  making  the  necessary  entries  of  the  Court's  proceed- 
ings; and  that  he  stands  committed  for  the  above  offense  until  he 
comply  with  the  above  mentioned  order.^^^ 

On  the  issuance  of  this  order  the  clerk  submitted  to  the 
order  of  the  court,  paid  the  costs  and  was  discharged. 
This  was  the  beginning  of  the  overthrow  of  the  Stamp 
Act,  and  on  November  30  a  celebration  in  honor  of  the 
decision  of  the  court  was  held  at  Frederick.  The  Mary- 
land Gazette  of  December  16,  1765,  gives  an  extended 
account  of  this  celebration,  which  is  quoted  by  Scharf.^^o 
The  action  taken  in  Frederick  county  was  followed  in  other 
parts  of  the  province,  so  that  so  far  as  Maryland  was  con- 
cerned the  Stamp  Act  was  absolutely  disregarded.  The 
law  was  repealed  on  March  18,  1766. 

The  next  year,  however,  a  law  was  passed  imposing 

"8  Scharf's  "  History  of  Western  Maryland,"  Vol.  I.,  p.  izz. 

119  Ibid. 

120  History  of  Western  Maryland,  Vol.  I.,  p.  i2Z. 

i8o  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

duties  on  glass,  paper,  pasteboard,  white  and  red  lead, 
painters'  colors,  and  tea  imported  into  the  colonies.  The 
passage  of  this  act  quickly  revived  the  opposition  of  the 
colonists,  and  associations  were  formed  to  oppose  the  col- 
lection of  the  taxes,  the  members  pledging  themselves  to 
non-importation.  These  pledges  were  generally  strictly 
adhered  to,  although  occasionally  some  merchant,  seeing 
a  chance  to  make  a  good  profit,  violated  the  conditions  of 
the  agreement.  But  the  punishment  for  such  actions  was 
swift  and  sure,  and  the  instances  of  it  were  rare,  "  In 
October,  1769,  a  number  of  wagons  of  contraband  goods, 
valued  at  three  hundred  pounds,  were  shipped  from  Penn- 
sylvania to  Frederick,  and  not  being  accompanied  with 
the  proper  certificates,  they  were  stored  at  the  risk  and  cost 
of  the  owners."^^^ 

Meetings  to  protest  against  the  imposition  of  these  taxes 
were  held  in  all  the  counties.  The  Maryland  Gazette  gives 
an  account  of  a  meeting  held  in  Frederick  county  on  August 
28,  1770.  The  place  of  meeting  was  a  school  house,  near 
Troxell's  mill,  on  Tom's  creek.  Among  those  present  were 
William  Blair,  James  Shields,  Sr.,  William  Shields,  Charles 
Robinson,  Patrick  Haney,  Robert  Brown,  Henry  Hocker- 
smith,  William  Elder,  son  of  Guy,  Samuel  Westfall, 
Moses  Kennedy,  Alexander  Stewart,  William  Curran,  Jr., 
Charles  Carroll,  William  Koontz,  Christian  Hoover,  John 
Smith,  Daniel  McLean,  John  Faires,  John  Long,  Arthur 
Row,  John  Crabs,  Moses  Ambrose,  George  Kelly,  Walter 
Dulany,  Thomas  J.  Bowie,  James  Park,  Robert  Agnew, 
John  Corrick,  Frederick  Troxell,  Rudolf  Nead,  Octavius 
S.  Taney,  George  Ovelman,  Dominick  Bradley,  Thomas 
Hughes,  Philip  Weller,  Jacob  Valentine,  William  Brawner, 
Thomas  Martin,  Daniel  Morrison,  William  Munroe,  and 

121  Scharf's  "  History  of  Western  Maryland,"  Vol.  I.,  p.  124. 

The  Pre-Revolutionary  Period.  i8i 

Henry  Brook.     At  this  meeting  the  following  resolution 
was  adopted: 

Resolved,  by  the  inhabitants  of  Tom's  Creek,  Frederick  County, 
in  the  province  of  Maryland,  loyal  to  their  king  and  country  that 
we  reaffirm  the  great  Magna  Charta  of  our  Civil  and  Religious 
Rights,  as  granted  by  Charles  of  England  to  Lord  Baltimore  and 
the  inhabitants  of  this  colony,  as  reaffirmed  on  the  first  landing  of 
the  Pilgrim  Fathers  of  Maryland,  that  there  shall  be  a  perfect 
freedom  of  conscience,  and  every  person  be  allowed  to  enjoy  his 
religious  and  political  privileges  and  immunities  unmolested. 

The  opposition  of  the  colonists  to  the  imposition  of 
these  taxes  and  the  adoption  of  a  policy  of  non-Importa- 
tion were  so  general  that  the  British  government  found  it 
impossible  to  enforce  the  law,  and  with  the  exception  of 
the  tax  on  tea  it  was  allowed  to  fall  into  abeyance.  With 
the  destruction  of  the  cargo  of  tea  in  Boston  harbor  and 
the  subsequent  passage  of  the  Boston  Port  Bill,  in  1774, 
the  indignation  of  the  colonists  and  their  determination  to 
oppose  the  oppressive  measures  of  the  British  government 
became  so  Intense  that  the  majority  of  the  people  were 
ready  to  follow  any  one  who  would  take  a  determined  stand 
against  the  unpopular  measures.  At  that  period  the  ma- 
jority of  the  population  of  Maryland  lived  In  the  western 
part  of  the  province,  within  the  limits  of  what  was  then 
Frederick  county,  and  of  these  by  far  the  greater  number 
were  the  Germans  who  had  come  down  from  Pennsylvania, 
and  their  descendants.  These  people  had  abondoned  their 
homes  across  the  ocean  and  had  come  to  America  to  escape 
from  just  such  oppression,  and  it  was  but  natural,  there- 
fore, that  they  should  quickly  resent  any  attempts  of  the 
British  government  to  enforce  what  appeared  to  be  unjust 
laws,  particularly  in  the  matter  of  taxation.  The  Inhabi- 
tants of  Frederick  county,  therefore,  generally  took  the 

1 82  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

lead  in  proposing  measures  for  the  relief  of  the  people. 
Their  action  following  the  passage  of  the  Boston  Port  BUI 
was  prompt.  On  June  ii,  1774,  the  Inhabitants  of  the 
lower  part  of  Frederick  county  held  a  largely  attended 
meeting  at  the  tavern  of  Charles  Hungerford.  They 
elected  Henry  Griffith  moderator  and  adopted  the  follow- 
ing resolutions : 

Resolved  unanimously.  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  this  meeting 
that  the  town  of  Boston  is  now  suffering  in  the  common  cause  of 

Resolved,  unanimously.  That  every  legal  and  constitutional 
measure  ought  to  be  used  by  all  America  for  procuring  a  repeal  of 
the  act  of  Parliament  for  blocking  up  the  harbor  of  Boston. 

Resolved,  unanimously ,  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  this  meeting 
that  the  most  effectual  means  for  the  securing  American  freedom 
will  be  to  break  off  all  commerce  with  Great  Britain  and  the  West 
Indies  until  the  said  act  be  repealed,  and  the  right  of  taxation 
given  up  on  permanent  principles. 

Resolved^  unanimously ,  That  Mr.  Henry  Griffith,  Dr.  Thomas 
Sprigg  Wootton,  Nathan  Magruder,  Evan  Thomas,  Richard 
Brooke,  Richard  Thomas,  Zadok  Magruder,  Dr.  William  Baker, 
Thomas  Cramphin,  Jr.,  and  Allen  Bowie  be  a  committee  to  attend 
the  general  committee  at  Annapolis,  and  of  correspondence  for  the 
lower  part  of  Frederick  county,  and  that  any  six  of  them  shall  have 
power  to  receive  and  communicate  intelligence  to  and  from  their 
neighboring  committees. 

Resolved,  unanimously.  That  a  copy  of  these  our  sentiments  be 
immediately  transmitted  to  Annapolis,  and  inserted  in  the  Mary- 
land Gazette.  Signed  per  oroer, 

Archibald  Orme,   Clerk.^^'^ 

Nine  days  later,  on  June  20,  a  meeting  was  held  In  the 
court  house  at  Frederick,  at  which  John  Hanson  presided, 
and  the  following  resolutions  were  adopted: 

1^2  Force's  "  American  Archives,"  Series  IV.,  Vol.  I.,  p.  403. 

The  Pre-Revolutionary  Period.  183 

I.  Resolved,  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  this  meeting  that  the  town 
of  Boston  is  now  suffering  in  the  common  cause  of  America,  and 
that  it  is  the  duty  of  every  colony  in  America  to  unite  in  the  most 
effectual  means  to  obtain  a  repeal  of  the  late  act  of  Parliament  for 
blocking  up  the  harbor  of  Boston. 

II.  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  a  great  majority  of  this  meeting 
that  if  the  colonies  come  into  a  joint  resolution  to  stop  all  imports 
from,  and  exports  to,  Great  Britain  and  the  West  Indies  till  the 
act  of  Parliament  for  blocking  up  the  harbor  of  Boston,  as  well 
as  every  other  act  oppressive  to  American  liberty,  be  repealed,  the 
same  may  be  the  means  of  preserving  to  America  her  rights,  liberties 
and  privileges. 

III.  That,  therefore,  this  meeting  will  join  in  an  association 
with  the  several  counties  in  this  province  and  the  principal  colonies 
in  America  to  put  a  stop  to  all  exports  to,  and  imports  from,  Great 
Britain  and  the  West  Indies,  shipped  after  the  25th  day  of  July 
next,  or  such  other  day  as  may  be  agreed  on,  until  the  said  acts 
shall  be  repealed,  and  that  such  association  shall  be  upon  oath. 

IV.  That  we,  the  inhabitants  of  Frederick  county,  will  not  deal 
or  have  any  connections  with  that  colony,  province,  or  town  which 
shall  decline  or  refuse  to  come  into  similar  resolutions  with  a 
majority  of  the  colonies. 

V.  That  no  suit  shall  be  commenced  after  the  stop  shall  be  put 
to  imports  and  exports  for  the  recovery  of  any  debt  due  to  any 
person  whatsoever,  unless  the  debtor  be  about  to  abscond,  or  being 
appealed  to  shall  refuse  to  give  bond  and  security. 

VI.  That  Messrs.  John  Hanson,  Thomas  Price,  George  Scott, 
Benjamin  Dulany,  George  Murdock,  Philip  Thomas,  Alexander 
C.  Hanson,  Baker  Johnson,  and  Andrew  Scott  be  a  committee  to 
attend  the  general  congress  at  Annapolis,  and  that  those  gentlemen, 
together  with  Messrs.  John  Gary,  Christopher  Edelen,  Conrad 
Groth,  Thomas  Schley,  Peter  Hoffman,  and  Archibald  Boyd,  be  a 
committee  of  correspondence  to  receive  and  answer  letters,  and  in 
any  emergency  to  call  a  general  meeting,  and  that  any  six  shall  have 
power  to  act. 

184  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Ordered,  that  these  resolves  be  immediately  sent  to  Annapolis, 
that  they  may  be  printed  in  the  Maryland  Gazette. 

Signed  per  order, 

Archibald  Boyd,  CI.  Com.'^^^ 

The  inhabitants  of  the  upper  part  of  Frederick  county 
met  at  Elizabeth-Town,  now  Hagerstown,  on  July  2.  The 
Maryland  Gazette  gives  the  following  account  of  this 

On  Saturday,  the  2d  of  July,  1774,  about  eight  hundred  of  the 
principal  inhabitants  of  the  upper  part  of  Frederick  County,  Md., 
assembled  at  Elizabeth  Town,  and  being  deeply  impressed  with  a 
sense  of  the  danger  to  which  their  natural  and  constitutional  rights 
and  privileges  were  exposed  by  the  arbitrary  measures  of  the 
British  Parliament,  do  think  it  their  duty  to  declare  publicly  their 
sentiments  on  so  interesting  a  subject,  and  to  enter  Into  such  Reso- 
lutions as  may  be  the  means  of  preferring  their  freedom.  After 
choosing  John  Stull,  Esq.,  their  Moderator,  the  following  resolves 
were  unanimously  entered  Into: 

I.  That  the  Act  of  Parliament  for  blocking  up  the  harbor  of 
the  Town  of  Boston  is  a  dangerous  invasion  of  American  liberty, 
and  that  the  town  of  Boston  is  now  suffering  in  the  common  cause, 
and  ought  to  be  assisted  by  the  other  Colonies. 

II.  That  the  stopping  all  commercial  intercourse  with  Great 
Britain  will  be  the  most  effectual  means  for  fixing  our  Liberties 
on  the  footing  we  desire. 

III.  That  a  general  congress  of  Delegates  from  the  several 
colonies  to  effect  a  uniform  plan  of  conduct  for  all  America  is 
highly  necessary,  and  that  we  will  strictly  adhere  to  any  measure 
that  may  be  adopted  by  them  for  the  preservation  of  our  Liberties. 

IV.  That  the  surest  means  for  continuing  a  people  free  and  happy 
is  the  disusing  all  luxuries,  and  depending  only  on  their  own  fields 
and  flocks  for  the  comfortable  necessaries  of  Life. 

123  Force's  "American  Archives,"  Series  IV.,  Vol.  I.,  p,  433, 

The  Pre-Revolutionary  Period.  185 

V.  That  they  will  not,  after  this  day,  drink  any  Tea,  nor  suffer 
the  same  to  be  used  in  their  Families,  until  the  Act  for  laying 
duty  thereon  be  repealed. 

VI.  That  they  will  not,  after  this  day,  kill  any  sheep  under  three 
years  old. 

VII.  That  they  will  immediately  prepare  for  manufacturing 
their  own  clothing. 

VIII.  That  they  will  immediately  open  a  subscription  for  the 
relief  of  their  suffering  Brethren  in  Boston. 

After  choosing  John  Stull,  Samuel  Hughes,  Jonathan  Hager, 
Conrad  Hogmire,  Henry  Snebley,  Richard  Davis,  John  Swan, 
Charles  Swearingen,  Thomas  Brooke,  William  McGlury,  and  Elie 
Williams  as  a  committee,  they  proceeded  to  show  their  disappro- 
bation of  Lord  North's  Conduct  with  regard  to  America  by  Hang- 
ing and  burning  his  Effigy,  after  which  a  subscription  was  opened 
for  the  relief  of  the  Poor  of  Boston.  In  consequence  of  the  Fifth 
Resolve,  a  number  of  mercantile  Gentlemen  solemnly  declared  that 
they  would  send  off  all  the  Tea  they  had  on  hand  and  that  they 
would  not  purchase  any  more  until  the  Act  laying  a  duty  thereon 
be  repealed,  among  which  number  was  a  certain  John  Parks. 

A  great  deal  has  been  written  concerning  the  "  Boston 
Tea-party,"  but  there  were  tea-parties  in  other  parts  of  the 
colonies  which,  while  they  may  not  have  been  so  spectacular 
as  the  one  at  Boston,  were  just  as  effective  In  the  results 
obtained.  As  McSherry  says  "Long  before  the  destruc- 
tion of  tea  In  Boston  harbor  by  disguised  men  the  patriots 
of  Maryland  calmly,  openly,  and  In  the  presence  of  the 
governor  and  the  provincial  officers  discussed  and  set  at 
defiance  this  obnoxious  act  and  prevented  Its  execution."^ 2* 
The  most  spectacular  occurrence  of  this  kind  In  Maryland 
was  the  destruction  of  the  brlgP^^^y  Stewart.  In  October, 
1774,  that  vessel  arrived  at  Annapolis  having  among  its 

1^*  "  History  of  Maryland,"  revised  ed.,  p.  ii6. 

1 86  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

cargo  several  packages  of  tea  consigned  to  Thomas  Wil- 
liams &  Co.  The  vessel  was  owned  by  Anthony  Stewart, 
who  paid  the  duty  on  the  tea.  As  soon  as  this  became 
known  a  public  meeting  was  called  at  which  the  greatest 
indignation  was  expressed.  The  merchants  who  received 
the  tea  were  present  at  the  meeting  and  publicly  apologized 
for  having  done  so  and  agreed  to  burn  the  tea.  But  this 
did  not  entirely  satisfy  the  people,  who  openly  made  threats 
against  the  vessel  and  its  owner.  Mr.  Stewart,  in  order  to 
quiet  the  people,  offered  to  destroy  the  vessel  himself. 
This  proposition  was  accepted  and  Mr.  Stewart,  accom- 
panied by  the  merchants  to  whom  the  tea  was  consigned, 
went  aboard  the  Peggy  Stewart,  ran  her  aground  at  Wind- 
mill Point,  and  set  fire  to  her  in  the  presence  of  a  great 
crowd  of  people. 

In  the  account  given  above  of  the  meeting  at  Elizabeth- 
Town  "a  certain  John  Parks"  is  mentioned.  It  seems 
that  Parks  did  not  abide  by  the  agreement  not  to  buy  any 
more  tea,  and  when  it  was  discovered  that  he  had  a  chest  of 
tea  in  his  possession  he  was  summoned  before  the  Com- 
mittee. He  admitted  the  fact  and  agreed  to  deliver  the  tea 
to  the  Committee.  The  Maryland  Gazette  of  December 
22,  1774,  gives  the  following  account  of  the  subsequent 
proceedings  in  this  case: 

The  committee  for  the  upper  part  of  Frederick  county,  Mary- 
land, having  met  at  Elizabeth  Town,  on  the  26th  of  November, 
which  was  the  day  appointed  for  the  delivery  of  John  Park's  chest 
of  tea,  in  consequence  of  his  agreement  published  in  the  Maryland 
Journal  of  the  i6th  ult.  After  a  demand  was  made  of  the  same, 
Mr.  Parks  offered  a  chest  of  tea,  found  on  a  certain  Andrew  Gib- 
son's plantation,  Cumberland  County,  Pennsylvania,  by  the  com- 
mittee for  that  place,  which  tea  he  declared  was  the  same  he 
promised  to  deliver. 

The  Pre-Revolutionary  Period.  187 

The  committee  are  sorry  to  say  that  they  have  great  reason  to 
believe,  and  indeed  with  almost  a  certainty,  that  the  said  chest  of 
tea  was  in  Cumberland  county  at  the  time  Parks  said  upon  oath  it 
wzs  at  Christen  Bridge. 

After  mature  deliberation,  the  Committee  were  of  opinion,  that 
Parks  should  go  with  his  hat  off,  and  lighted  torches  in  his  hands, 
and  set  fire  to  the  tea,  which  he  accordingly  did,  and  the  same  was 
consumed  to  ashes,  amongst  the  acclamations  of  a  numerous  body 
of  people.  The  Committee  were  also  of  opinion  that  no  further 
intercourse  should  be  had  with  the  said  Parks.  Every  friend  to 
liberty  is  requested  to  pay  due  attention  to  the  same. 

Voted,  the  thanks  of  this  committee  to  that  of  Cumberland 
county,  for  their  prudent  and  spirited  behaviour  upon  this  occasion. 

Signed  by  order  of  the  committee, 

John  Stull,  President. 

N.  B.  The  populace  thought  the  measures  adopted  by  the  com- 
mittee were  inadequate  to  the  transgression,  and  satisfied  them- 
selves by  breaking  his  door  and  windows.^^^ 

On  November  18,  1774,  a  meeting  of  the  qualified 
voters  of  Frederick  county  was  held  at  the  court  house  In 
Frederick  and  the  following  gentlemen  were  named  to 
represent  the  county,  and  to  carry  Into  execution  the  asso- 
ciation agreed  upon  by  the  Continental  Congress:  Charles 
Beatty,  Henry  Griffith,  Thomas  Sprigg  Wooton,  Jacob 
Hunk,  Nath.  Magruder,  Richard  Thomas,  Evan  Thomas, 
Richard  Brooke,  Zadock  Magruder,  William  Baker, 
Thomas  Cramphin,  Jr.,  John  Murdock,  Thomas  Jones, 
Allen  Bowie,  Jr.,  William  Deaklns,  Jr.,  Bernard  O'Neal, 
Brook  Beall,  Edward  Burgess,  Charles  G.  Griffith,  Henry 
Griffith,  Jr.,  Wm.  Bayley,  Jr.,  Samuel  W.  Magruder, 
Nath.  Offutt,  Archibald  Orm,  Joseph  Threlkeld,  Walter 
Smith,  Thos.  Beall  of  George,   Richard  Crab,  William 

125  Force's  "  American  Archives,"  Fourth  Series,  Vol.  I.,  p.  1009;  Ridge  Vs 
"  Annals  of  Annapolis,"  p.  164. 

1 88  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Luckett,  William  Luckett,  Jr.,  Greenbury  Griffith,  Samuel 
Griffith,  John  Hanson,  Thomas  Price,  Thomas  Bowles, 
Conrad  Grosh,  Thomas  Schley,  Jonathan  Wilson,  Francis 
Deakins,  Casper  Schaaf,  Peter  Hoffman,  George  Scott, 
Baker  Johnson,  Philip  Thomas,  Alexander  C.  Hanson, 
Archibald  Boyd,  Arthur  Nelson,  Andrew  Scott,  George 
Strieker,  Adam  Fisher,  Wm.  Ludwick,  Weltner  Van 
Swearengen,  William  J.  Beall,  Jacob  Young,  Peter  Grosh, 
iEneas  Campbell,  Elias  Bnmer,  Frederick  Kemp,  John 
Haas,  John  Romsburg,  Thomas  Hawkins,  Upton  Sher- 
edine,  John  Lawrence,  Basil  Dorsey,  Charles  Warfield, 
Ephraim  Howard,  Joseph  Wells,  David  Moore,  Joseph 
Wood,  Norman  Bruce,  William  Blair,  David  Schriver, 
Roger  Johnson,  Henry  Cock,  Robert  Wood,  William 
Albaugh,  Jacob  Mathias,  Henry  Crawle,  Jacob  Ambrose, 
David  Richards,  William  Winchester,  Philip  Fishbum, 
William  Hobbs,  Thomas  Cresap,  Thomas  Warren,  Thos. 
Humphreys,  Richard  Davis,  Jr.,  Charles  Clinton,  James 
Prather,  George  Brent,  James  Johnson,  James  Smith, 
Joseph  Chapline,  John  Stull,  Samuel  Beall,  Jr.,  William 
Baird,  Joseph  Sprigg,  Christian  Orendorf,  Jonathan 
Hager,  Conrad  Hogmire,  Charles  Swearengen,  Henry 
Snavely,  Richard  Davis,  Samuel  Hughes,  Joseph  Perry, 
John  Jugerhorn,  Joseph  Smith,  Thomas  Hog,  Thomas 
Prather,  William  McClary,  John  Swan,  Eli  Williams, 
Stophall  Burkett,  and  Thomas  Brooke. ^^^  Any  five  of 
them  had  power  to  act. 

At  the  same  time  the  following  were  named  as  a  Com- 
mittee of  Correspondence :  Charles  Beatty,  Thos.  Sprigg 
Wooton,  John  Hanson,  Thomas  Bowles,  Casper  Shaaf, 
Thomas  Price,  Baker  Johnson,  Philip  Thomas,  George 
Murdock,  Alexander  C.  Hanson,  Thomas  Cramphin,  Jr., 
William    Bayley,    Jr.,    Evan   Thomas,    Richard   Brooke, 

126  Force's  "  American  Archives,"  Fouth  Series,  Vol.  I.,  p.  986. 

The  Pre-Revolutionary  Period.  189 

Thomas  Johns,  Walter  Smith,  William  Deakins,  John 
Murdock,  Bernard  O'Neal,  John  Stull,  Samuel  Beall,  Jr., 
James  Smith,  Joseph  Chapline,  Joseph  Sprigg,  Charles 
Swearengen,  Rich.  Davis,  Jonathan  Hager,  and  Joseph 

The  following  were  also  elected  to  attend  the  Provincial 
Convention :  Charles  Beatty,  Henry  Griffith,  Thos.  Sprigg 
Wooton,  Jacob  Funk,  Evan  Thomas,  Richard  Brooke, 
Upton  Sheredine,  Baker  Johnson,  Thomas  Price,  Joseph 
Chapline,  and  James  Smith. 

The  Provincial  Convention,  which  met  on  December 
8,  adopted  resolutions  recommending  that  the  inhabitants 
of  the  province,  from  sixteen  to  fifty  years  of  age,  form 
themselves  into  companies  of  sixty-eight  men,  and  elect  a 
captain,  two  lieutenants,  an  ensign,  four  sergeants,  four 
corporals,  and  a  drummer  for  each  company,  and  to  use 
their  utmost  endeavors  to  make  themselves  masters  of  mili- 
tary exercise.  It  was  also  recommended  that  each  man  be 
provided  with  a  good  firelock  and  bayonet  fixed  thereon, 
half  a  pound  of  powder,  two  pounds  of  lead,  and  a  car- 
touch-box  or  powder-horn,  and  a  bag  for  ball,  and  be  in 
readiness  to  act  in  any  emergency. 

When  they  had  made  up  their  minds  to  act,  the  citizens 
of  Frederick  county  were  fired  with  enthusiasm,  and  in 
order  that  all  the  necessary  precautions  might  be  taken 
another  meeting  of  the  citizens  of  the  county  was  called 
to  be  held  at  the  court  house  on  Tuesday,  January  24, 
1775.  At  this  meeting  John  Hanson  was  made  chairman, 
and  Archibald  Boyd,  secretary.  The  association  and  re- 
solves of  the  American  Congress  and  the  proceedings  of 
the  last  Provincial  Convention  were  read  and  unanimously 
approved,  and  the  following  resolutions  adopted  r^^"^ 

127  Force's  "American  Archives,"  Fourth  Series,  Vol.  I.,  p.  1173. 

190  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

I.  Resolvedj  That  Messrs.  Charles  Beatty,  Henry  Griffith, 
Thomas  Sprigg  Wooton,  Jacob  Funk,  and  Nathan  Magruder, 
Richard  Brooke,  Zadock  Magruder,  William  Baker,  Thomas 
Cramphin,  Jr.,  Alexander  Bowie,  Jr.,  William  Deakins,  Jr.,  John 
Murdock,  Thomas  Johns,  Bernard  O'Neal,  Brooke  Beall,  Edward 
Burgess,  Charles  G.  Griffith,  Henry  Griffith,  Jr.,  William  Bayley, 
Jr.,  Samuel  Magruder,  Nathaniel  OfiFutt,  Archibald  Orme,  Joseph 
Threlkeld,  Walter  Smith,  Thomas  Beall  of  George,  Richard 
Crabb,  William  Luckett,  William  Luckett,  Jr.,  Greenbury  Grif- 
fith, Samuel  Griffith,  John  Hanson,  Thomas  Price,  Thomas 
Bowles,  Conrad  Grosh,  Thomas  Archley,  Jonathan  Wilson,  Francis 
Deakins,  Casper  Schaaff,  Peter  Hoffman,  George  Scott,  Baker 
Johnson,  Philip  Thomas,  Alexander  C.  Hanson,  Archibald  Boyd, 
Arthur  Nelson,  Andrew  Scott,  George  Strieker,  Adam  Fisher,  Wm. 
Ludwick,  Weltner  Van  Swearengen,  Wm.  M.  Beall,  Jacob 
Young,  Peter  Grosh,  ^neas  Campbell,  Elias  Brunner,  Frederick 
Kemp,  John  Haas,  John  Remsburg,  Thomas  Hawkins,  Upton 
Sheredine,  Basil  Dorsey,  John  Lawrence,  Charles  Warfield, 
Ephraim  Howard,  Joseph  Wells,  David  Moore,  Joseph  Wood, 
Norman  Bruce,  William  Blair,  David  Schriver,  Roger  Johnson, 
Henry  Cock,  Robert  Wood,  William  Albaugh,  Jacob  Mathias, 
Henry  Crawle,  Jacob  Ambrose,  David  Richards,  William  Win- 
chester, Philip  Fishburn,  William  Hobbs,  Thomas  Cresap,  Thomas 
Warren,  Thomas  Humphreys,  Richard  Davis,  Jr.,  Charles  Clinton, 
James  Prather,  George  Bent,  James  Johnson,  James  Smith,  Joseph 
Chapline,  John  Stull,  Samuel  Beall,  Jr.,  William  Baird,  Joseph 
Sprigg,  Christian  Orendorff,  Jonathan  Hager,  Conrad  Hogmire, 
Charles  Swearingen,  Henry  Snavely,  Richard  Davis,  Samuel 
Hughes,  Joseph  Perry,  Joseph  Smith,  Thomas  Hog,  Thomas 
Prather,  William  McClary,  John  Swan,  Eli  Williams,  Christopher 
Burkett,  Thomas  Brooke,  Michael  Raymer,  Nicholas  Tice,  John 
Adlum,  Samuel  Norwood,  Bartholomew  Booth,  Jacob  Boyer, 
Michael  Jacob  Miller,  Andrew  Bruce,  John  Darnall,  John  Rems- 
burg, William  Dorran,  John  Key,  John  Beall,  John  McCallister, 
Charles  Beall,  Lewis  Kemp,  John  Stoner,  Thomas  Beatty,  Thomas 

The  Pre-Revohitionary  Period.  191 

Gilbert,  Abraham  Hoff,  P.  Henry  Thomas,  Jacob  Good,  Westel 
Ridgely,  Samuel  Carrick,  Abraham  Hosteter,  Baltzer  Kelcholumer, 
Samuel  Emmet,  John  Gary,  Christopher  Edelin,  Amos  Riggs, 
John  Grimber,  Leonard  Smith,  Nicholas  Hower,  Richard  North- 
craft,  John  Herriot,  Richard  Smith,  Zacharias  Ellis,  Azel  Waters, 
Martin  Cassil,  James  Johnson,  George  Bare,  Benjamin  Johnson, 
and  Abraham  Paw  be  a  committee  of  observation,  with  full  powers 
to  prevent  any  infraction  of  the  said  institution,  and  to  carry  the 
resolves  of  the  American  Congress  and  of  the  Provincial  Conven- 
tion into  execution ;  that  any  seventy-five  of  those  gentlemen  have 
power  to  act  for  the  county,  and  any  five  in  each  of  the  larger 
districts  be  authorized  to  act  in  any  manner  that  concerns  such 
Division  only. 

II.  Resolved,  That  the  gentlemen  appointed  at  the  last  meeting 
of  this  County  a  committee  of  Correspondence  be  hereby  con- 
tinued, and  that  the  duration  of  their  authority  be  limited  to  the 
second  Tuesday  in  October  next. 

III.  Resolved,  As  the  most  convenient  and  effectual  method 
of  raising  the  sum  of  $1,333,  being  this  County's  proportion  of  the 
$10,000  which  the  provincial  convention  has  appointed  to  be  raised 
for  the  purchase  of  arms  and  ammunition,  that  a  subscription  be 
immediately  opened  in  every  part  of  the  County,  and  the  following 
gentlemen  be  appointed  to  promote  such  subscriptions  in  their 
several  Hundreds: 

For  Salisbury  Hundred,  Jonathan  Hager,  Henry  Snavely  and 
Jacob  Sellers. 

For  Upper  Catoclin,  Peter  Bainbridge,  Benjamin  Eastburn, 
Caspar  Smith,  and  Thomas  Johnson. 

For  the  Lower  part  of  New  Foundland,  Edward  Burgess,  Walter 
Beall,  Joseph  Perry. 

For  Skipton,  Thomas  Cresap,  Moses  Rawlings,  and  Richard 
Davis,  Jr. 

For  Georgetown,  William  Deakins,  Thomas  Johns,  Walter 

For  Sharpsburg,  Joseph  Chapline  and  Christian  Orendorf. 

192  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

For  Lower  part  of  Potomack  Hundred,  William  Bayley,  Sam- 
uel Wade  Magruder,  Andrew  Hugh,  and  Charles  Jones. 

For  Tom's  Creek  Hundred,  William  Blair,  William  Sheales, 
and  Benjamin  Ogle. 

For  Catoclin  Hundred,  George  Strieker,  William  Luckett,  Jr., 
and  Westel  Ridgely. 

For  Upper  Antietam  Hundred,  Jacob  Funk,  Conrad  Hogmire, 
Joseph  Perry,  John  Ingram. 

For  Linton  Hundred,  Martin  Johnson,  and  Joseph  Flint. 

For  Cumberland  Hundred,  Charles  Clinton. 

For  Middle  Monocacy,  Thomas  Beatty,  Mathias  Ringer,  Chris- 
topher Stull,  and  T.  Flemming. 

For  Rock  Creek  Hundred,  Thomas  Cramphin,  Zadock  Magru- 
der, W.  Baker,  and  Allen  Bowie. 

For  Sugar  Loaf  Hundred,  Francis  Deakins,  R.  Smith,  L.  Plum- 
mer,  Z.  Waters,  and  Z.  Linthicum. 

For  Burnt  Woods  Hundred,  Ephraim  Howard,  Charles  War- 
field,  David  Moore,  John  Lawrence,  Henry  Crowle,  and  William 

For  Lower  Antietam  Hundred,  Thomas  Hog,  Henry  Butler, 
and  Thomas  Cramphin. 

For  Linganore  Hundred,  John  Beall,  Charles  G.  Griffith,  Nicho- 
las Hobbs,  Basil  Dorsey,  and  William  Duvall. 

For  Conococheague,  David  Jones  Isaac  Baker,  and  Jacob  Friend. 

For  Piney  Creek  Hundred,  Jacob  Good,  John  McCallister, 
Samuel  McFarren,  Abraham  Hiter,  and  John  Key. 

For  Lower  Monocacy  Hundred,  Lewis  Kemp,  John  Darnall, 
Thomas  Nowland,  and  Leonard  Smith. 

For  Northwest  Hundred,  Samuel  Harwood,  Peter  Becraft,  and 
Richard  Beall,  of  Samuel. 

For  Marsh  Hundred,  Charles  Swearingen,  Eli  Williams,  James 
Smith,  Richard  Davis,  and  George  Swimley. 

For  Upper  Part  of  Potomac  Hundred,  Brooke  Beall,  Samuel 
West,  Nathaniel  Ofifutt,  and  Alexander  Clagett. 

For  Seneca,  Charles  Perry,  Richard  Crabb,  Gerard  Briscoe. 

The  Pre-Revolutionary  Period.  193 

For  Pipe  Creek  Hundred,  Andrew  Bruce,  William  Winchester, 
David  Schriver,  and  Nathaniel  Norris. 

For  Manor  Hundred,  William  Beatty,  Joseph  Wood,  Jr.,  Azel 
Waters,  John  Remsburg,  Abraham  Hoff,  and  Valentine  Creager. 

For  Upper  Part  of  Monocacy  Hundred,  Henry  Cox,  Roger 
Johnson,  Richard  Butler. 

For  Upper  Part  of  New  Foundland  Hundred,  Henry  Griffith, 
Richard  Brooke,  and  Henry  Gaither,  Sr. 

For  Elizabeth  Hundred,  John  Stull,  Otho  Holland  Williams, 
John  Swan,  and  John  Rench. 

For  Fredericktown  Hundred,  Phil.  Thomas,  Thomas  Price, 
Baker  Johnson,  Peter  Hoffman,  and  Ludwick  Weltner. 

For  Fort  Frederick  Hundred,  Ezekiah  Cox. 

For  Sugar  Land  Hundred,  ^neas  Campbell,  John  Fletcher, 
John  Luckett,  Alexander  Whitaker,  and  Solomon  Simpson. 

The  said  gentlemen  are  instructed  to  apply  personally,  or  by 
Deupty,  to  every  freeman  in  their  respective  Districts,  and  to 
solicit  a  generous  contribution. 

They  are  ordered  to  state  accounts  of  money  received,  and  pay  it 
to  the  Committee  of  Correspondence,  which  is  hereby  appointed 
to  meet  at  Fredericktown,  the  23d  day  of  March  next:  and  they 
are  further  ordered  to  report  to  the  said  Committee  the  names  of 
persons  (if  any)  who  shall  refuse  to  subscribe. 

IV.  That  Messrs.  Thomas  Johnson,  William  Deakins,  Charles 
Beatty,  George  Murdock,  John  Stull,  and  John  Swan,  or  any  one 
of  them,  be  empowered  to  contract,  in  behalf  of  the  Committee  of 
Correspondence,  for  any  quantity  of  powder  and  Lead,  to  be  paid 
for  on  the  said  23d  day  of  March. 

V.  In  order  that  a  committee  of  observation  may  be  more  con- 
veniently chosen,  and  a  more  proper  representation  of  the  people 
may  be  had,  the  several  collectors  in  each  Hundred  are  desired  to 
give  notice  to  those  qualified  by  their  estates  to  vote  for  Repre- 
sentatives of  some  time  and  place  of  meeting  in  the  Hundred,  to 

elect    members    for    a    Committee,    agreeably    to    the    following 

194  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

When  the  number  of  taxables  exceed  two  hundred,  and  amounts 
to  not  more  than  four  hundred,  the  District  shall  elect  three  mem- 
bers. The  Collectors  are  ordered  to  return  such  Representatives 
to  the  Committee  of  Correspondence  on  the  23d  day  of  March; 
the  Committee  so  chosen  shall  then  meet,  and  the  authority  of  the 
present  Committee  of  Observation  shall  be  dissolved. 

VI.  Resolved,  That  Messrs.  John  Hanson,  Charles  Beatty, 
Upton  Sheredine,  Baker  Johnson,  Philip  Thomas,  Jacob  Funk, 
Samuell  Beall,  Joseph  Chapline,  John  StuU,  James  Smith,  Henry 
Griffith,  Thomas  Sprigg  Wootton,  Richard  Brooke,  William 
Deakins,  and  Thomas  Cramphine,  or  any  five  of  them,  shall  repre- 
sent this  County  to  any  Provincial  convention  to  be  held  at  the 
city  of  Annapolis  before  the  second  Tuesday  of  October  next.  A 
petition  from  the  People  called  Dunkers  and  Mennonists  was 
read.  They  express  a  willingness  freely  to  contribute  their  money 
In  support  of  the  common  cause  of  America,  but  pray  an  exemp- 
tion from  the  Military  Exercise  on  the  score  of  their  Religious 

Resolved,  That  this  petition  be  referred  to  the  Committee  to  be 
chosen  agreeably  to  the  fifth  Resolve.  In  the  mean  time  it  is 
strictly  enjoined  that  no  violence  be  offered  to  the  person  or  prop- 
erty of  any  one,  but  that  all  grounds  of  complaint  be  referred  to 
said  Committee. 

Arch.  Boyd,  Clerk. 

Although  making  preparations  to  be  ready  for  any  con- 
tingency, the  German  citizens  of  Maryland  were  not,  as  a 
rule,  prepared  to  go  to  the  length  of  severing  their  con- 
nection with  Great  Britain.  They  considered  that  their 
rights  had  been  Invaded,  but  they  also  thought  that  this 
matter  could  be  adjusted  by  the  British  government  with- 
out going  to  the  length  of  a  separation  of  the  colonies  from 
the  mother  country.  In  the  latter  part  of  1774  the  magi- 
strates of  Frederick  county  adopted  the  folowing  address 
to  their  representatives  In  the  Provincial  Convention : 

The  Pre-Revolutionary  Period.  195 

Address  of  the  Magistrates  of  Frederick  County,  Maryland,  to 
the  Honourable  Matthew  Tilghman,  Thomas  Johnson,  Robert 
Goldsborough,  William  Paca  and  Samuel  Chase,  Esquires. 

We  the  Subscribers,  Magistrates  of  Frederick  County,  sensible  of 
the  disinterested  services  you  have  rendered  your  county  on  many 
occasions,  but  particularly  as  Deputies  from  this  Province  to  the 
Continental  Congress,  beg  leave  to  return  you  our  sincere  acknowl- 
edgements. The  vs^hole  of  the  proceedings  of  that  important  As- 
sembly are  so  replete  w^ith  loyalty  to  the  King;  with  tenderness  to 
the  interest  of  our  fellow-subjects  in  Great  Britain ;  and  above  all, 
reverential  regard  to  the  rights  and  liberties  of  America,  that  they 
cannot  fail  to  endear  you  to  every  American,  and  your  memory  to 
their  latest  posterity."^ 

The  magistrates  who  signed  this  address  were  chiefly  of 
English  extraction,  but  at  the  same  time  the  Grand  Jury, 
made  up  partly  of  German  citizens,  also  forwarded  an  ad- 
dress to  the  same  representatives.  In  this  address,  after 
endorsing  the  action  of  the  Continental  Congress,  the  Grand 
Jury  goes  on  to  say:  "Permit  us,  gentlemen,  to  observe, 
that  Councils  tampered  with  such  filial  loyalty  to  the  Sov- 
ereign, such  fraternal  delicacy  for  the  sufferings  of  our 
friends  in  Great  Britain,  and  at  the  same,  with  such  un- 
shaken zeal  for  the  preservation  of  the  inestimable  privi- 
leges derived  from  our  admirable  Constitution,  cannot 
fail  to  give  weight  and  influence  to  the  cause,  and  must 
moderate  and  relax  the  minds  of  our  most  poignant 
enemies."^  2^ 

But,  as  Dr.  Steiner  says,  "The  'most  poignant  enemy' 
was  King  George,  and  when  the  men  of  Frederick  dis- 
covered that  fact,  all  'filial  loyalty'  was  lost  and  they 
girded  themselves  for  the  fray." 

"8  Force's  "  American  Archives,"  Series  IV.,  Vol.  I.,  p.  992. 
i2»Ibid.,  p.  993. 



Preparing  for  the  Struggle. 


EXINGTON  and  Bunker 
Hill  will  always  be  bril- 
liantly illuminted  pages  in  the 
history  of  America,  and  the 
Minute  Men  who  had  the  te- 
merity to  contest  the  advance 
of  Major  Pitcaim  and  his  reg- 
ulars, and  the  farmer  boys  be- 
hind the  fence  on  Breed's  Hill  who  twice  drove  back  the 
crack  Welsh  Fusileers,  will  always  be  entitled  to  their  due 
meed  of  praise.  They  were  the  advance  guard  in  the 
struggle  with  the  mother  country,  and  were  steadfast  in 
the  hour  of  need,  and  are  justly  honored  for  the  part 
they  played.  But  after  they  had  begun  the  contest  and 
others  were  needed  to  reinforce  them  and  continue  the 
work,  it  was  the  sturdy  Germans  from  the  south:  from 
Pennsylvania  and  Maryland,  who  hurried  to  their  aid. 
The  first  troops  from  the  other  provinces  to  reach  Cam- 
bridge after  the  battle  of  Bunker  Hill  were  the  two  com- 

1 96 

Preparing  for  the  Struggle.  197 

panics  from  Frederick  county,  Maryland,  made  up  largely 
of  Germans.  This  was  but  the  beginning,  and  although 
many  of  these  Germans  were  opposed  to  war  and  had  come 
to  this  country  to  escape  from  the  burdens  imposed  upon 
them  by  it,  they  left  their  homes  and  their  untilled  fields 
and  joined  the  bands  of  patriots,  prepared  to  back  their 
desire  for  the  freedom  they  had  been  promised  with  the 
rifle  and  bayonet.  It  is  impossible  to  estimate  the  full  value 
of  their  services,  but  considering  the  numbers  of  them  who 
served  in  the  patriot  army  throughout  the  war,  it  can  be 
stated  as  an  incontrovertible  fact  that  without  the  aid  of 
the  Germans  from  Pennsylvania  and  Maryland  the  issue 
of  the  Revolutionary  War  would  have  been  more  than 

The  news  of  the  fight  at  Lexington  reached  Annapolis 
on  the  morning  of  April  26th,  and  couriers  rapidly  carried 
it  to  all  parts  of  the  colony.  The  excitement  produced  by 
the  information  that  the  war  had  been  begun  had  scarcely 
begun  to  subside  when  news  was  received  of  the  battle  of 
Bunker  Hill,  which  was  fought  on  June  17,  1775.  Three 
days  before  the  Continental  Congress  had  adopted  a  reso- 
lution providing  for  a  battalion  of  riflemen,  two  companies 
of  which  were  to  be  raised  in  Maryland,  two  in  Virginia, 
and  six  in  Pennsylvania.  The  two  Maryland  companies 
were  assigned  to  Frederick  county,  and  it  was  ordered  that 
as  soon  as  they  were  enlisted  they  were  to  be  marched  to 
Boston.  A  meeting  of  the  Committee  of  Observation  for 
Frederick  county  was  held  in  the  court-house  at  Frederick 
on  June  21,  and  at  this  meeting  John  Hanson,  chairman  of 
the  Maryland  delegation  to  the  Continental  Congress, 
read  the  resolution  adopted  by  that  body  just  a  week 
before.  The  committee  at  once  adopted  a  resolution  direct- 
ing that  the  two  companies  of    expert  riflemen  be  forth- 

198  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

with  raised  and  named  the  following  officers  for  the 
companies : 

First  Company. — Michael  Cresap,  captain;  Thomas 
Warren,  Joseph  Cresap,  Jr.,  and  Richard  Davis,  Jr., 

Second  Company. — Thomas  Price,  captain;  Otho  Hol- 
land Williams  and  John  Ross  Key,  lieutenants. 

These  companies  were  promptly  recruited  from  among 
the  expert  riflemen  of  Frederick  county,  a  large  propor- 
tion of  whom  were  Germans.  Unfortunately  the  muster 
rolls  of  these  companies  have  not  been  preserved,  or  at 
least  cannot  be  found,  so  that  the  names  of  these  patriots 
cannot  be  given.  So  prompt  was  the  organization  of  these 
companies  that  by  the  middle  of  July  they  were  ready  to 
start  on  their  march  to  Boston.  The  appearance  of  these 
riflemen  and  their  skill  as  marksmen  attracted  attention 
everywhere.  Writing  to  a  friend  In  Philadelphia,  under 
date  of  August  i,  1775,  a  gentleman  In  Frederick  says:^^° 

Notwithstanding  the  urgency  of  my  business,  I  have  been  detained 
three  days  in  this  place  by  an  occurrence  truly  agreeable.  I  have 
had  the  happiness  of  seeing  Captain  Michael  Cresap  marching  at 
the  head  of  a  formidable  company  of  upwards  of  one  hundred  and 
thirty  men,  from  the  mountains  and  backwoods,  painted  like 
Indians,  armed  with  tomahawks  and  rifles,  dressed  in  hunting- 
shirts  and  moccasins,  and  though  some  of  them  had  travelled  near 
eight  hundred  miles  from  the  banks  of  the  Ohio,  they  seemed  to 
walk  light  and  easy,  and  not  with  less  spirit  than  at  the  first  hour 
of  their  march.  Health  and  vigour,  after  what  they  had  undergone, 
declared  them  to  be  intimate  with  hardship  and  familiar  with 
danger.  Joy  and  satisfaction  were  visible  in  the  crowd  that  met 
them.  Had  Lord  North  been  present,  and  been  assured  that  the 
brave  leader  could  raise  thousands  of  such  like  to  defend  his  Coun- 

130  Force's  "  American  Archives,"  Fourth  Series,  Vol.  III.,  p.  2. 

Preparing  for  the  Struggle.  199 

try,  what  think  you,  would  not  the  hatchet  and  block  have  intruded 
upon  his  mind?  I  had  an  opportunity  of  attending  the  Captain 
during  his  stay  in  Town,  and  watched  the  behaviour  of  his  men, 
and  the  manner  in  which  he  treated  them ;  for  it  seems  that  all  who 
go  out  to  war  under  him  do  not  only  pay  the  most  willing  obedi- 
ence to  him  as  their  commander,  but  in  every  instance  of  distress 
look  up  to  him  as  their  friend  or  father.  A  great  part  of  his  time 
was  spent  in  listening  to  and  relieving  their  wants,  without  any 
apparent  sense  of  fatigue  and  trouble.  When  complaints  were 
before  him  he  determined  with  kindness  and  spirit,  and  on  every 
occasion  condescended  to  please  without  losing  his  dignity. 

Yesterday  the  company  were  supplied  with  a  small  quantity  of 
powder  from  the  magazine,  which  wanted  airing,  and  was  not  in 
good  order  for  rifles ;  in  the  evening,  however,  they  were  drawn  out 
to  show  the  gentlemen  of  the  Town  their  dexterity  at  shooting.  A 
clapboard,  with  a  mark  the  size  of  a  dollar,  was  put  up;  they  began 
to  fire  offhand,  and  the  bystanders  were  surprised,  few  shots  being 
made  that  were  not  close  to  or  in  the  paper.  When  they  had  shot 
for  a  time  in  this  way,  some  lay  on  their  backs,  some  on  their  breasts 
or  side,  others  ran  twenty  or  thirty  steps,  firing,  appeared  to  equally 
certain  of  the  mark.  With  this  performance  the  company  were 
more  than  satisfied,  when  a  young  man  took  up  the  board  in  his 
hand,  not  by  the  end,  but  by  the  side,  and  holding  it  up,  his  brother 
walked  to  the  distance,  and  very  coolly  shot  into  the  white ;  laying 
down  his  rifle,  he  took  the  board,  ai.J  holding  it  as  it  was  held 
before,  the  second  brother  shot  as  the  former  had  done.  By  this 
exercise  I  was  more  astonished  than  pleased.  But  will  you  be- 
lieve me,  when  I  tell  you,  that  one  of  the  men  took  the  board, 
and  placing  it  between  his  legs,  stood  with  his  back  to  the  tree 
while  another  drove  the  centre.  What  would  a  regular  army  of 
considerable  strength  in  the  forests  of  America  do  with  one  thou- 
sand of  these  men,  who  want  nothing  to  preserve  their  health  and 
courage  but  water  from  the  spring,  with  a  little  parched  corn,  with 
what  they  can  easily  procure  in  hunting:  and  who  wrapped  in  their 
blankets,  in  the  damp  of  night,  would  choose  the  shade  of  a  tree  for 
their  covering,  and  the  earth  for  their  bed. 

200  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

These  two  companies  of  riflemen  marched  from  Fred- 
erick on  July  1 8,  1775,  and  although  their  journey  of  550 
miles  was  over  rough  and  difficult  roads,  they  reached 
Boston  on  August  9,  without  the  loss  of  one  man.  These 
troops  were  the  first  from  the  south  to  reach  Cam- 
bridge, and  they  naturally  attracted  considerable  attention. 
Thatcher  says:^^^  '*  Several  companies  of  riflemen,  amount- 
ing, it  is  said,  to  more  than  fourteen  hundred  men,  have 
arrived  here  from  Pennsylvania  and  Maryland;  a  distance 
of  from  five  hundred  to  seven  hundred  miles.  They  are 
remarkably  stout  and  hardy  men ;  many  of  them  exceeding 
six  feet  in  height.  They  are  dressed  in  white  frocks,  or 
rifle  shirts,  and  round  hats.  These  men  are  remarkable 
for  the  accuracy  of  their  aim;  striking  a  mark  with  great 
certainty  at  two  hundred  yards'  distance.  At  a  review,  a 
company  of  them,  while  on  a  quick  advance,  fired  their 
balls  into  objects  of  seven  inches  diameter  at  a  distance  of 
two  hundred  and  fifty  yards.  They  are  now  stationed  on 
our  lines,  and  their  shot  have  frequently  proved  fatal  to 
British  oflScers  and  soldiers,  who  expose  themselves  to  view, 
even  at  more  than  double  the  distance  of  common  musket- 

The  next  year  these  companies  were  incorporated  in  a 
regiment  of  riflemen  commanded  by  Colonel  Stephenson, 
of  Virginia.  Upon  his  death  Moses  Rawlings  became  colo- 
nel of  the  regiment,  and  Otho  Holland  Williams,  major. 
Both  of  these  ofllicers  were  from  that  part  of  Frederick 
county  which  is  now  Washington  county,  Maryland. 

Although,  as  has  been  said,  a  large  number  of  the  citi- 
zens of  Maryland  were  not  in  favor  of  a  separation  from 
Great  Britain,  events  were  moving  so  rapidly  as  to  compel 
them  to  abandon  this  position.     On  July  26,   1775,  the 

131  «  A  Military  Journal  during  the  American  Revolutionary  War,"  p.  37. 

Preparing  for  the  Struggle.  201 

Provincial  Convention  determined  to  take  the  government 
of  the  Province  into  its  hands,  and  adopted  the  following 
declaration : 

The  long  premeditated,  and  now  avowed,  design  of  the  British 
government,  to  raise  a  revenue  from  the  property  of  the  colonists 
without  their  consent,  on  the  gift,  grant,  and  disposition  of  the 
Commons  of  Great  Britain;  and  the  arbitrary  and  vindictive  stat- 
utes passed  under  color  of  subduing  a  riot,  to  subdue  by  military 
force  and  by  famine  the  Massachusetts  Bay;  the  unlimited  power 
assumed  by  Parliament  to  alter  the  charter  of  that  Province  and  the 
constitutions  of  all  the  colonies,  thereby  destroying  the  essential 
securities  of  the  lives,  liberties,  and  properties  of  the  colonists ;  the 
commencement  of  hostilities  by  the  ministerial  forces,  and  the  cruel 
prosecution  of  the  war  against  the  people  of  Massachusetts  Bay, 
followed  by  General  Gage's  proclamation,  declaring  almost  the 
whole  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  united  colonies,  by  name  or  descrip- 
tion, rebels  and  traitors;  are  sufficient  causes  to  arm  a  free  people 
in  defence  of  their  liberty,  and  justify  resistance,  no  longer  dictated 
by  prudence  merely,  but  by  necessity ;  and  leave  no  other  alternative 
but  base  submission  or  manly  opposition  to  uncontrollable  tj^anny. 
The  Congress  chose  the  latter ;  and  for  the  express  purpose  of  secur- 
ing and  defending  the  united  colonies,  and  preserving  them  in 
safety  against  all  attempts  to  carry  the  above  mentioned  acts  into 
execution  by  force  of  arms,  resolved  that  the  said  colonies  be  im- 
mediately put  into  a  state  of  defence,  and  now  supports,  at  the  joint 
expense,  an  army  to  restrain  the  further  violence,  and  repel  the 
future  attacks  of  a  disappointed  and  exasperated  enemy. 

We  therefore  inhabitants  of  the  Province  of  Marjdand,  firmly 
persuaded  that  it  is  necessary  and  justifiable  to  repel  force  by  force, 
do  approve  of  the  opposition  by  arms  to  the  British  troops  em- 
ployed to  enforce  obedience  to  the  late  acts  and  statutes  of  the 
British  Parliament  for  raising  a  revenue  in  America,  and  altering 
and  changing  the  charter  and  constitution  of  the  Massachusetts  Bay, 
and  for  destroying  the  essential  securities  for  the  lives,  liberties, 
and  properties  of  the  subjects  in  the  united  colonies.    And  we  do 

202  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

unite  and  associate  as  one  band,  and  firmly  and  solemnly  engage 
and  pledge  ourselves  to  each  other,  and  to  America,  that  we  will,  to 
the  utmost  of  our  power,  promote  and  support  the  present  opposi- 
tion, carrying  on  as  well  by  arms  as  by  the  continental  association 
restraining  our  commerce. 

And  as  in  these  times  of  public  danger,  and  until  a  reconcilia- 
tion with  Great  Britain  on  constitutional  principles  is  effected,  (an 
event  we  ardently  wish  may  soon  take  place)  the  energy  of  govern- 
ment may  be  greatly  impaired,  so  that  even  zeal  unrestrained  may 
be  productive  of  anarchy  and  confusion,  we  do  in  like  manner  unite, 
associate,  and  solemnly  engage,  in  maintenance  of  good  order  and 
the  public  peace,  to  support  the  civil  power  in  the  due  execution  of 
the  laws,  so  far  as  may  be  consistent  with  the  present  plan  of 
opposition ;  and  to  defend  with  our  utmost  power  all  persons  from 
every  species  of  outrage  to  themselves  or  their  property,  and  to 
prevent  any  punishment  from  being  inflicted  on  any  offenders  other 
than  such  as  shall  be  adjudged  by  the  civil  magistrate,  the  Conti- 
nental Congress,  our  Convention,  Council  of  Safety,  or  Com- 
mittees of  Observation. 

The  Maryland  delegates  to  the  Continental  Congress 
had  been  forbidden,  except  under  certain  circumstances,  to 
agree  to  any  declaration  of  independence,  but  it  soon  became 
evident  that  the  sentiment  of  that  body  was  In  favor  of 
such  a  declaration.  Consequently,  when  a  resolution  to 
that  effect  was  Introduced  the  Maryland  delegates  were  re- 
called and  the  question  was  referred  to  the  people  so  that 
delegates  to  the  Provincial  Convention  could  be  elected  and 
given  Instructions  upon  the  matter.  The  people  of  the 
various  counties  held  their  meetings  and  elected  delegates 
to  the  convention  and  Instructed  these  delegates  to  repeal 
the  restrictions  Imposed  upon  the  delegates  to  Congress 
and  to  allow  them  to  unite  with  those  of  the  other  colonies 
In  declaring  their  independence  and  the  formation  of  a  con- 
federacy.    Less  than  a  week  before  the  adoption  of  the 

Preparing  for  the  Struggle.  203 

Declaration  of  Independence  the  Maryland  Convention 
rescinded  the  restrictions  placed  upon  their  delegates,  so 
that  the  latter  were  able  to  join  in  voting  for  its  passage. 
The  Maryland  Convention,  however,  determined  to  put 
itself  on  record,  and  on  July  3,  1776,  adopted  the  following: 

A  Declaration  of  the  Delegates  of  Maryland. 

To  be  exempted  from  Parliamentary  taxation,  and  to  regulate 
their  internal  government  and  polity,  the  people  of  this  colony 
have  ever  considered  as  their  inherent  and  unalienable  right ;  with- 
out the  former,  they  can  have  no  property;  without  the  latter,  no 
security  for  their  lives  or  liberties. 

The  Parliament  of  Great  Britain  has  of  late  claimed  an  uncon- 
trollable right  of  binding  these  colonies  in  all  cases  whatsoever;  to 
enforce  an  unconditional  submission  to  this  claim  the  legislative 
and  executive  powers  of  that  State  have  invariably  pursued  for  these 
ten  years  past  a  steadier  system  of  oppression,  by  passing  many 
impolitic,  severe,  and  cruel  acts  for  raising  a  revenue  from  the 
colonists;  by  depriving  them  in  many  cases  of  the  trial  by  jury;  by 
altering  the  chartered  constitution  of  our  colony,  and  the  entire 
stoppage  of  the  trade  of  its  capital;  by  cutting  off  all  intercourse 
between  the  colonies ;  by  restraining  them  from  fishing  on  their  own 
coasts ;  by  extending  the  limits  of,  and  erecting  an  arbitrary  govern- 
ment in  the  Province  of  Quebec ;  by  confiscating  the  property  of  the 
colonists  taken  on  the  seas,  and  compelling  the  crews  of  their  ves- 
sels, under  the  pain  of  death,  to  act  against  their  native  country 
and  dearest  friends;  by  declaring  all  seizures,  detention,  or  de- 
struction of  the  persons  or  property  of  the  colonists,  to  be  legal  and 

A  war  unjustly  commenced  hath  been  prosecuted  against  the 
united  colonies  with  cruelty,  outrageous  violence,  and  perfidy; 
slaves,  savages,  and  foreign  mercenaries  have  been  meanly  hired  to 
rob  a  people  of  their  property,  liberties  and  lives;  a  people  guilty 
of  no  other  crime  than  deeming  the  last  of  no  estimation  without 
the  secure  enjoyment  of  the  former;  their  humble  and  dutiful 

204  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

petitions  for  peace,  liberty,  and  safety  have  been  rejected  with 
scorn;  secure  of,  and  relying  on  foreign  aid,  not  on  his  national 
forces,  the  unrelenting  monarch  of  Britain  hath  at  length  avowed, 
by  his  answer  to  the  city  of  London,  his  determined  and  inexorable 
resolution  of  reducing  these  colonies  to  abject  slavery. 

Compelled  by  dire  necessity,  either  to  surrender  our  properties, 
liberties,  and  lives  into  the  hands  of  a  British  King  and  Parlia- 
ment, or  to  use  such  means  as  will  most  probably  secure  to  us  and 
our  posterity  those  invaluable  blessings, — 

We,  the  Delegates  of  Maryland,  in  Convention  assembled, 
do  declare  that  the  King  of  Great  Britain  has  violated  his  com- 
pact with  this  people,  and  they  owe  no  allegiance  to  him.  We  have 
therefore  thought  it  just  and  necessary  to  empower  our  deputies  in 
congress  to  join  with  a  majority  of  the  united  colonies  in  declaring 
them  free  and  independent  States,  in  framing  such  further  con- 
federation between  them,  in  making  foreign  alliances,  and  in  adopt- 
ing such  other  measures  as  shall  be  judged  necessary  for  the  preser- 
vation of  their  liberties;  provided  the  sole  and  exclusive  rights  of 
regulating  the  internal  polity  and  government  of  this  colony  be 
reserved  for  the  people  thereof.  We  have  also  thought  proper  to 
call  a  new  Convention,  for  the  purpose  of  establishing  a  govern- 
ment in  this  colony.  No  ambitious  views,  no  desire  of  independ- 
ence, induced  the  people  of  Maryland  to  form  an  union  with  the 
other  colonies.  To  procure  an  exemption  from  parliamentary  tax- 
ation, and  to  continue  to  the  legislatures  of  these  colonies  the  sole 
and  exclusive  right  of  regulating  their  internal  policy,  was  our 
original  and  only  motive.  To  maintain  inviolate  our  liberties  and 
to  transmit  them  unimpaired  to  posterity,  was  our  duty  and  first 
wish;  our  next,  to  continue  connected  with  and  dependent  on, 
Great  Britain.  For  the  truth  of  these  assertions,  we  appeal  to 
that  Almighty  Being  who  is  emphatically  styled  the  Searcher  of 
hearts,  and  from  whose  omniscence  nothing  is  concealed.  Relying 
on  His  divine  protection  and  affiance,  and  trusting  to  the  justice 
of  our  cause,  we  exhort  and  conjure  every  virtuous  citizen  to  join 
cordially  in  the  defence  of  our  common  rights,  and  in  maintenance 
of  the  freedom  of  this  and  her  sister  colonies. 



The  Flying  Camp. 


HROUGHOUT  the  sum- 
mer of  1775  the  citizens 
of  western  Maryland,  compris- 
ing chiefly  the  German  element 
of  the  population  of  the  Prov- 
ince, were  actively  engaged  in 
preparing  for  the  war  which 
they  now  knew  was  inevitable. 
Men  enrolled  themselves  into 
companies  and  perfected  them- 
selves in  military  tactics  under 

oflScers  of  their  own  choosing.     Four  of  these  companies 

were  officered  as  follows: 

Captain,  William  Blair. 
1st  Lieutenant,  George  Hockersmith, 

2d  Lieutenant,  Henry  Williams. 
Ensign,  Jacob  Hockersmith. 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

William  Curran,  Jr. 
George  Kelly, 


John  Smith, 
Christian  Crabbs. 
John  Crabbs,  Arthur  Row, 

George  Matthews,  James  Park. 

Drummer,  Daniel  McLean. 

Captain,  William  Shields. 

ist  Lieutenant,  John  Faires.     2d  Lieutenant,  Michael  Hockersmith. 

Ensign,  John  Shields. 

Charles  Robinson, 
James  Shields,  Sr., 


Patrick  Haney, 
Robert  Brown. 

Moses  Kennedy, 
John  Hawk, 


John  Long, 
Thomas  Baird. 

Captain,  Jacob  Ambrose. 

1st  Lieutenant,  Peter  Shover.  2d  Lieutenant,  Henry  Bitzell. 

Ensign,  John  Weller. 

Martin  Bartz, 
Frederick  Schultz, 


John  Gump, 
Casper  Young. 

John  Protzman, 
Dominick  Bradley, 
Drummer,  John  Shaw. 


George  Kuhn, 
Laurence  Creager. 
Fifer,  Philip  Weller. 

Captain,  Benjamin  Ogle. 
1st  Lieutenant,  Henry  Matthews.      2d  Lieutenant,  George  Nead. 
Ensign^  James  Ogle. 

The  Flying  Camp.  207 

John  Syphers,  Peter  Leonard, 

Lawrence  Protzman,  Conrad  Matthew. 

Jacob  Valentine,  Adam  Knauff, 

Daniel  Protzman,  William  Elder. 

Drummer^  John  Roche.  Fifer,  Daniel  Linebaugh. 

These  companies,  numbering  over  250  men,  were  at- 
tached to  one  of  the  battalions  raised  in  Frederick  county 
and  performed  active  service  throughout  the  war. 

On  the  first  day  of  January,  1776,  the  Convention  re- 
solved to  immediately  put  the  Province  in  the  best  state  of 
defence  and  to  raise  an  armed  force  sufficient  for  this  pur- 
pose. It  was  decided  that  this  force  should  consist  of 
1,444  men,  with  the  proper  officers,  and  that  It  should  be 
divided  into  a  battalion  of  eight  companies  of  sixty-eight 
men  each,  with  officers,  and  the  remainder  of  the  troops 
formed  into  companies  of  one  hundred  men  each.  On 
January  14  this  was  changed  so  that  there  was  to  be  a  bat- 
talion of  nine  companies,  seven  independent  companies, 
two  companies  of  artillery  and  one  company  of  marines. 
The  Council  of  Safety  was  empowered  to  order  these 
troops  into  Virginia,  Delaware  and  Pennsylvania.  Officers 
for  the  battalion  were  elected  as  follows:  Colonel,  William 
Smallwood;  major,  Thomas  Price;  paymaster,  Charles 
Wallace;  clerk  to  colonel,  Chrlstr.  Richmond;  ist  Sur- 
geon's mate.  Dr.  Michael  Wallace;  quarter  master,  Joseph 
Marbury;  acting  adjutant,  Jacob  Brice.  These  companies 
were  enlisted  chiefly  in  the  eastern  section  of  the  Province, 
and  while  there  were  many  Germans  among  the  officers 
and  privates  there  was  no  grouping  of  that  nationality. 

On  June  3,   1776,  the  Continental  Congress  resolved 

2o8  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

"That  a  flying  camp  be  immediately  established  in  the 
middle  colonies;  and  that  it  consist  of  10,000  men;  to  com- 
plete which  number  .  .  .  the  colony  of  Pennsylvania  be 
requested  to  furnish  of  their  militia  6,000,  Maryland  of 
their  militia  3,400,  Delaware  government,  of  their  militia, 

On  the  2 1  St  the  Maryland  Convention  resolved  "that 
this  province  will  furnish  3,405  of  its  militia,  to  form  a 
flying  camp,  and  to  act  with  the  militia  of  Pennsylvania  and 
the  Delaware  government  in  the  middle  department." 
These  troops  were  to  serve  until  the  first  of  the  following 

The  organization  of  the  companies  for  the  Flying  Camp 
was  promptly  undertaken,  and  no  class  of  citizens  was  more 
prompt  in  enlisting  than  the  German  residents  of  Frederick 
county.  Some  of  the  companies  were  made  up  almost  en- 
tirely of  Germans,  while  in  all  of  them  there  was  a  fair 
proportion  of  that  nationality.  Following  are  the  muster 
rolls  of  the  companies  enlisted  in  Frederick  county  for  the 
Flying  Camp : 

Lower  District,  now  Montgomery  County. 
Captain  Edward  Burgess'  Company  in  the  Flying  Camp. 
Captain,  Edward  Burgess. 
jst  Lieutenant,  Thomas  Edmonston. 

2d  Lieutenant,  Alexander  Estep. 
Ensign,  Zephaniah  Beall. 
Nathan  Orme,  Miles  Mitchell, 

Richard  Weaver  Barnes,  Thomas  Wood, 

Charles  Gartrell,  Charles  Maccubin  Reynolds, 

Alexander  Lazenby,  Joseph  Estep, 

Edward  Harden,  John  Tuckker, 

The  Flying  Camp. 


Zachariah  Aldridge, 
Samuel  Beall  White, 
Nathan  Waters, 
Benjamin  Fitzjarrald, 
Gilbert  Bryan, 
Nathan  Musgrove, 
James  Burgess, 
Benjamin  Burgess, 
Arthur  Legg, 
Thomas  Freeman, 
John  Sheekels,  or  Shukels, 
John  Ray, 

Shadrach  Penn,  or  Peen, 
Zephaniah  Browning, 
George  Fryback, 
John  Hanson  WTieeler, 
Samuel  Wheeler, 
Thomas  Culver, 
Henry  Lazenby, 
Jeremiah  Beall, 
John  Harding, 
Samuel  Taylor  Orme, 
Thomas  Wallis, 
John  Lashyear  (Layzare), 
Reson  Hollon, 
Alexcious  Simms, 
Thomas  Nichols, 
Laurance  Hurdle, 
William  Crow, 
Lenard  Wood, 
Saml.  Carter, 
Thomas  Beall, 
Kinsey  Hanee, 
Joseph  Gartrell, 
John  Geehan,  or  Guhan, 

Jeremiah  Ferrell, 

Samuel  Purnal, 

Thomas  Sheekels,  or  Shukels, 

Thomas  Gittings, 

Archibald  Hoskinson, 

Alexander  Barratt, 

Owen  Haymon, 

Alexander  Edmonston  Beall, 

John  Beaden, 

Alexander  Tucker, 

John  Wilcoxen, 

Richard  Burgess, 

John  Fryback, 

Daniel  Lewis, 

John  Ryan, 

Benj.  Tucker, 

Wevour  Waters, 

Morris  Brashears, 

Obed  Willson, 

Stephen  Gatrell, 

James  Beall  (of  Roger), 

John  Elwood, 

James  Carter, 

Josiah  Harding  (Harden), 

Henry  Clark, 

John  Nichols, 

Alexander  Robert  Beall, 

William  Garten, 

Solomon  Dickerson, 

William  Young  Conn, 

Marthew  Lodgeade, 

Leaven,  (Leven)  Beall, 

John  Ferrell, 

William  Hicke, 

Dennis  Marhay, 

2IO  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

James  Hurvey,  John  Crook, 

Edward  Trout,  Samuel  Taylor, 

Samuel  Solamon,  William  Blackburn, 

William  Hopkins,  Richard  Nicholsson. 

Captain  Leonard  Deakins'  Company  in  the  Flying  Camp. 
Captain,  Leonard  Deakins. 
1st  Lieutenant,  Thomas  Nowland.    2d  Lieutenant ^  Elisha  Williams. 
Ensign,  John  Griffith,  resigned,  Dennis  Griffith. 
Lloyd  Beall,  James  Gauff, 

Zachariah  Askey,  John  Yates, 

William  Lanham,  Jacob  Veatch, 

Richard  O'Daniel,  William  Longley, 

David  Green,  Dennis  Griffith, 

John  Taylor,  Thomas  Stewart, 

Thomas  Lightfoot,  John  Stewart, 

James  McDeed,  William  Walker, 

Samuel  Spycer,  James  McCulloch, 

Bartholomew  Edelin,  William  Lovet, 

William  Draper,  Jessee  Woodward, 

Henry  Allison,  Nathan  Wilson, 

Leonard  Hagon,  Robert  Wilson, 

Charles  Mahoney,  Edward  Jinkings, 

John  Baptis  Gauff,  William  Hays. 

Captain  Benjamin  Spykers  Company  in  the  Flying  Camp. 
Captain,  Benjamin  Spyker. 
1st  Lieutenant,  Greenbury  Gaither, 

2d  Lieutenant,  Richard  Anderson. 
Ensign,  Nicholas  Scybert. 
Zachariah  Rily,  Thomas  Wise, 

John  Gorman,  William  House, 

John  McDavid,  Geor.  Sybert  (Scybert), 

The  Flying  Camp. 


Edward  NorthcrafEt, 

Neil  Dogherty, 

Michael  Stanly, 

William  Carlin, 

Peter  Hoey  (Hoy), 

Strutton  Hazel, 

Henry  Burton, 

John  Smith, 

Archibald  Trail, 

Nathan  Green, 

John  Currington, 

William  Murphy, 

Joseph  Crawly, 

Edward  Goodwin, 

Timothy  Maclamary, 

John  Turner, 

William  Glory, 

John  Reynolds, 

William  Hollands, 

Allan  Mackabee  (Mockbee), 

Francis  Downing, 

James  Wilson, 

Nathan  Traill, 

James  Artis, 

Aaron  Wood, 

John  Keemer, 

William  Leitch, 

William  Baitson, 

Charles  Saffle, 

Nicholas  Gaither, 

Lodowick  Davis  (Davies), 

Bennett  Herd, 

Henry  Mackee  (Mackey), 

Michael  Rily  (Riley), 

Walter  Nichols  (Nicholl), 

Nathan  Roberts, 

Stephen  Harper, 

John  Cook, 

Joseph  Ross, 

Patrick  Murphy, 

George  Heater, 

Dennis  Clary, 

Thomas  Love, 

Thomas  Knowlar, 

Abraham  Booker, 

Joseph  Penny, 

John  Wilson, 

Richard  Short, 

Thomas  Chattell,  (Chattle), 

John  Haymond  Nicholls, 

Richard  Cooke, 

Lewis  Mullican, 

James  Pelly, 

Eli  Smith, 

John  Collins, 

William  Lowry, 

Osborn  West, 

Leven  Kersey, 

William  Jerbo, 

John  Lowry, 

John  Langton, 

John  Evans, 

Henry  Atchison  ( Hutchingson ) , 

John  Madding, 

Robert  Rickets, 

Zachariah  Evans, 

Benjamin  Holland, 

Richard  Kisby, 

Michael  Carter, 

Thomas  Sheppart, 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Edward  Waker, 
Thomas  Malloon, 
John  Gaskin, 
Robert  Drake, 
Patrick  Carroll, 

William  Pack, 

John  Cavenor  (Cavernor), 

Philip  Hindon, 

Stephen  Warman, 

George  Heathman. 

Captain  Richard  Smith's  Company  in  the  Flying  Camp. 

Captain,  Richard  Smith. 

7^/  Lieutenant,  Walter  White.       2d  Lieutenant,  Thomas  Hayes. 

Ensign,  Thomas  Sprigg. 


Thomas  Fanning, 

Levi  Hayes, 

Henry  Clagett, 

John  Patrick, 

Matthias  Henistone, 

Andrew  Hughes, 

Jesse  Harris, 

William  Summers, 

Joseph  Lewis, 

John  Davies, 

John  Smith, 

Alexander  Read, 

Matthew  Read, 

William  Norris,  son  of  Benj°, 

William  Wallace, 

Levin  Hayes, 

John  Raynolds, 

George  WIndom, 

Peter  Night, 

William  Madden, 

Henry  Atcheson, 

Andrew  Keath, 

Samuel  Queen  Windsor, 

John  Bennett, 

John  Hinton, 

Ezeklel  Harris, 
Herbert  Alex'"  Wallace, 
Robert  Moore, 
Henry  Kuhnes, 
Anthony  Murphy, 
Jacob  Irlssler, 
William  Veal  Steuart, 
Michael  Clancy, 
James  Long, 
Charles  Steuart, 
James  Nolland, 
John  Gibson, 
William  Sutton, 
John  Harriss, 
John  FItzgerrald, 
John  Carroll, 
John  Burgess, 
Jeremiah  Leitch, 
Denmas  Mannan, 
Nicholas  Rodes, 
Zephenlah  Wallace, 
Nicholas  Rodes,  Jr., 
William  Pruett, 

The  Flying  Camp. 


William  Johnston, 
John  Bowen, 
Robert  Muckleroy, 
William  Pollard, 
Jacob  Hesse, 
William  Preston, 

Alexander  Mason, 
James  Jordan, 
John  Hennes, 
Robert  Robinson, 
Thos.  Hays. 

Middle  District^  now  Frederick  County. 

Captain  Philip  Maroney's  Company  in  the  Flying  Camp. 

Captain,  Philip  Maroney. 

ist  Lieutenant,  Elisha  Beall.  2d  Lieutenant,  John  Hellen. 

Ensign,  William  Beatty,  Jr. 


George  McDonald, 

Garah  Harding, 

William  Jacobs, 

John  McCrery, 

Daniel  Shehan, 

John  Churchwell, 

George  Holliday, 

George  Hill, 

William  Gilmour  (Gilmore), 

Patrick  Murphy, 

Francis  Quynn, 

Samuel  Wheeler, 

John  Shank, 

James  McKinzie, 

Thomas  Gill, 

William  Calvert, 

John  McClary, 

William  Skaggs, 

John  Marshall, 

Bennett  Neall, 

John  Test, 

Thomas  Kirk,  Jr., 

Ninion  Nichols  (Nickols), 

James  Hutchcraft, 
Jacob  Holtz, 
Henry  Smith, 
Richard  Wells, 
Elisha  Rhodes, 
Paul  Boyer, 
Samuel  Busey, 
John  Kenneday, 
William  Chandler, 
William  Hilton, 
Warran  Philpot, 
Christopher  Wheelen, 
James  Buller, 
John  Jones, 
James  Carty, 
John  Hutchinson, 
Luke  Barnet, 
William  Barnitt, 
Samuel  Silvor, 
Edward  Salmon, 
James  McCoy, 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

William  Cash, 

James  Burton, 

Thomas  Bayman, 

Thomas  Hillery, 

James  Beall  (Ball), 

John  Brease  (Breeze), 

Patrick  Scott, 

William  McKay  (McKoy), 

Zadock  Griffith, 

Henry  Meroney, 

Henry  Clements, 

Thomas  Fenly  (Finley), 

James  McCormack  Beall, 

Patrick  Connan, 

Chas.  Philpott  Taylor, 

James  Lowther, 

Henry  Barkshire, 

John  Maynard, 

James  Beckett, 

James  Tannehill, 

John  Miller, 

James  Bryant, 

Michael  Arran, 

Jacob  Barrack, 

John  Donack, 

James  Kelam, 

John  Sehom, 
Robert  McDonald, 
Richard  Tongue, 
Herbert  Shoemaker, 
John  Myer, 
Richard  Fletcher, 
Joseph  McAllen, 
Thomas  Harrison, 
John  Alsop, 
Charles  DuUis, 
Joshua  Pearce, 
Jacob  Rhodes, 
George  Kelly, 
William  Louden, 
Christian  Smith, 
Frederick  Beard, 
Henry  Fisher, 
James  Hudson, 
Michael  Hale, 
John  Rite, 
William  Byer, 
Francis  Freeman, 
John  Cash, 
William  Hollings, 
Jacob  Burton. 

Captain  Jacob  Good's  Company  in  the  Flying  Camp. 

Captain,  Jacob  Good. 
1st  Lieutenant,  John  Baptist  Thompson. 

2d  Lieutenant,  John  Ghiselln. 
Ensign,  John  Smith. 
Christeen  Clisce,  Henry  Brawner, 

George  Obalam,  Patrick  Money, 

The  Flying  Camp. 


Tobias  Hammer, 
George  Rice, 
Philip  Fletcher, 
Martin  Fletcher, 
Christeen  Gobble, 
Adam  Keller, 
John  Dwyre, 
John  Billow, 
John  Chamberlin, 
William  Trace, 
Jacob  Freeman, 
James  Collins, 
Thomas  White, 
Charles  Freind, 
James  Estup, 
John  O'Bryan, 
John  Wimer, 
George  Gobble, 
Henry  Miller, 
Ludwick  Mober, 
Peter  Giddy, 
Jacob  Horine, 
Philip  Pepple, 
Daniel  Means, 
George  Free, 
Daniel  McTier, 
Patric  Mclntire, 
Danl.  Mclntire, 
Danl.  Merfey, 
Thomas  Adams, 
John  Sill, 
Anthony  Thomas, 
Matthew  King, 
Joseph  McClaine, 
David  Jones, 
John  Harrison, 

John  Money, 

Peter  Penroad, 

James  Campbell, 

Leonard  Macatee, 

Thomas  Anderson, 

Jacob  Bearae, 

Philip  Jacob, 

William  McClane  (McClame), 

Peter  Havclay, 

Philip  Cenedy, 

Patrick  Deneley, 

Joseph  McCracken, 

William  Linch, 

John  Toughman, 

Edward  Pegman, 

John  Wart, 

Michael  Dodson, 

Benj.  Norris, 

George  Bonagal, 

George  Ettleman, 

James  Vaughan, 

Wm.  Brown, 

Geo.  Spunogle, 

Peter  Weaver, 

Saml.  Hamilton, 

William  Price, 

Henry  Fanslar, 

William  Boe, 

Jacob  Martin, 

Jonathan  McDonall, 

Zachariah  Ward, 

John  Slagel, 

Danl.  Benning, 

John  Robertson, 

George  Carroll, 

John  Henderson, 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Fettea  Stuffle, 
Jacob  Ridingour, 
George  B  enter, 
Joseph  Ray, 
John  Duncan, 

Patrick  White, 
John  Test, 
Robert  McLeod, 
Wm.  Drome, 
Wm.  Brinsford. 

Captain  Peter  Mantz    Company  in  the  Flying  Camp. 

Captain,  Peter  Mantz. 

1st  Lieutenant,  Adam  Grosh.  2d  Lieutenant,  Peter  Adams. 

Ensign,  John  Richardson. 


William  Richardson, 

John  Shelman, 

Andrew  Loe, 

Henry  Bear, 

Andrew  Wolf, 

John  Kellar, 

John  Martin, 

Andrew  Speak, 

Charles  Smith, 

John  Newsanger  (Neswangher), 

John  Gombare,  Jr., 

Jacob  Bayer, 

George  Siegfried, 

Jacob  Stevens, 

William  Mills, 

Mathias  Overfelt, 

David  Eley, 

Henry  Smith, 

Peter  Bell, 

John  Twiner, 

John  Netsley, 

Geo.  Mich.  Hawk, 

John  Conrad, 

Joseph  Pinnall  (Pannell), 

Frederick  Kallenberger, 

John  Snider, 

John  Lock, 

Saml.  Yaulet, 

James  Adams, 

Peter  Walts, 

Henry  Huffman, 

Jacob  Crapell  (Creppell), 

Mathew  Rudrieck, 

Christ.  Stanley, 

Thomas  Stanley, 

Chr.  Kallenberger, 

Jacob  Kern, 

George  Hower, 

David  Nail, 

George  Tennaly, 

Jonathan  Jones, 

Frederick  Heeter, 

Rudolph  Morolf, 

John  Mouer  (Mourrer), 

John  Dutterer, 

Martin  Heckentom, 

Abraham  Boucher  (Bucher) 

Philip  Bowman, 

George  Stoner, 

Henry  Hulsman, 

The  Flying  Camp. 


Valentine  Brunner, 
John  Foster, 
Mich.  Cramer, 
Laurence  Myers, 
John  Bennett, 
John  Gisinger, 
Henry  Teener, 
John  Striser, 
Henry  Myer, 
John  Shenlc, 
John  Smith,  dyer, 
Jos.  Williams, 
Philip  Flack, 
John  Hendrickson, 
Dennis  Realley, 
Thomas  Smith, 
Jacob  Carnant, 

Henry  Grose, 

George  Plummer, 

Peter  Wagoner, 

Thomas  Tobiry, 

Philip  Aulpaugh, 

Jacob  Shade, 

Peter  Snowdenge  ( Snowdeigel ) , 

Henry  Berreck, 

John  Baker, 

Daniel  Hinds, 

George  Boyer, 

Joseph  Shame, 

Michael  Baugh, 

Nicholas  Becketh  (Beckwith), 

Jacob  Bowman, 

Andrew  Ringer. 

Captain  Vallentine  Creagers  Company  in  the  Flying  Camp. 

Captain,  Vallentine  Creager. 
1st  Lieutenant,  Phillip  Smith,  Jr. 

2d  Lieutenant,  George  Need   (Neat). 
Ensign,  John  Parkinson   (Pirkinson). 

Josiah  Hedges, 
Christian  Cumber. 

Charles  Menix, 
John  Link. 

Fifer,  Peter  Trux   (Trucks). 
Thomas  Edison,  Edward  Hossilton, 

Christian  Smith,  John  Smith, 

George  Dotts,  Laurence  Stull, 

Jacob  Bostion,  Samuel  Hulse, 

Solomon  Bentley, 
Aquilla  Carmack, 

John  Brattle, 
Solomon  Rowlins, 
Drummer,  Joseph  Allsop 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Matthias  Andess, 

John  Springer, 

Oliver  Linsey, 

Ludwick  Moser  (Mouser), 

James  Silver, 

Michael  Fox, 

George  Burrawl  (Burrol), 

Jacob  Barrick  (Barrack), 

Jonothan  Beard, 

Christopher  Cooper, 

Patrick  Daugherty  (Daugerty), 

Jacob  Holtzman, 

Peter  Lickliter, 

John  Mortt, 

William  Slick, 

Thomas  Tumbleson  (Tombleson), 

Adam  Russ, 

Jacob  Weyant  (Wicant), 

John  Ciferd, 

James  Cammell  (Campbell), 

Henry  Decamp, 

James  Buckhannon  (Buchanan), 

Peter  Heveron, 

Jacob  Rignall  (Rignell), 

Peter  Dick, 

Cornelius  Downey, 

William  From, 

George  Younger, 

Lodwick  Woller  (Wooler), 

Daniel  Moore, 

William  Weier, 

James  Smith, 

Joseph  Smith, 

Thomas  Parkinson  (Pirkinson), 

Henry  Fogle, 

Henry  Fox, 

Frederick  Hardman, 

John  Waggoner, 

Adam  Waggoner, 

Adam  Simmon  (Simon), 

George  McDonald, 

Henry  Clice  (Clise), 

Thomas  Nailor  (Nalor), 

George  David, 

Henry  Reich, 

Patrick  Dayley, 

James  Branwood, 

Thomas  Cook, 

Philip  Greenv^'ood, 

Robert  Sellers  (Sellors), 

John  White, 

David  Barrlnger, 

Patrick  Rowin, 

George  Serjeant, 

Evan  Morris, 

William  Preston, 

Robert  Parson, 

John  Langley, 

Daniel  Bryan, 

Jacob  Ringer. 

Upper  District,  now  Washington  County. 
Captain  JEneas  Campbell's  Company  in  the  Flying  Camp. 
Captain,  /Eneas  Campbell. 
1st  Lieutenant,  Clement  Hollyday. 

2d  Lieutenant,  John  Courts  Jones. 

The  Flying  Camp. 


John  Moxley, 

Levi  Walters, 

George  Hoskins, 

William  Frankline, 

William  Davis, 

John  Gillam  (Gillum), 

Henry  Beeding   (Beading), 

Michael  Hagan, 

Daniel  Moxley, 

George  Gentile  (Gentle), 

William  Dixon, 

Mark  Chillon, 

Martin  Kiezer, 

Shedereck  Locker, 

John  Steel, 

James  Williams, 

Samuel  Lintridge  (Lentarage), 

Benjamin  Osburn  (Ozenburn), 

William  Veatch, 

William  Lucas  (Luckas), 

Charles  Byrn  (Burn), 

William  Housley  (Owsley), 

Notley  Talbot  (Talbort), 

John  Martin  (Martain), 

Charles  Hoskins, 

Barton  Lovelass 

(Charles  Loveless), 
Grove  Toml in  (Tamlane), 
William  Stallings  (Stalion), 
Thomas  Gillam  (Gillum), 
John  Henry, 
Richard  Lewis, 
Aneas  Campbell,  Jr.,  cadet, 
James  Raidy, 

Ensign,  David  Lynn. 

Ignatius  Maddox, 
William  Carroll, 
John  Snowden  Hooke, 
Richard  Sarjeant,  Jr., 
James  Weakley, 
George  Kingston, 
John  Simpson  Aldridge, 
Charles  Thomas  Philpot, 
Jeremiah  Fulsome, 
John  Heart, 
Edward  Cane, 
Robert  Beall  Crafford, 
Philip  Tracy, 
Henry  Jones, 
Thomas  Chappell, 
Jacob  Mills, 
Hezekiah  Speake, 
Walter  Raley  (Raleigh), 
Zephaniah  Mockbee, 
John  Higdon,  Jr., 
William  Lewis, 
Henry  Allison, 
Nathan  Thompson, 
James  Glaze, 
Archibald  Chappell, 
Hugh  Elder, 
Arthur  Cams, 
William  Windham, 
Samuel  Busey, 
Alexander  Adams, 
Lewis  Peak  (Speake), 
Stephen  West, 
Thomas  Owen, 
John  Jeans, 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

John  Williams, 
John  Compton, 
Peter  Boardy, 
William  Poland, 
Cornelius  Harling, 
Josh.  Harbin, 
Charles  Lucas  (Luckas), 
John  Ellis, 
Stephen  Gentile, 
Joseph  Beeding, 
Philip  Sulivane, 
John  Ferrell, 
Patrick  Rine, 
Benjamin  Ellit, 

William  Lamar, 
William  Thompson, 
Stephen  West, 
William  Briggs, 
Francis  Kitely, 
Nathaniel  Glaze, 
Peter  Hardesty, 
Thomas  Barrett, 
Daniel  Ferguson, 
John  Self, 
William  Oliver, 
John  White, 
Abraham  Chapman. 

Captain  John  Reynolds'  Company  in  the  Flying  Camp. 

Captain,  John  Reynolds. 

1st  Lieutenant, M.oses  Chapline.    2d  Lieutenant,  Christian  Orndorfl. 

Ensign,  Nathan  Williams. 


William  Walker, 

Moses  Hobbins, 

John  Ferguson, 

Wm.  Bradford,  volunteer, 

Jacob  Hosier, 

Thomas  Fowler, 

John  Been, 

David  Grove, 

Thos.  Bissett, 

Wm.  Messersmith, 

Wm.  Patrick, 

Archibald  Mullihan, 

Edward  Pain, 

Wm.  CofFeeroth, 

John  Wade, 

Thomas  Stogdon, 

Philip  Wyonge, 
Allexander  Sparrow, 
Christian  Weirich, 
Nicholas  Weirich, 
Peter  Loar, 
Jacob  Long, 
Nicholas  Pinkely, 
Mathias  Wolf, 
John  Randle, 
Michael  Edelman, 
Joseph  Emrich, 
Jacob  Brunner, 
Edward  Kerny, 
Nathaniel  Linder, 
Harmon  Consella, 
Nicholas  Hasselback, 

The  Flying  Camp. 


Silus  Tomkins, 

John  Class, 

John  Hurley, 

Thomas  Pitcher, 

Edward  Brown, 

Henry  Coonse, 

George  Deale, 

Benedict  Eiginor, 

Edward  Dumatt, 

Daniel  Murphey, 

Ludowick  Kiding, 

Christopher  Curts  (Cortz), 

Henry  Knave, 

Thomas  McKoy,  D.  S.  T. 

Henry  Saftly, 

John  Berry, 

Rinear  Bennett, 

Francis  Thornbourgh, 

Peter  Seaburn, 

Thomas  Sands, 

James  Cunningham, 

James  Nowles,  D.  S.  T. 

Edward  Nowles, 

Thomas  Barrett,  D.  S.  T. 

Christian  France, 

Jacob  Weisong, 

Joseph  Finch, 

John  Hood, 

William  Baumgartner, 

George  Baumgartner, 

Teeter  Waltenback, 

James  Thompson, 

George  Reynolds, 

Philip  Loar, 

Nicholas  France, 

Thomas  Wilkins, 

George  Flick, 

George  Bowersmith, 

Robert  Wells, 

John  Walker, 

Garrett  Closson, 

Basil!  Williams, 

Simon  McClane, 

Joseph  Carrick, 

John  Peirce  Welsh, 

John  McKenny, 

Benjamin  Dye, 

Jacob  Forsythe, 

Edward  Gardner,  D.  S.  T. 

Joseph  Moor, 

Laurance  Williams, 

Bennett  Madcalf, 

Ephraim  Skiles, 

John  Powell, 

Michael  Cortz, 

Clement  Howard, 

John  Teeter, 

Jacob  Teeter, 

William  Fanner, 

John  Iden, 

William  Kerney, 

John  Eove  (Cove?) 

Jacob  Linder, 

Rodger  Dean, 

James  Stewart. 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society, 

Captain  Henry  Hardmans  Company  in  the  Flying  Camp. 

Captain,  Henry  Hardman. 
1st  Lieutenant  J  Daniel  Stull.     2d  Lieutenant,  Peter  Contee  Hanson, 

Jona.  Morris. 
Ensign,  John  Rench. 

Paul  Schley, 

Chs.  White, 
Francis  Fnimantle, 
Daniel  Matthews, 
James  Jordon, 
George  How, 
Thomas  West, 
Jno.  Kirk, 
Maurice  Baker, 
Daniel  Cline, 
Jno.  Newman, 
Jno.  Brown, 
Livie  Jones, 
Thomas  Fish, 
John  Lindsey, 
Jno.  Troxel, 
Jno.  Collins, 
Thos.  Smith, 
Chas.  Feely, 
Abm.  Miller, 
George  Colley, 
Jno.  Mowen, 
Martin  Rickenbaugh, 
Pat.  Ryley, 
Robert  English, 
James  Crale, 
Jno.  Stoner, 
Jacob  Hirsh, 
Jno.  Bemhart, 
Jno.  Grant, 

Wm.  Crale, 
James  Martin, 
Danl.  Fisher, 
Phil.  Flack, 
James  Green, 
Isaac  Hardey, 
Wm.  Casey, 
Saml.  Smith, 
Wm.  Wallis, 
Thos.  Jones, 
Danl.  Henderson, 
John  Ward, 
George  Morrison, 
Chr.  Hart, 
Jno.  Welsh, 
Jno.  Moor, 
Jno.  Aim, 
Jno.  Barry, 
Stephen  Preston, 
Rhd.  Noise, 
Mathias  Houks, 
Stephen  Rutlidge, 
William  Davis, 
Thomas  Collins, 
William  Divers, 
Chr.  Metts, 
Danl.  Wicks, 
Jno.  Dicks, 

The  Flying  Camp. 


Thos.  Robison, 
James  Duncan, 
Peter  Haines, 
Phil.  Brugh, 
Peter  Fiegley, 
Chr.  Neal, 
George  Fiegley, 
Phil.  Berener, 
Abm.  Troxel, 
Samuel  Sprigg, 
Barny  Riely, 
John  Closs, 
Peter  Digman, 
Chn.  Berringer, 
Thomas  McGuyer, 

Jacob  Storam, 
Saml.  Richardson, 
Conomus  Acre, 
Daniel  Carry, 
Rhd.  Morgon, 
Wm.  Campian, 
Isaac  Barnet, 
Chr.  Fogely, 
Michael  Pote, 
George  Rismel, 
Chr.  Alinger, 
Peter  Splise, 
Chr.  Walker, 
John  Hager, 
Jas  Munn. 

The  German  Regiment. 

'^'HE  Continental  Con- 
^^  gress  having  consid- 
ered the  question  of  raising 
a  regiment  to  be  composed 
entirely  of  Germans,  on 
June  27,  1776,  adopted 
the  following  resolution : 

That  four  companies  of  Ger- 
mans be  raised  in  Pennsylvania 
and  four  companies  in  Mary- 
land, to  compose  the  said  regi- 
ment: That  it  be  recommended  to  the  convention,  or  in  their 
recess,  to  the  council  of  safety  of  Maryland,  immediately  to  appoint 
proper  officers  for,  and  direct  the  inlistment  of,  the  four  companies 
to  be  raised  in  that  colony. 

The  Convention  of  Maryland  promptly  ratified  this 
action  by  directing  that  two  companies  of  Germans  be 
raised  in  Baltimore  county  and  two  in  Frederick  county. 
The  officers  for  the  German  regiment  named  by  Congress 


The   German  Regiment.  225 

were  as  follows:  Nicholas  Haussegger,  colonel;  George 
Strieker,  lieutenant-colonel;  Ludwick  Weltner,  major. 
The  proceedings  of  Congress  state  that  "the  committee 
appointed  to  settle  the  rank  of  the  captains  and  subalterns 
in  the  German  battalion,  reported  the  same  as  follows, 
which  was  agreed  to : 

*'  Captains,  Daniel  Burkhart,  Philip  Graybill,  George 
Hubley,  Henry  Fister,  Jacob  Bonner,  George  Keeports, 
Benjamin  Weiser,  William  Heyser,  and  David  Woelpper. 

"  First-lieutenants,  Frederick  Rolwagen,  John  Lora, 
Peter  Boyer,  Charles  Bulsel,  William  Rice,  Jacob  Kotz, 
Jacob  Bower,  Samuel  Gerock,  and  Bernard  Hubley. 

"  Second-lieutenants,  George  Hawbacker,  Christian 
Meyers,  John  Landenberger,  Michael  Bayer,  George 
Schaeffer,  Adam  Smith,  Frederick  Yeiser,  William  Hitter, 
and  Philip  Schrawder. 

"Ensigns,  John  Weidman,  Martin  Shugart,  Christian 
Helm,  Jacob  Crummet,  Jacob  Cramer,  Paul  Christman, 
Christopher  Godfrey  Swartz,  and  John  Landenberger." 

Of  the  officers  of  the  regiment.  Lieutenant-colonel 
George  Strieker  and  Major  Ludwick  Weltner  were  from 
Frederick  county.  The  Maryland  captains  were  William 
Heyser,  Philip  Graybill,  Henry  Fister  and  George  Kee- 
ports, The  Pennsylvania  Archives^^^  state  that  Colonel 
Haussegger  deserted  to  the  British  after  the  battle  of 
Monmouth,  but  Dr.  H.  M.  M.  Richards  has  shown  this 
to  be  a  mistake.  "This  is  evidently  false,"  says  Dr.  Rich- 
ards, "  as  he  returned  to  his  home  at  Lebanon,  where  he 
died  in  July,  1786.  His  heirs  participated  in  the  donation 
land-grants,  awarded  by  the  State  of  Pennsylvania  to  its 
meritorious  and  brave  officers  and  soldiers  of  the  Revo- 
lution, which  would  not  have  been  the  case  were  he  a 

»32  Second  Series,  Vol.  XI.,  p.  73. 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

traitor.  It  is  more  probable  that,  on  account  of  his  age, 
he  became  sick  and  incapacitated  from  active  duty,  and 
was  given  a  lengthy  furlough,  which  he  spent  at  his 
Lebanon  home."^^^ 

The  Maryland  Archives^^^  give  the  following  as  a  por- 
tion of  the  roster  of  the  German  regiment : 

Jacob  Alexander, 
John  Cole, 
Richard  Gaul, 
Jacob  Hose, 
John  Heron, 
Charles  Jones, 
William  Johnson, 
Daniel  Jacquett, 
Jacob  Keyser, 

Philip  Beam, 

John  Brieger, 

John  (or  Jas.)  Burk, 

William  Croft  (Kraft), 

Jacob  Etter, 

Bernard  Frey, 

Joseph  Hook, 

Thomas  Hutchcraft, 
John  Roach  (or  Rock), 
Michael  Smith. 

Levy  Arrings, 
James  W.  L.  Ashly, 


Jacob  Lowe, 
John  Ladder, 
William  Lewis, 
Wm.  Rummelson, 
George  Stauffer, 
Christr.  Stanty, 
Frederick  Sollers, 
John  Truck. 


John  Hochshield, 
Patrick  Kelly, 
John  Michael, 
Thomas  Polhouse, 
James  Smith, 
S.  Fredk  Shoemaker. 


John  Brown, 
Henry  Ferrins. 


Daniel  Kettle, 
Francis  Kerns, 

133  '<  Xhe  Pennsylvania-German  in  the  Revolutionary  War,"  p.  399. 

134  Archives  of  Maryland,  Vol.  XVIII.,  p.  184  et  seq. 

The  German  Regiment. 


John  Armstrong, 

John  Abel, 

George  Arnold, 

Leonard  Aberly, 

George  Bough  (or  Buck), 

Saml.  Bauswell, 

Peter  Backer, 

Michael  Benner, 

Henry  Bender  (or  Painter), 

Jacob  Bishop, 

Jacob  Beltzhover, 

Danl.  Baylor, 

John  Bower, 

Michael  Brodbech, 

George  Bantz, 

Conrad  Beam, 

John  Bennett, 

Philip  Bates, 

Michael  Bowerd, 

Timothy  Cahill, 

Jacob  Caufman, 

Benjamin  Cole, 

George  Crothorn, 

Owen  Curley, 

Henry  Cronise, 

John  Croft, 

Thomas  Clifton, 

Michael  Cambler  (or Gambler) , 

Christopher  Casner, 

Rudolph  Crower, 

Michael  Cowley, 

Chas.  Champness, 

Jacob  Cromer  (or  Cramer), 

Michael  Crush, 

John  Cline, 

James  Dyer, 

Peter  Koons, 
Geo.  Keephart, 
Michael  Kershner, 
Jacob  Kline, 
Jacob  Kentz, 
Jacob  Kaufman, 
John  Lecrose, 
Thomas  Larmore, 
Charles  Lago, 
George  Leithusier, 
Fredk.  Larantz, 
Vend  el  Lorantz, 
Fredk.  Locker, 
Martin  Lantz, 
Leonard  Ludwick, 
Gal  fried  Lawrey, 
Henry  Michael, 
Fredk.  Mongaul, 
John  Miller, 
Jacob  Miely, 
Jacob  Miller,  Jr., 
Lewis  McColough, 
William  Mummart, 
Jacob  Miller,  Sr., 
Henry  Martin, 
Wm.  Maunsel, 
William  Nerving, 
John  Nevitt, 
Richd.  O'Quin, 
Thomas  Proctor, 
William  Pointer, 
Robert  Porter, 
Henry  Painter, 
William  Rider, 
Chas.  Ronenberger, 
Michael  Ritmire, 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

John  Dalton, 

James  Dunkin, 

John  Dretch, 

Godlb.  Danruth, 

Benja.  Elliott, 

John  Eissell, 

Wolfgn.  Ellsperger, 

Paul  Elsing, 

John  Etnier, 

Jas.  Ensey, 

Peter  Engelle  (or  Angel), 

Bartel  Engle, 

John  Fennell, 

John  FolHott, 

Henry  Fisher, 

Charles  Fulham, 

Patrick  Fleming, 

John  Franklin, 

Jacob  Frymiller, 

Abram  Frantz, 

John  Fleck, 

Philip  Fisher, 

Fredk.  Filler, 

David  Finch, 

James  Forney, 

Philip  Fisher, 

Philip  Fitzpatrick, 

Michael  Grosh, 

John  Grupp, 

George  Getig, 

Francis  Gavan, 

Edward  Gould, 

Adam  Gantner, 

Corns.  Grunlin  (or  Quinlln), 

Peter  Grice, 

Michael  Gambler, 

Conrad  Riely, 
Edward  Robinson, 
Andrew  Robinson, 
Chs.  or  Chrisr.  Raybert, 
Jacob  Ruppert, 
George  Rittlemeyer, 
Henry  Rumfell, 
George  Regalman, 
Jacob  Ricknagle, 
John  Richards, 
Christr.  Raver, 
Bernard  Riely, 
John  Smitherd, 
John  Shively, 
George  Silver, 
Christian  Smith, 

Mathias  Smith, 

James  Slite  (or  Fite), 

John  Stanton, 

Robert  Smith, 

Chr.  Settlemeyer, 

John  Smith, 

Alexander  Sealors, 

John  Shrayock, 

Joseph  Slreiter, 

John  Slife, 

John  Shotts, 

Michael  Shoemaker, 

Philip  Studer, 

Philip  Smith  (or  Smithly), 

John  Smith, 

Henry  Strome, 

John  Shark, 

Jacob  Shutz, 

Mathias  Shrayer, 

Henry  Smith, 

The  German  Regiment. 


Richd.  Hazelfp, 
Thos.  Halfpenny, 
Michael  Hartman, 
Jno.  W.  Hammersly 

(or  Amersly), 
F.  William  Haller, 
John  Harley, 
Joseph  Hook, 
Henry  Herring, 
Casimer  Hull, 
Jacob  Haseligh, 
Thos.  Hazlewood, 
Jacob  Heffner, 
Jonathan  Hockett, 
Peter  Hewer  (or  Hoover), 
Peter  Hemerlck  (or  Emerick), 
John  Hatfield, 
Conrad  Hile, 
Jacob  Hoover, 
James  Hughes, 
Conrad  Hausman, 
Dedrick  Haninghouse, 
James  Johnston, 
Peter  Kruise, 
Philip  Kuntz, 
John  Kibber, 
Mathias  Keyer  (Keiser), 
John  Kendrick, 
John  Kline  (Cline), 
Chresn.  Keplinger, 
Abram  Kettle, 

John  Shaffer, 
John  Snider, 
Adam  Stonebraker, 
Adam  Shaffer, 
Fredk.  Switzer, 
John  Smithly  (or  Smith), 
Henry  Statler, 
Michael  Stoner, 
Conrad  Stoyle, 
William  Selwood, 
Andrew  Selas, 
John  Timblin, 
Fredk.  Tawney, 
William  Taylor, 
James  Tite, 
Henry  Wilstock, 
John  Wade, 
Danl.  Williams, 
John  Welty, 
Saml.  Wright, 
John  Walker, 
Thomas  Woolford, 
Joseph  Williams, 
Michael  Weaver, 
Chrisr.  Waggoner, 
Ludk.  Witsinger, 
Jacob  Wink, 
George  Wilhelme, 
Jacob  Wagoner, 
Michael  Yakely, 
John  Zimmerman. 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Captain  Henry  Fister's  Company  in  the  German  Bat- 
talion, Commanded  by  Colonel  Nicholas 
Haussegger,  1776. 
Captaitij  Henry  Fister. 

Michael  Bayer. 
Ensign,  Jacob  Grommet. 

Philip  Shopper, 
George  Wintz. 

Jacob  Tudderow, 
Jacob  Low. 
Drummer,  John  Heffner. 


Adam  Charles, 

Charles  Balzel, 

John  Balzel, 
Philip  Shroop, 

George  Hoover, 
Fredk.  Wilhite, 

Henry  Delawter, 
Henry  Hawk, 
Fredk.  Mittag, 
Jacob  Fantz, 
Peter  Copple, 
Jacob  Kuntz, 
John  Ridenhour, 
Willm,  Snider, 
Adam  Froshour, 
Chrlstn.  Sheafer, 
Leonard  Everly, 
John  Wachtel, 
George  Studdlemeier, 
Philip  Colour, 
Valentine  Shotter, 
Henry  Ziegler, 
Jacob  Tabler, 
Mathias  King, 
Jacob  Miller, 
Philip  Isingminger, 

Abraham  Fettle, 
John  Imfeld, 
George  Shrantz, 
Adam  Smeltzer, 
John  Bird, 
Gottlieb  Klein, 
Peter  Graff, 
John  Ringer, 
Jacob  Croumer, 
Philip  Stouder, 
Peter  Hoover, 
Peter  Americk, 
Conrad  Houseman, 
John  Klein, 
Henry  Hain, 
Jacob  Kurtz, 
John  Zimmerman, 
Henry  Smith, 
Adam  Gentner, 

The   German  Regiment. 


John  Leather, 
Henry  Hilderbrand, 
Anthony  Miller, 
Jacob  Farber, 
Michael  Moser, 
Ludwick  Visinger, 
Jacob  Hammer, 
Martin  Watkins, 
Nicholas  Frye, 
Jacob  Weaver, 
Jacob  Eggman, 
John  Beckerson, 
George  Clinton, 
Christopher  Slender, 
Michael  Beiker, 
Anthony  Hamilton, 
Jacob  Sheafer, 

Henry  Cronies, 
Leonard  Ludwick, 
John  Snider, 
Henry  Herring, 
Peter  Kuntz, 
Justinius  Hogshield, 
Edward  Robertson, 
John  Shatz, 
Michael  Stiener, 
John  Able, 
Michael  Shoemaker, 
Frederick  Henninghouse, 
Thomas  Polehouse, 
Bartle  Engle, 
John  Klein, 
John  Miller. 

Pay  Roll  of  Capt.  Michael  Bayer's  Company  in  the  Ger- 
man Regiment^  Continental  Troops  in  the 
United  States. 
Commanded  by  Lt.  Col.  Ludwick  Weltner. 
For  the  months  of  July,  August,  September  and  October,  1779. 
Capt.  Michael  Bayer  (Boyer),       John  Abel, 


-k  Shoemaker, 

Corp.  — 

Corp.  — 

Corp.  — rew  Robinson, 

Corp.  John  Hoshied, 

Corp.  John  Shotz, 

Drum.  Thomas  Hatchcraft, 

Drum.  Henry  Ferrins. 

Thomas  Mahony, 
George  Kepphard, 
Peter  Kuntz, 
Abraham  Kettle, 

Adam  Gantner, 
Jacob  Miller,  Sr., 
Jacob  Cramer, 
Leonard  Ludwick, 
Michael  Shoemaker, 
Peter  Emerick, 
Henry  Herring, 
Michael  Moser, 
Henry  Cronise, 
Phillip  Fisher, 
John  Snider, 
John  Wachtel, 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Henry  Fisher, 
John  Foliott, 
Owen  Curley, 
Charles  FulHm, 
James  Johnson, 



Edward  Robinson, 
Ludwick  Wesinger, 
Rudolph  Marolf, 
Jacob  Miller,  Jr., 

Phillip  Strider, 
Jacob  Riggnagle, 
Casemar  Hill, 
Conrad  Houseman, 
Michael  Stoner, 
William  Taylor, 
John  Zimmerman, 
John  Cline, 
Peter  Hewer, 
Bartle  Engle. 

Muster  Roll  of  Capt.  Geo.  P.  Keeport's  Compy.  of  the 

First  German  Battalion  Continental  Troops. 

Commanded  by  Colonel  Nicholas  Haussegger. 

Philadelphia,  Sept.  19,  1776. 

George  P.  Keeports,  Capt., 
Saml.  Gerock,  i  Lt., 
Willm  Ritter,  2  Lt., 
John  Lindenberger,  Ensign, 
Jacob  Smith,  ist  Serjt., 
Henry  Speck,  2nd  Serjt., 
John  Keener,  3rd  Serjt., 
Christn.  Kearns,  4th  Serjt., 
George  Cole,  ist  Corpl., 
Fredk.  Moppes,  2nd  Corpl., 
Ulrich  Linkenfetter,  3rd  Corpl., 
Philip  Bitting,  4th  Corpl., 
Benja.  England,  Drummer. 

Michael  Brubacher, 
Michael  Grosh, 
Michael  Dochterman, 
Christn.  Settlemires, 
Peter  Kries, 
Peter  Koefflich  (Hoefflich), 

John  Weller, 
Gotfried  Loure, 
Jacob  Wagner, 
Peter  Bast, 
Jacob  Stein, 
John  Schorcht, 
George  Schesler, 
Danl.  Fuhrman, 
Henry  Traut, 
Jacob  Schiitz, 
Peter  Hahn, 
George  Miller, 
Peter  Anckle, 
Jacob  Wink, 
Danl.  Boehler, 
John  Harring, 
John  Franken, 
John  Cole, 
Adam  Schaeffer, 
Mathias  Schreler, 

The   German   Regiment. 


Adam  Markel, 
David  Streib, 
Joseph  Carrol, 
David  Levy, 
Willm.  Trux, 
Jacob  Bigler, 
Jacob  Burk, 

Conrad  Reitz, 
John  Brown, 
Fredk.  Mongoal, 
John  Bauer, 
Conrad  Boehm, 
John  Miller, 
John  Smith. 

Roll  of  Capt.  William  Heyser's  Company. 
Dated  October  23,  1776. 
William  Heyser,  Captain,  Adam  Smith,  2nd  Lieut., 

Jacob  Kortz,  ist  Lieut.,  Paul  Christman,  Ensign. 

David  McCorgan  (Morgan), 
Jacob  Hose, 

Daniel  Jaquet  (or  Jaques), 
Jacob  Miller, 
George  Gittin,  Drum, 

Andrew  Filler, 
Philip  Reevenach, 
Barnard  Frey, 
William  Lewis, 
Jacob  Gittin,  Fife. 

Peter  Sheese, 
Henry  Stroam, 
Adam  Stonebreaker, 
John  Fogle, 
Jacob  Klien, 
George  Miller, 
Phillip  Fisher, 
Jonathan  Hecket, 
Henry  Tomm, 
Jacob  Hoover, 
Michael  Cambler, 
George  Harmony, 
Thomas  Clifton, 
Michael  Boward, 
Henry  Wagner, 


George  Buch, 
Stuffle  Reever, 
George  Wise, 
John  Michael, 
John  Robertson, 
Adam  Lieser, 
Robt.  Hartness, 
Henry  Be'nter, 
John  Armstrong, 
Simon  Fogler, 
Jacob  Grass, 
Phillip  Smithly, 
George  Wilhelm, 
James  Duncan, 
John  Breecher, 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

John  Crafft, 
John  Shoemaker, 
Mathias  Gieser, 
Mathlas  Dunkle, 
Frederick  Filler, 
John  Kibler, 
Stuffle  Wagner, 
Jacob  Heefner, 
Conrad  Hoyle, 
Balsor  Fisher, 
John  Smith, 
Michael  Weaver, 
Jacob  Belsoover, 
John  Rothe, 
Wentle  Strayly, 
John  Flick, 
John  Mettz, 
Henry  Michael, 
George  Riggleman, 
Nicholas  Baird, 
John  Hottfield, 
Jacob  Greathouse, 

Fredk.  Switzer, 
Jacob  Fowee, 
Thomas  Burney, 
John  Itnier, 
Phillip  Greechbaum, 
Jacob  Bishop, 
Alex.  Sailor, 
Martin  Pifer, 
Peter  Gittin, 
Frances  Myers, 
Melcher  Benter, 
Tobias  Friend, 
Jacob  Heefner, 
John  Smithly, 
Everheart  Smith, 
Godfrey  Young, 
Frederick  Locher, 
Michael  Yeakly, 
James  Furnier, 
Henry  Queer, 
Henry  Statler, 
John  Cropp. 

Captain  Heyser's  company,  which  was  enlisted  In  Wash- 
ington  county,   was   arranged   as   follows   on   May   22, 

j,^yy  .135 

William  Heyser,  Captain, 
Jacob  Kortz,  First  Lieut., 


Adam  Smith,  Second  Lieut., 

David  Morgan, 
Jacob  Hose, 
John  Jaquet, 
Jacob  Miller. 

Andrew  Tiller,    discharged   by 

the  Surgeon, 
Philip  Reevenacht, 
Bernard  Frey, 

135  Richards'  "  The  Pennsylvania-German  in  the  Revolutionary  War,"  p. 

The  German  Regiment. 


Henry  Stroam, 
Adam  Stonebreaker, 
John  Flick, 
Henry  Michael, 
Philip  Fisher, 
Jonathan  Hacket, 
Henry  Tomm, 
Jacob  Hoover, 
Michael  Camler, 
Henry  Wagner, 
Melchior  Benner, 
John  Fogle, 
Francis  Myers, 
Jacob  Kliene, 
John  Michael, 
Simon  Fogler, 
John  Robinson, 
Jacob  Beltzhoover, 
Peter  Sheese, 
George  Harmony, 
Michael  Bawart, 
John  Croft, 
Frederick  Filler, 
John  Kibler, 
John  Smith, 
Math's  Keyser, 
Michael  Weaver, 
Nicholas  Beard, 
John  Hatfield, 
Conrad  Hoyle, 
Christian  Reaver, 
Adam  Lower, 
Ph.  Greechbaum, 

William  Lewis, 
John  Breecher. 


Frederick  Locher, 
Michael  Yockley, 
James  Fournier, 
Henry  Quir, 
John  Cropp, 
H'y  Statler, 
George  Gitting, 
Thomas  Clifton, 
George  Riggleman, 
Thomas  Burney, 
John  Metz, 
John  Shoemaker, 
Tobias  Friend, 
Adam  Leiser, 
Jacob  Greathouse, 
Robert  Hartness, 
Martin  Piffer, 
George  Miller, 
Christopher  Wagner, 
Mathias  Dunkle, 
John  Roth, 
Jacob  Piffer, 
George  Bouch, 
Henry  Panthar, 
Jacob  Grass, 
George  Wilhelm, 
George  Wise, 
Jacob  Heffner, 
Everhard  Smith, 
John  Armstrong, 
Godfried  Young, 
Peter  Gitting,  died  March  18, 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

James  Duncan, 
John  Etnier, 
Philip  Smithly, 
Christian  Sides, 
Jacob  Bishop, 
Alexander  Saylor, 
John  Smithley, 

Archibald  Fleegert, 

Wentle  Strayley,  died  January 

15,  1777, 
Balzer  Fisher,  died  March  15, 

Frederick  Switzer. 

ScharP^^  gives  another  arrangement  of  this  company 
from  a  roll  in  the  possession  of  Captain  Heyser's 

Pay  Roll  of  Lt.  Col.  Weltner's  Company  in  the  German 

Regt.  of  the  Continental  Forces  of  the  United  States. 

Commanded  by  Lt.  Col.  Ludwick  JVeltner. 

July,  August,  September  and  October,  1779. 

Capt.  Philip  Shrawder, 
Serjt.  William  Lewis, 
Serjt.  Jno.  Danl.  Jacquet, 
Serjt.  Jacob  Hose, 
Corpl.  James  Smith, 
Corpl.  John  Michael, 

Michael  Gambler, 
James  Ashley, 
William  Pointer, 
Jacob  Mosen, 
Jonathan  Hackett, 
Henry  Straam, 
James  Duncan, 
George  Wilhelm, 
Melcher  Benner, 
Fredrik  Schwidzer, 
Michael  Yockley, 

Corpl.  John  Brucher, 
Corpl.  Adam  Stonebraker, 
Corpl.  Bernard  Fry, 
Drum.  Moses  McKinsey, 
Drum.  Joshua  McKinsey. 


Francis  Gavin, 
Jacob  Kline, 
John  Kebler, 
Mathias  Keiser, 
John  Armstrong, 
John  Etnier, 
Jacob  Bishop, 
Chris.  Raver, 
Philip  Fisher, 
Fredk.  Locker, 
Alex.  Taylor, 

"6  "History  of  Western  Maryland,"  Vol.  II.,  p.  1190. 

The   German  Regiment. 


Conrod  Hoyle, 
John  Fliet, 
Fredrik.  Filter, 
Michl.  Weaver, 
James  Forney, 
Jacob  Beltzhoover, 
John  Groop, 
George  Getting, 
John  Hatfield, 
Henry  Michael, 
Thomas  Clifton, 
John  Craft, 

Patrick  Fliming, 
George  Regliman, 
Henry  Stalter, 
Christopr.  Waggoner, 
John  Smith, 
Henry  Benter, 
Philip  Smithly, 
Jacob  Heefner, 
John  Smithly, 
Jacob  Haver, 
Henry  Quier. 

A  Roll  of  Capt.  Philip  Graybell's  Company.     1776. 

Philip  Graybell,  Captain, 
John  Lohra  (Lorah),  ist  Lieut., 
Christian  Myers,  2d  Lieut., 
Martin  Shugart,  Ensign. 

Ferdinand  Lorentz, 
Philip  Miller, 
Henry  Millberger  (Millburger) 

Jacob  Hoffman, 
Charles  Zarrell, 
Charles  Charles, 
Joseph  Procter, 
Joseph  Braeter, 
Christian  Apple, 
George  Myers  (Myer), 
Henry  Willsdaugh, 

John  Freymiller   (Frymiller),   George  Lighthauser,  (Leithauser), 

James  Cappelle   (Caple), 

John  Rick, 

Lorentz  Kneary, 

Jacob  Etter, 

Peter  Baker, 

Rudolph  Crower, 

Adam  Rohrbach  (Rohhbaugh), 

Rowland  Smith, 

John  Shriock  (Shryock), 

William  Rommelsem,  Serjt., 

Jacob  Striter, 

Martin  Lantz, 

John  Hearly  (Harley), 

Joseph  Smith, 
Henry  Wilstock, 
Henry  Rumfield, 
George  Hyatt,  Fifer, 
Thomas  Kimmel  (Kemmell), 
Anthony  Miller, 
Joseph  Hook, 
Jacob  Miley, 
Jacob  Miller, 
Frederick  Heller,  Serjt., 
Andrew  Gorr  (Gore), 
William  Speck,  Corpl., 
Henry  Hargeroder  ( Hergeroder ) , 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Wolfgang  Ettsperger, 

Christopher  Regele  (Regie), 

Frederick  Wm.  Haller, 

John  Moore, 

Wendell  Andrews  (Andreas), 

Michael  Kearshner, 

Wolfgang  Ettzinger, 

John  Shaffer, 

David  Mumma  (Muma), 

Abraham  Frantz, 

Frederick  Weger, 

Henry  Hartman, 

Wendel  Lorentz, 

John  Hartenstein  (Hardenstein 

William  Altimus, 

Jacob  Burke, 

Jacob  Kintz  (Keintz), 

George  Rittlemyer, 

Philip  Kautz, 

Jacob  Myer  (Myers), 

John  Shlife, 

John  Machenheimer,  Sjt., 

George  StaufiFer,  Corpl., 

Gottlieb  Danroth, 

Lorentz  Danroth, 

Henry  Decker, 

Michael  Growley, 

Frederick  Sollers,  Corpl., 

Nicholas  Frey, 

Jacob  Kerns  (Kearns), 

Simon  Rinehart   (Reinhart), 

Mathias  Boyer  (Byer),  Corpl., 

Jacob  Ruppert, 

Nicholas  Keyser, 

John  Welty, 

John  Summers, 

Michael  Huling, 

John  Eyssell, 

William  Litzinger,  Serjt., 
),    Fredk.  Downey  (Tawney), 

William  Cunius  (Cunnius), 

James  Smith, 

Peter  Finley,  Drummer, 

John  Smith, 
John  Bartholomew  Deitch  ( Dych  ) , 

William  Kraft, 

Joseph  Williams, 

Henry  Sprengle, 

Henry  Smith, 

John  Strieker,  Cadet, 

Peter  Segman. 

A  List  of  Recruits  belonging  to  the  German  Regiment, 

Commanded  by  Lieut.  Colonel  Weltner. 

White  Plains,  September  5,  1778. 

Time  of 

Names  Service. 

John  Kendrick   3  yrs. 

James  Champness   War. 

George   Buch    3  yrs. 

Adam  Mussler   do. 

William  Vincent   do. 

Time  of 

Names.  Service. 

William  Johnston do. 

John  Richards do. 

Albert   Hendricks    9  moa. 

Philip  Bates do. 

George  Arnold  do. 

The  German  Regiment. 


Time  of 
Names.  Service. 

Stephen  McGrouch   do. 

William  Neving War. 

James   Woolford    3  yrs. 

James   Stiles    War. 

Peter    Batolomey    do. 

Richard  Hazlip    3  yrs. 

Robert  Porter   do. 

William  Mummard War. 

Hugh  McKoy  do. 

John  Ammersly   do. 

John  Stanton   do. 

John   Bennet    do. 

John  Roach   do. 

Benj.  Elliott do. 

Cornelius   Quinlin    3  yrs. 

Philip  Fitzpatrick    9  mos. 

Francis  Cams  3  yrs. 

Charles  Jones   War. 

Samuel  Barts War. 

Mathias  Smith   do. 

William  Rider   do. 

William  Malinia   do. 

Benj.  Cole   do. 

Timothy   Cahill    do. 

Robert  Smith do. 

Cornelius  Vaughan   do. 

James  Murphy   do. 

Christian  Castner do. 

William  Pope  do. 

John  Fennell   do. 

Jacob  Kauffman  3  yrs. 

Thomas  Proctor   do. 

Richard  Gaul   do. 

John  Shively   do. 

Thomas  Halfpenny do. 

Thomas  Hazelwood War. 

Richard  Hopkins   9  mos. 

Christn.  Murama   do. 

William  White War. 

James  Connoway  3  yrs. 

Time  of 
Names.  Service. 

Adam  Mattrit,  fifer War. 

Michael  Smith,  drummer War. 

John  Malady do. 

Thomas  Mackall   do. 

Charles  Fulhara   do. 

John  Hughmore   do. 

Thomas  Hutchcrofft do. 

John  Wade   do. 

Alexander  Smith    do. 

Frederick  Shoemaker do. 

James  Johnston do. 

Casimir  Hill   3  yrs. 

Thomas  Mahony do. 

John  Smadern do. 

Jacob  Dolton   do. 

John  Timhen do. 

Michael  Hardraan   do. 

Henry  Ferrins do. 

James  Dyer  3  yrs. 

Henry  Fisher do. 

Jacob   Alexander    do. 

Christian  Kepplinger   9  mos. 

Philip  Hinkel    do. 

Thomas  Polehouse  do. 

Abraham  Miller do. 

Bernhard  Ridenhour  do. 

Levy  Aaron 3  yrs. 

Moses  McKinsey  do. 

Joshua  McKinsey do. 

Jacob  Moser   do. 

Richard  O'Quin   War. 

James  Ashley   do. 

James  Smith   do. 

Thomas  Rowlands 9  mos. 

George  Bantz   do. 

On   furlough. 


Died  7  July. 

Died  July  27,  'fi. 

Was  a  Deserter  from  Carolina. 

Ditto  of  Col.  Chambers. 

240  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Time  of  ■ ' 

Name.  Service.  Remarks. 

Thomas  Holdup War.  Ditto  of  Carolina. 

Mathias  Custgrove 3  yrs.  Deserted. 

John  Waldon   do.                ditto. 

Andrew  Shuler War.              ditto. 

John  Stout   do.                ditto. 

Robert  Barnet  do.  Sick,  absent. 

George  Kephard   3  yrs.  Deserted. 

Edward  Connoly   do.  Taken  by  the  Virginia  Artillery. 

Frederick  Stone do.  Given  up  to  the  Laboratory. 

John  Weeguel do.  Left  at  Frederick  Town. 

These  rolls  do  not  contain  the  names  of  all  the  Germans 
from  Maryland  who  served  in  the  Revolutionary  War. 
Many  of  them  were  to  be  found  in  the  different  regiments 
of  the  Maryland  Line,  some  of  the  companies  being  made 
up  almost  entirely  of  Germans.  But  they  are  so  scattered 
and  their  names  are  so  changed  in  the  spelling  that  it  is 
impossible  to  pick  them  out. 


Service  of  the  Maryland  Troops. 


'O  every  call  for  troops  made 
by  the  Continental  Con- 
gress the  response  from  Mary- 
land was  prompt  and  enthusias- 
tic, and,  as  a  rule,  that  province 
furnished  more  men  than  were 
called  for;  indeed,  in  comparison 
with  the  other  colonies,  Mary- 
land contributed  more  than  her 
share.  But  there  was  very  little  call  for  the  services  of  her 
sons  at  home,  as  the  fighting  was  all  done  in  other  sections 
of  the  country,  and  the  Maryland  companies,  as  soon  as 
they  were  enrolled,  were  hurried  to  the  point  where  they 
were  most  needed. 

After  the  evacuation  of  Boston  General  Howe  con- 
ceived the  idea  of  dividing  the  country  Into  two  sections, 
the  northern  part  from  the  southern,  and  with  that  end  in 
view  quickly  landed  a  large  force  on  Long  Island  for  the 
purpose  of  capturing  New  York.  The  exact  number  of 
i6»  241 

242  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

men  making  up  the  British  commander's  army  is  not 
known,  but  it  was  between  20,000  and  27,000.  General 
Washington's  force  consisted  nominally  of  about  24,000 
men,  but  of  these  about  one-third  were  invalids  and  another 
third  were  not  properly  furnished  with  arms  and  ammuni- 
tion. Then,  too,  this  force  was  scattered  over  a  large 
section  of  country,  for  while  Washington  knew  something 
of  the  intention  of  the  British  commander,  It  was  not  known 
just  where  he  would  strike  his  blow. 

The  Maryland  battalion  had  been  placed  under  the  com- 
mand of  Colonel  William  Smallwood  and  sent  to  join 
Washington's  army  in  the  vicinity  of  New  York.  As 
other  companies  were  raised  they  were  hurried  forward 
under  orders  to  join  Smallwood's  command,  so  that  by 
August  20,  1776,  the  whole  Maryland  force  was  under  the 
command  of  that  officer.  They  were  attached  to  the  bri- 
gade commanded  by  Lord  Stirling.  The  British  troops 
landed  on  Long  Island  between  the  21st  and  27th  of  Au- 
gust. On  the  20th  the  Maryland  troops,  with  those  from 
Delaware,  were  ordered  to  advance.  Colonel  Smallwood 
and  Lieutenant-Colonel  Ware  were  In  New  York  as  mem- 
bers of  a  court-martial,  and  although  they  asked  Washing- 
ton to  be  allowed  to  join  their  command  they  were  not 
permitted  to  do  so,  and  the  troops  went  forward  under  the 
command  of  Major  Mordecal  Gist. 

The  American  army  under  Putnam  was  drawn  out  to 
occupy  the  passes  and  defend  the  heights  between  Flatbush 
and  Brooklyn.  During  the  night  of  the  26th  General  Clin- 
ton, with  the  van  of  the  British  army,  silently  seized  one 
of  the  passes  and  made  his  way,  about  daybreak,  into  the 
open  country  in  the  rear  of  the  Americans.  He  was  im- 
mediately followed  by  another  column  under  Lord  Percy. 
To  divert  the  Americans  from  their  left  another  division 

Service  of  the  Maryland  Troops.  243 

under  Grant  marched  slowly  along  the  coast,  skirmishing 
with  the  light  parties  on  the  road.  Putnam  being  sur- 
rounded Stirling  was  ordered  with  two  regiments,  one  of 
which  was  the  Maryland  regiment,  to  meet  the  army  on 
the  route  to  the  narrows.  About  break  of  day  he  took  his 
position  advantageously  upon  the  summit  of  the  hills  and 
was  joined  by  the  troops  driven  in  by  the  advancing  columns 
of  the  enemy.  For  several  hours  a  severe  cannonade  was 
kept  up  on  both  sides  and  Stirling  was  repeatedly  attacked 
by  the  brigades  under  Cornwallis  and  Grant,  who  were  as 
often  gallantly  repulsed.  At  length  the  left  wing  of  the 
American  force  having  been  completely  turned  by  Clinton, 
and  the  center  under  Sullivan  broken  at  the  first  attack  of 
General  De  Heister,  the  position  of  Stirling's  brigade  on 
the  right  became  perilous  in  the  extreme.  The  passes  to 
the  American  lines  at  Brooklyn  were  in  the  possession  of  an 
overpowering  British  force;  two  strong  brigades  were 
assailing  him  in  front,  and  in  his  rear  lay  an  extensive 
marsh  traversed  by  a  deep  and  dangerous  creek,  eighty 
yards  in  width  at  its  mouth.  Nearer  its  head,  at  the  Yellow 
Mills,  the  only  bridge  which  might  have  afforded  the  bri- 
gade a  safe  retreat  had  been  burned  by  a  New  England 
regiment  under  Colonel  Ward  in  its  very  hasty  retreat, 
although  it  was  covered  by  the  American  batteries.  The 
only  hope  of  safety,  therefore,  for  the  gallant  troops  who 
still  maintained  the  battle  and  held  the  enemy  at  bay  was  to 
surrender,  or  else  to  cross  the  dangerous  marsh  and  creek 
at  its  mouth,  where  no  one  had  ever  been  known  to  cross 
before.  Colonel  Smallwood,  having  arrived  from  New 
York  and  learning  of  the  perilous  situation  of  his  battalion, 
applied  to  General  Washington  for  some  regiments  to  cover 
their  retreat.  After  a  moment's  hesitation  as  to  the  pru- 
dence of  risking  more  troops  on  a  lost  battle,  unwilling  to 

244  ^^^  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

abandon  these  brave  men  to  their  fate,  he  detached  him 
with  Captain  Thomas'  independent  company  from  New 
England  which  had  just  arrived  from  New  York,  and  two 
field  pieces,  to  take  a  position  on  the  banks  of  the  stream 
and  protect  the  remnant  of  the  brigade  in  the  attempt  to 
cross  it. 

The  scene  of  the  conflict  was  within  a  mile  of  the  Ameri- 
can lines,  and  while  Smallwood  was  hastening  to  their  aid 
Stirling  prepared  to  make  a  last  effort  to  check  the  advance 
of  the  enemy  and  give  time  to  a  portion  of  his  command  to 
make  good  its  retreat.  For  this  purpose  he  selected  four 
hundred  men  from  the  Maryland  battalion,  under  Major 
Gist,  placed  himself  at  their  head,  and  having  ordered  all 
the  other  troops  to  make  the  best  of  their  way  through  the 
creek,  advanced  against  Cornwallis'  brigade.  As  they  drew 
out  between  the  two  bodies  of  the  enemy  it  was  thought 
by  those  looking  on  from  the  camp  that  they  were  about  to 
surrender,  but  as  with  fixed  bayonets  they  rushed  to  the 
charge  upon  the  overwhelming  force  opposed  to  them  fear 
and  sorrow  filled  every  heart,  and  Washington  is  said  to 
have  wrung  his  hands  and  examined:  "Good  God!  What 
brave  fellows  I  must  this  day  lose."^^'^ 

The  following  account  of  the  battle  of  Long  Island  was 
sent  to  the  Maryland  convention  by  Colonel  Smallwood: 

Camp  of  the  Maryland  Regulars, 
Head  Quarters,  October  12th,  1776. 
Sir: — Through  your  hands  I  must  beg  leave  to  address  the 
Hon'ble  Convention  of  Maryland,  and  must  confess  not  without 
an  apprehension  that  I  have  incurred  their  displeasure,  for  having 
omitted  writing  when  on  our  march  from  Maryland  to  New 
York,  and  since  our  arrival  here;  nor  shall  I  in  a  pointed  manner 
urge  anything  in  my  defence,  but  leave  them  at  large  to  condemn 

137  McSherry's  "History  of  Maryland,"  p.  16s. 

Service  of  the  Maryland  Troops.  245 

or  excuse  me,  upon  a  presumption  that  should  they  condemn,  they 
will  at  least  pardon,  and  judge  me  perhaps  less  culpable,  when  they 
reflect  in  the  first  instance  on  the  exertions  necessary  to  procure 
baggage  wagons,  provisions  and  house-room  for  750  men,  marched 
the  whole  distance  in  a  body,  generally  from  15  to  20  miles  per  day, 
as  the  several  stages  made  it  necessary ;  and  in  the  latter  I  trust  they 
will  give  some  indulgence  for  this  neglect,  for  since  our  arrival  in 
New  York  it  has  been  the  fate  of  this  Corps  to  be  generally  sta- 
tioned at  advanced  posts,  and  to  act  as  a  covering  party,  which  must 
unavoidably  expose  troops  to  extraordinary  duty  and  hazard,  not 
to  mention  the  extraordinary  vigilance  and  attention  in  the  com- 
mandant of  such  a  party  in  disposing  in  the  best  manner,  and  hav- 
ing it  regularly  supplied;  for  here  the  commanders  of  regiments, 
exclusive  of  their  military  duty,  are  often  obliged  to  exert  them- 
selves in  the  departments  of  Commissary  and  Quarter-Master 
General,  and  even  directors  of  their  regimental  hospitals. 

Perhaps  it  may  not  be  improper  to  give  a  short  detail  of  occur- 
rences upon  our  march  to  Long  Island  and  since  that  period.  The 
enemy  from  the  21st  to  the  27th  of  August,  were  landing  their 
troops  on  the  lower  part  of  Long  Island,  where  they  pitched  a  large 
encampment,  and  ours  and  their  advanced  parties  were  daily  skir- 
mishing at  long  shot,  in  which  neither  party  suffered  much.  On  the 
26th  the  Maryland  and  Delaware  troops,  which  composed  part  of 
Lord  Stirling's  Brigade,  were  ordered  over.  Col.  Haslet  and  his 
Lieut.-Col.  Bedford,  of  the  Delaware  Battalion,  with  Lieut.-Col. 
Ware  and  myself,  were  detained  on  the  trial  of  Lieut.-Col.  Led- 
witz,  and  though  I  waited  on  General  Washington  and  urged  the 
necessity  of  attending  our  troops,  yet  he  refused  to  discharge  us, 
alleging  there  was  a  necessity  for  the  trial's  coming  on,  and  that 
no  other  field-officers  could  be  then  had.  After  our  dismission 
from  the  court-martial  it  was  too  late  to  get  over,  but  pushing  over 
early  next  morning,  found  our  regiments  engaged.  Lord  Stirling 
having  marched  them  ofiE  before  day  to  take  possession  of  the  woods 
and  difficult  passes  between  our  lines  and  the  enemy's  encampment ; 
but  the  enemy  over  night  had  stolen  a  march  on  our  generals,  hav- 

246  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

ing  got  through  those  passes,  met  and  surrounded  our  troops  on 
the  plain  grounds  within  two  miles  of  our  lines.  Lord  Stirling 
drew  up  his  brigade  on  an  advantageous  rising  ground,  where  he 
was  attacked  by  two  brigades  in  front,  headed  by  the  Generals 
Cornwallis  and  Grant,  and  in  his  rear  the  enemy's  main  body  stood 
ready  drawn  up  to  support  their  own  parties  and  intercept  the 
retreat  of  ours.  This  excellent  disposition  and  the  superior  num- 
bers ought  to  have  taught  our  Generals  there  was  no  time  to  be  lost 
in  securing  their  retreat,  which  might  at  least  have  been  affected, 
had  the  troops  formed  into  a  heavy  column  and  pushed  their  re- 
treat ;  but  the  longer  this  was  delayed  it  became  the  more  dangerous, 
as  they  were  then  landing  more  troops  in  front  from  the  ships. 
Our  brigade  kept  their  ground  for  several  hours,  and  in  general 
behaved  well,  having  received  some  heavy  fires  from  the  artillery 
and  musketry  of  the  enemy,  whom  they  repulsed  several  times ;  but 
their  attacks  were  neither  so  lasting  nor  vigorous  as  was  expected, 
owing,  as  it  was  imagined,  to  their  being  certain  of  making  the 
whole  brigade  prisoners  of  war ;  for  by  this  time  they  had  so  secured 
the  passes  on  the  road  to  our  lines  (seeing  our  parties  were  not 
supported  from  thence,  which  indeed  our  numbers  would  not 
admit  of)  that  there  was  no  possibility  of  retreating  that  way. 
Between  the  place  of  action  and  our  lines  there  lay  a  large  marsh 
and  deep  creek,  not  above  80  yards  across  at  the  mouth — (the  place 
of  action  upon  a  direct  line  did  not  exceed  a  mile  from  a  part  of  our 
lines),  towards  the  head  of  which  creek  there  was  a  mill  and  bridge, 
across  which  a  certain  Col.  Ward  from  New  England,  who  is 
charged  with  having  acted  a  bashful  part  that  day,  passed  over  with 
his  regiment,  and  then  burnt  them  down,  though  under  cover  of 
our  cannon,  which  would  have  checked  the  enemy's  pursuit  at  any 
time ;  other  ways,  this  bridge  might  have  afforded  a  secure  retreat. 
There  then  remained  no  other  prospect  but  to  surrender^  or  attempt 
to  retreat  over  this  marsh  and  creek  at  the  mouth,  where  no  person 
had  ever  been  known  to  cross.  In  the  interim  I  applied  to  Gen'l 
Washington  for  some  regiments  to  march  out  to  support  and  cover 
their  retreat,  which  he  urged  would  be  attended  with  too  great  a 

Service  of  the  Maryland  Troops.  247 

risk  to  the  party  and  the  lines.     He  immediately  afterwards  sent 
for  and  ordered  me  to  march  down  a  New  England  regiment  and 
Capt.  Thomas's  company,  which  had  just  come  over  from  New 
York,  to  the  mouth  of  the  creek  opposite  where  the  brigade  was 
drawn  up,  and  ordered  two  field-pieces  down,  to  support  and  cover 
their  retreat  should  they  make  a  push  that  way.     Soon  after  our 
march  they  began  to  retreat,  and  for  a  small  time  the  fire  was  very 
heavy  on  both  sides,  till  our  troops  came  to  the  marsh,  where  they 
were  obliged  to  break  their  order  and  escape  as  quick  as  they  could 
to  the  edge  of  the  creek  under  a  brisk  fire,  notwithstanding  which 
they  brought  off  28  prisoners.    The  enemy  taking  advantage  of  a 
commanding  ground,  kept  up  a  continued  fire  from  four  field- 
pieces,  which  were  well  served  and  directed,  and  a  heavy  column 
advancing  on  the  marsh  must  have  cut  our  people  of?,  their  guns 
being  wet  and  muddy,  not  one  of  them  would  have  fired,  but  hav- 
ing drawn  up  the  musketry  and  disposed  of  some  riflemen  conveni- 
ently, with  orders  to  fire  on  them  when  they  came  within  shot; 
however,  the  latter  began  their  fire  rather  too  soon,  being  at  200 
yards'  distance,  which  notwithstanding  had  the  desired  effect,  for 
the  enemy  immediately  retreated  to  the  fast  land,  where  they  con- 
tinued parading  within  800  yards  till  our  troops  were  brought 
over.    Most  of  those  who  swam  over,  and  others  who  attempted  to 
cross  before  the  covering  party  got  down,  lost  their  arms  and 
accoutrements  in  the  mud  and  creek,  and  some  poor  fellows  their 
lives,  particularly  two  of  the  Maryland,  two  of  the  Delaware,  one 
of  Attley's  Pennsylvania,  and  two  Hessian  prisoners  were  drowned. 
Thomas's  men  contributed  much  in  bringing  over  this  party.    Have 
enclosed  a  list  of  the  killed  and  wounded,  amounting  to  256,  offi- 
cers inclusive.     It  has  been  said  the  enemy  during  the  action  also 
attacked  our  lines;  but  this  was  a  mistake.     Not  knowing  the 
ground,  one  of  the  columns  advanced  within  long  shot  without 
knowing  they  were  so  near,  and  upon  our  artillery  and  part  of  the 
musketry's  firing  on  them  they  immediately  fled.    The  28th,  dur- 
ing a  very  hard  rain,  there  was  an  alarm  that  the  enemy  had 
advanced  to  attack  our  lines,  which  alarmed  the  troops  very  much, 

248  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

but  was  without  foundation.  The  29th  it  was  found  by  a  council 
of  war  that  our  fortifications  were  not  tenable,  and  it  was  therefore 
judged  expedient  that  the  army  should  retreat  from  the  Island 
that  night,  to  effect  which,  notwithstanding  the  Maryland  troops 
had  but  one  day's  respite,  and  many  other  troops  had  been  many 
days  clear  of  any  detail  of  duty,  they  were  ordered  on  the  advanced 
post  at  Fort  Putnam,  within  250  yards  of  the  enemy's  approaches, 
and  joined  with  two  Pennsylvania  reg'ts  on  the  left,  were  to  remain 
and  cover  the  retreat  of  the  army,  which  was  happily  completed 
under  cover  of  a  thick  fog  and  a  southwest  wind,  both  of  which 
favored  our  retreat;  otherwise  the  fear,  disorder  and  confusion  of 
some  of  the  Eastern  troops  must  have  retarded  and  discovered  our 
retreat  and  subjected  numbers  to  be  cut  off.  After  remaining  two 
days  in  New  York,  our  next  station  was  at  Harlaem,  9  miles  above, 
at  an  advance  post  opposite  Montresove's  and  Bohana's  Islands, 
which  in  a  few  days  the  enemy  got  possession  of  without  opposition ; 
from  the  former  of  which  we  daily  discoursed  with  them,  being 
within  two  hundred  yards,  and  only  a  small  creek  between.  It 
being  judged  expedient  to  abandon  New  York  and  retreat  to  our 
lines  below  Fort  Washington,  the  military  stores,  &c.,  had  been 
removing  some  days,  when  on  the  15th  Sept.  the  enemy  effected  a 
landing  on  several  parts  of  the  Island  below  (and  it  is  cutting  to 
say  without  the  least  opposition).  I  have  often  read  and  heard  of 
instances  of  cowardice,  but  hitherto  have  had  but  a  faint  idea  of  it 
till  now.  I  never  could  have  thought  human  nature  subject  to 
such  baseness.  I  could  wish  the  transactions  of  this  day  blotted  out 
of  the  annals  of  America — nothing  appeared  but  flight,  disgrace 
and  confusion.  Let  it  suffice  to  say,  that  60  light  infantry  upon 
the  first  fire  put  to  flight  two  brigades  of  the  Connecticut  troops 
— ^wretches  who,  however  strange  it  may  appear,  from  the  Briga- 
dier-General down  to  the  private  sentinel,  were  caned  and  whip'd 
by  the  Generals  Washington,  Putnam  and  Mifflin;  but  even  this 
indignity  had  no  weight — they  could  not  be  brought  to  stand  one 
shot.  General  Washington  expressly  sent  and  drew  our  regiment 
from  its  brigade,  to  march  down  towards  New  York,  to  cover  the 

Service  of  the  Maryland  Troops.  249 

retreat  and  to  defend  the  baggage,  with  direction  to  take  possession 
of  an  advantageous  eminence  near  the  enemy  upon  the  main  road, 
where  we  remained  under  arms  the  best  part  of  the  day,  till 
Sergant's  Brigade  came  in  with  their  baggage,  who  were  the  last 
troops  coming  in,  upon  which  the  enemy  divided  their  main  body 
into  two  columns ;  one  filing  off  on  the  North  river  endeavored  to 
flank  and  surround  us,  the  other  advancing  in  good  order  slowly 
up  the  main  road  upon  us ;  we  had  orders  to  retreat  in  good  order, 
which  was  done,  our  Corps  getting  within  the  lines  after  dusk. 
The  next  day  about  1000  of  them  made  an  attempt  upon  our  lines, 
and  were  first  attacked  by  the  brave  Col.  Knolton  of  New  Eng- 
land, who  lost  his  life  in  the  action,  and  the  3d  Virginia  regiment, 
who  were  immediately  joined  by  three  Independent  Companies, 
under  Major  Price,  and  some  part  of  the  Maryland  flying-camp, 
who  drove  them  back  to  their  lines,  it  is  supposed  with  the  loss  of 
400  men  killed  and  wounded.  Our  party  had  about  100  killed  and 
wounded,  of  the  former  only  15.  Since  which  we  have  been  view- 
ing each  other  at  a  distance,  and  strongly  entrenching  till  the  9th 
October,  when  three  of  their  men-of-war  passed  up  the  North 
river  above  King's  Bridge,  under  a  very  heavy  cannonade  from 
our  Batteries,  which  has  effectually  cut  oflF  our  communication  by 
water  with  Albany.  I  must  now  break  off  abruptly,  being  ordered 
to  march  up  above  King's  Bridge,  the  enemy  having  landed  6000 
men  from  the  Sound  on  Frog's  Point.  50  ships  are  got  up  there, 
landing  more  troops — there  is  nothing  left  but  to  fight  them.  An 
engagement  is  generally  expected  and  soon.  Have  enclosed  a  copy 
of  a  general  return  of  the  battalion  and  Veazy's  company,  being  all 
the  troops  I  marched  from  Maryland,  with  the  accoutrements  and 
camp  equipage  taken  in  Philadelphia,  to  be  rendered  the  Congress, 
together  with  our  general  weekly  return.  The  Independents  are 
now  about  their  returns  of  arms,  accoutrements  and  camp  equip- 
age brought  by  them  from  Maryland,  but  not  having  time  to 
finish,  they  must  hereafter  be  returned  to  Council  of  Safety.  We 
have  upwards  of  three  hundred  ofl!icers  and  soldiers  of  the  Mary- 
land regulars  very  sick,  which  you  will  observe  by  the  return ;  and 

250  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

I  am  sorry  to  say,  it's  shocking  to  humanity  to  have  so  many  of 
them ;  this  must  hurt  the  service  upon  the  new  enlistments.  Major 
Price  and  Gist  and  Cap'n  Stone  are  in  the  Jerseys  very  sick,  and 
Col.  Ware  and  myself  are  very  unfit  for  duty,  though  we  attend 
it;  many  more  officers  are  very  unwell.  I  am  very  respectfully, 
Your  obedient  and  very  h'ble  servant, 

W.  Smallwood.^^^ 

The  loss  sustained  by  the  Maryland  troops  in  the  battle 
of  Long  Island  was  unusually  heavy.  The  killed  and 
wounded  numbered  256.  Captain  Veazy  and  Lieutenant 
Butlar  were  killed,  and  among  the  prisoners  were  Captain 
Daniel  Bowie,  Lieutenant  William  Steret,  William  Ridgely, 
Hatch  Dent,  Walter  Muse,  Samuel  Wright,  Joseph  Butler, 
Edward  Praul,  Edward  Decourcy  and  Ensigns  James  Fer- 
nandes  and  William  Courts.  The  conduct  of  the  battle  of 
Long  Island  has  called  forth  a  great  deal  of  unfavorable 
comment,  taking  in  both  officers  and  privates,  but  the 
Maryland  troops  taking  part  in  it  have  received  nothing 
but  praise  for  their  valor,  in  marked  contrast  to  that  of 
some  of  the  New  Englanders.  McSherry  says^^^  "The 
people  of  Long  Island  point  out  to  strangers  the  spot  where 
half  of  the  Maryland  battalion  stemmed  the  advance  of  the 
whole  left  wing  of  the  British  army  when  no  other  troops 
were  left  on  the  field,"  and  Colonel  Daniel  Brodhead 
wrote  :^  ^° "  No  troops  could  behave  better  than  the  Southern, 
for  though  they  seldom  engaged  less  than  five  to  one,  they 
frequently  repulsed  the  Enemy  with  great  Slaughter." 

At  White  Plains  the  Marylanders  sustained  their  reputa- 
tion and  were  in  the  thickest  of  the  fight,  where  their  loss 
was  over  one  hundred  men.    The  Maryland  battalion  had 

138  Scharf's  "  Chronicles  of  Baltimore,"  p.  148  et  seq. 

139  "History  of  Maryland,"  p.  166. 

1*°  Pennsylvania  Archives,  First  Series,  Vol.  V.,  p.  22. 

Service  of  the  Maryland  Troops.  251 

become  veterans.  In  three  months  it  had  fought  three 
battles,  and  it  was  the  first  organization  to  use  the  bayonet 
against  the  British  regulars.  At  the  defence  of  Fort  Wash- 
ington they  held  their  own  against  a  vastly  superior  force 
of  Hessians.  Washington  had  posted  his  army  in  three 
divisions,  Colonel  Rawlings  with  his  Maryland  regiment 
being  stationed  on  a  hill  to  the  north  of  the  lines.  They 
were  attacked  by  General  Knyphausen  with  five  thousand 
men.  At  the  same  time  another  division  of  the  enemy 
moved  against  Colonel  Cadwallader,  of  the  Pennsylvania 
troops,  who  commanded  within  the  lines,  and  a  third  divi- 
sion crossed  the  East  river  in  boats  and  landed  within  the 
lines.  The  superiority  of  the  British  force  drove  Cadwal- 
lader's  men  back  into  the  fort,  but  the  Marylanders,  under 
Rawlings,  bravely  maintained  their  position.  *'  Posted 
among  the  trees,  his  riflemen  poured  in  upon  the  advancing 
column  a  murderous  fire  which  they  in  vain  endeavored  to 
sustain.  The  Hessians  broke  and  retired.  Again  they 
were  brought  to  the  attack  and  again  repulsed  with  dread- 
ful slaughter.  The  Maryland  riflemen  remembered  the 
destruction  of  their  brethren  of  the  battalion  by  the  Hes- 
sians at  Yellow  Mills  and  did  not  forget  to  avenge  it.  But 
what  could  a  single  battalion  of  riflemen,  even  of  such 
matchless  skill  and  courage,  effect  when  opposed  to  five 
thousand  men  armed  with  the  bayonet  ?  Had  every  other 
post  been  defended  as  theirs  was,  victory  would  have 
crowned  the  American  arms  that  day.  But  all  the  other 
troops  were  already  in  full  retreat.  The  three  divisions  of 
the  enemy  were  about  to  fall  upon  their  rear  while  they 
contended  with  a  force  in  front  of  them  far  greater  than 
their  own.  At  length,  by  sheer  fighting  and  power  of 
numbers,  the  Hessians  reached  the  summit  of  the  hill. 
Rawlings,  perceiving  the  danger  to  his  rear  and  learning 

252  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

of  the  retreat  of  the  Pennsylvanians,  abandoned  his  posi- 
tion, as  no  longer  tenable,  and  retired  under  the  guns  of 
the  fort."i4i 

As  Colonel  Magaw  was  unable  to  hold  the  fort  against 
such  an  overwhelming  force  he  was  compelled  to  surrender, 
and  twenty-six  hundred  men  became  prisoners.  The  British 
lost  nearly  twelve  hundred  men,  killed  and  wounded,  more 
than  half  of  this  loss  being  sustained  by  the  Hessians  in 
their  attack  upon  Rawlings'  Maryland  and  Virginia  rifle- 

A  detailed  account  of  all  the  battles  in  which  the  Mary- 
land troops  took  part  cannot  be  given  here,  but  wherever 
they  were  called  upon — at  Trenton,  at  Princeton,  at  Mon- 
mouth, on  the  banks  of  the  Brandywine,  at  Germantown — 
they  were  always  to  be  found  at  the  forefront,  and  ac- 
quitted themselves  with  glory.  Many  had  been  killed  and 
many  more  were  disabled  on  account  of  wounds  and  sick- 
ness. "In  each  succeeding  action,"  says  McSherry,  "the 
Maryland  troops  had  been  further  reduced  until  Small- 
wood's  battalion  and  the  seven  independent  companies, 
which  had  entered  the  campaign  fourteen  hundred  strong, 
had  been  worn  down  to  a  mere  captain's  command."  But 
new  men  filled  up  the  ranks  and  until  the  end  of  the 
war  the  Marylanders  continued  to  show  their  bravery  on 
many  a  hard  fought  field,  a  bravery  that  had  been  bred  in 
them  through  their  arduous  life  on  the  frontiers  of  the 

One  of  the  matters  which  caused  considerable  trouble 
among  the  officers  of  the  Maryland  troops,  as  it  did  among 
those  of  other  states,  was  the  determination  of  the  rank  of 
the  officers.  When  it  became  apparent  that  there  would  be 
a  war  between  Great  Britain  and  the  colonies,  military  com- 

"1  McSherry's  "  History  of  Maryland,"  p.   171. 

Service  of  the  Maryland  Troops.  253 

panics  were  formed  In  all  parts  of  the  country,  officers  were 
selected,  and  the  companies  were  drilled  in  military  tactics, 
so  that  by  the  time  that  hostilities  actually  broke  out  there 
were  a  number  of  these  companies  ready  to  march  at  a 
moment's  notice,  and  many  of  them  did  so  and  took  an 
active  part  in  the  early  campaigns.  Later  on  when  the  army 
was  being  reorganized  under  the  authority  of  the  Conti- 
nental Congress,  the  officers  of  these  companies  naturally 
expected  to  be  among  the  first  ones  promoted  on  account 
of  their  having  been  early  in  the  field.  In  many  instances 
these  officers  were  disappointed  in  their  expectation  and 
saw  promoted  over  them  officers  who  had  entered  the 
service  after  they  had.  This  naturally  caused  considerable 
resentment  and  protests  were  made  to  those  in  authority. 
Promises  were  made  that  the  matter  would  be  adjusted, 
but  progress  in  this  direction  was  slow  and  the  feeling 
among  those  who  felt  that  they  were  being  slighted  became 
so  intense  that  something  had  to  be  done.  Early  in  1779 
the  legislature  of  Maryland  adopted  resolutions  requesting 
General  Washington  to  settle  this  question  of  rank.  Upon 
receipt  of  these  resolutions  Washington  wrote  to  Governor 
Johnson  as  follows.^  ^^ 

Head  Quarters  Middle  Brook,  8th  April  1779. 

I  have  been  honoured  with  yours  of  the  26*^^  March  inclosing  a 
Resolve  of  the  House  of  Delegates  for  the  incorporation  of  parts 
of  the  German  Battalion  and  Rifle  Corps  into  a  Regiment,  and 
another  for  forwarding  the  recruiting  service.  I  also  at  the  same 
time  received  from  the  president  of  the  Senate  and  the  speaker  of 
the  House  of  Delegates  two  Resolves — one  empowering  me  to 
fully  settle  the  Rank  of  the  Officers  of  the  Maryland  line,  the  other 
allowing  half  pay  for  life  to  such  Officers  as  shall  remain  In  the 
service  during  the  war. 

1*2  Archives  of  Maryland,  Vol.  XXL,  p.  339. 

254  ^^^  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

By  an  allotment  of  the  quota  of  troops  to  be  raised  by  said  State, 
made  by  Congress  the  26*'*  Feb^  1778,  the  German  Battalion  was 
wholly  attached  to  the  State  of  Maryland  and  considered  as  her 
Reg*  since  which  it  hath  done  duty  in  that  line.  Had  not  this  been 
the  case,  the  incorporation  of  such  parts  of  that  Regiment  and 
Rifle  Corps  as  are  deemed  properly  to  belong  to  Maryland  would 
still  be  attended  with  the  greatest  inconveniences  particularly  in 
regard  to  recruiting  the  Ranks  of  the  Officers,  Col°  Rawlins  and 
most  of  his  being  elder  than  Col°  Weltner  and  those  of  the  GJer- 
man  would  supersede  them  upon  incorporation. 

Indeed  Col°  Weltner  would  not  only  be  superseded,  but  he  must 
be  supernumerary.  In  short,  the  difficulties  attending  the  measure 
recommended  are  more  than  can  be  conceived,  and  I  am  convinced 
by  experience  that  it  cannot  be  carried  into  execution  without 
totally  deranging  the  German  Regiment. 

In  January  last  Congress,  to  make  some  provision  for  Col" 
Rawlins  and  his  Officers,  resolved  that  he  should  increase  his 
remaining  men  (who  are  not  more  than  70  or  80)  to  three  Com- 
panies to  be  commanded  by  him  as  a  separate  Corps.  The  times  of 
most  of  the  old  men  are  near  expiring  and  whether  they  will  rein- 
list  I  cannot  say. 

I  entertain  a  very  high  opinion  of  Col°  Rawlins  and  his  Officers, 
and  have  interested  myself  much  in  their  behalf.  It  is  to  be  re- 
gretted that  they  were  not  provided  for  in  the  States  to  which  they 
belong,  when  the  Army  was  new  modelled  in  1776,  but  as  they 
were  not,  after  a  variety  of  plans  had  been  thought  of  that  above 
mentioned  was  esteemed  the  most  eligible,  and  indeed  the  only 
one  that  could  be  accepted,  as  the  introduction  of  those  Gentlemen 
into  the  line  would  have  been  impracticable. 

I  have,  agreeable  to  the  powers  invested  in  me,  appointed  a 
Board  of  General  Officers  to  take  into  consideration  and  report  to 
me  the  rank  of  the  Maryland  line.  I  do  not  imagine  that  it  will 
be  possible  to  give  general  satisfaction,  but  I  am  convinced  that 
the  Gentlemen  who  have  the  Business  in  hand  will  pay  the  strictest 
attention  to  the  claims  of  all  parties,  and  give  the  most  disinter- 
ested decision. 

Service  of  the  Maryland  Troops.  255 

Whatever  the  decision  may  be,  I  hope  that  it  may  be  considered 
by  the  State  as  definitive,  and  that  they  will  not  in  future  pay  any 
further  regard  to  the  importunities  of  those  who  may  be  discon- 
tented with  the  arrangemenet  which  is  about  to  be  made. 

The  matter  was  one  that  was  not  easily  arranged  and 
after  several  Boards  of  Officers  had  worked  on  it  Wash- 
ington wrote  to  Governor  Johnson,  on  May  28,  1779, 
giving  the  rank  of  the  different  officers  as  it  had  finally 
been  agreed  upon.  Instead  of  allaying  the  feeling  of 
resentment  among  the  officers  the  report  determining  their 
rank  Increased  it,  and  a  number  of  them  promptly  resigned. 
That  their  resignations  were  not  due  to  any  lack  of  patriot- 
ism, but  to  a  feeling  that  they  were  not  being  treated  prop- 
erly, is  shown  by  the  actions  of  one  Pennsylvania-German. 
Benjamin  Spyker,  Jr.,  a  native  of  Berks  county,  Pennsyl- 
vania, who  had  been  teaching  school  in  Maryland,  enlisted 
a  company  early  in  1776,  and  upon  the  organization  of  the 
Maryland  Line  his  company  became  a  part  of  the  Seventh 
Regiment.  When  the  question  of  the  rank  of  the  officers 
had  been  finally  settled  he  resigned  his  commission  and 
went  back  to  his  home  In  Berks  county,  where  he  enlisted 
as  a  private  in  Captain  John  Anspach's  company,  in  the 
Berks  county  militia.^ *^ 

But  the  settlement  of  the  question  of  the  rank  of  the 
officers  did  not  end  the  matter.  On  June  17,  1779,  the 
principal  officers  of  the  Maryland  regiments  In  the  field 
addressed  the  following  petition  to  the  governor  and  the 
members  of  the  Senate  and  House  of  Delegates  :^^* 

We  beg  leave,  most  respectfully,  to  represent  to  your  Excellency 
and  Honors  that  the  several  provisions  hitherto  made  by  the  Legis- 

1**  Scharf's  "  History  of  Maryland,"  Vol.  II.,  p,  35a. 
^*3  Pennsylvania  Archives,  Fifth  Series,  Vol.  V.,  p.  185. 

256  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

lature  for  the  subsistence  of  her  officers,  though  liberal  at  the  time 
of  being  voted,  have  by  no  means  been  adequate  to  the  exigent 
expenses  of  their  respective  stations. 

That  a  zeal  for  the  public  cause,  and  an  ardent  desire  to  promote 
the  happiness  and  interest  of  their  country  have,  notwithstanding, 
induced  them  to  continue  in  the  service  to  the  very  great  prejudice 
of  their  private  fortunes;  many  of  which  being  now  entirely  ex- 
hausted, we  find  ourselves  under  the  painful  and  humiliating 
necessity  of  soliciting  your  Excellency  and  Honors  for  a  further 
support,  and  the  disposition  of  a  generous  and  grateful  people  to 
reward  the  services  of  the  faithful  sons  and  servants  of  the  State. 

The  very  great  depreciation  of  the  Continental  Currency  renders 
it  absolutely  necessary  that  some  further  provision  should  be  made 
for  our  support  to  enable  us  to  continue  a  service  in  which  nothing 
but  a  love  of  Liberty  and  the  rights  of  mankind  can  retain  us ;  and 
we  trust  that  it  will  be  such  as  will  support  with  decency  and 
dignity  the  respective  ranks  which  our  country  has  done  us  the 
honor  to  confer  on  us. 

The  inconveniences  and  difficulties  we  suffer  are  various  and 
grievous,  but  we  think  it  unnecessary  to  be  particular  or  to  point 
out  a  mode  of  redress  as  the  examples  of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania 
and  others  in  providing  for  their  officers  and  soldiers  are  the  most 
eligible  and  ample  we  desire  or  expect. 

We  beg  leave  to  assure  your  Excellency  and  Honors  with  the 
utmost  candor  and  sincerity,  that  while  we  assiduously  exert  our 
best  abilities  in  a  hardy  opposition  to  the  enemies  of  our  country, 
we  earnestly  wish  the  arrival  of  that  period  when  our  military 
services  will  be  no  longer  requisite,  and,  being  at  liberty  individu- 
ally to  procure  a  peaceful  competence,  we  may  again  be  numbered 
among  the  happy  citizens  of  the  Free  and  Independent  State  of 

We  have  the  honor  to  be  with  great  respect, 

Your  Excellency  and  Honors  most  obedient  humble  servants. 

Knowing  the  above  representation  to  be   a  true  state  of  the 

Service  of  the  Maryland  Troops. 


grievances  of  the  officers  in  the  Maryland  line,  on  their  behalf,  and 
in  justice  to  them,  I  have  subscribed  to  it.  W.  Smallwood. 

John  Carvil  Hall,  colonel  4th     John  James, 

regiment ; 

Otho  H.  Williams,  colonel  6th 
regiment ; 

John  Gunby,  colonel; 

R.  Adams,  lieutenant-colonel  7th 
regiment ; 

Thomas    Wolford,    lieutenant- 
colonel  2d  regiment; 

John    E.    Howard,    lieutenant- 
colonel  ; 

John  Stewart,  major; 

John  Dean,  major; 

Archibald  Anderson,  major; 

Henry  Hardman,  captain; 

A.  Grosh,  captain ; 

Thomas  Lansdale,  captain; 

Harry  Dobson,  captain ; 

William  D.  Beale,  captain; 

Jonathan  Sellman,  captain ; 

Alexander  Trueman,  captain ; 

Joseph  Marbury,  captain ; 

Jacob  Brice,  captain ; 

John  Smith,  captain; 

William  Wilmott,  captain; 

Alexander  Roxburgh,  captain; 

Henry  Gaither,  captain ; 

Edward  Oldman,  captain; 

Richard  Anderson,  captain; 

Edward  Pratt,  captain; 

George  Hamilton,  captain; 

Levin  Handy,  captain ; 

Walker  Mun,  captain; 

John  Carr, 

Nicholas  Gassaway, 

Charles  Smith, 

R.  N.  Walker, 

Lloyd  Beall, 

Richard  McAlister, 

James  Brain, 

Ed.  Edgerly, 

John  J.  Jacob, 

James  Ewing, 

Wm.  Lamar, 

Wm.  Woolford, 

Charles  Beaven, 

John  Hartshorn, 

John  M.  Hamilton, 

James  Gould, 

J.  J.  Skinner, 

Richard  Donovan, 

John  Gibson, 

T.  B.  Hugan, 

Gassaway  Watkins, 

W.  Adams, 

George  Jacobs, 

John  Mitchell, 

Philip  Theid, 

Edward  Moran, 

Thomas  Price,  engineer; 

Henry  Baldwin,  quarter-master 

and  engineer; 
John   Gassaway,   lieutenant  2d 

Maryland  regiment; 
Samuel  Hanson,  ensign ; 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

James  Woolford  Gray,  captain ; 

John  Gale,  captain; 

John  Sprigg  Belt,  captain ; 

John  Smith,  captain; 

W.  Beatty,  captain; 

J.  C.  Jones,  captain ; 

John  Davidson,  captain; 

John  Jordan,  captain ; 

James  Somervell,  captain-lieu- 
tenant ; 

Benjamin  Price,  captain-lieu- 
tenant ; 

Frederick  Foird,  captain-lieu- 
tenant ; 

George  Armstrong,  captain-lieu- 
tenant; and  lieutenants; 

Francis  Reveley, 

Nicholas  Mamges, 

Samuel  Farmer, 

Osborn  Williams, 

Isaac  Duall, 

Hezekiah  Ford,  ensign; 

John  Dorsey,  surgeon  5th  Mary- 
land Regiment; 

Thomas  Parran,  surgeon  6th 
regiment ; 

William  Kiltz,  assistant  sur- 
geon 5th  regiment; 

John  Hamilton,  paymaster  and 
lieutenant,  4th  Maryland 

Richard  Pindell,  surgeon,  4th 
Maryland  regiment; 

Christopher  Richmond,  pay- 
master and  lieutenant; 

Benjamin  Garnett,  engineer; 

James  Woulds,  adjutant; 

W.  Warfield,  assistant  surgeon, 
6th  regiment; 

Robert  Denny,  engineer  and 
paymaster,  7  th  regiment. 

The  legislature  met  on  July  22,  and  after  considering 
the  address  of  the  officers  passed  an  act  "  relating  to  the 
officers  and  soldiers  of  this  State  in  the  American  army." 
This  measure  provided  that  as  the  officers  were  bearing 
the  heaviest  burdens  of  the  war  with  a  pay  that  scarcely 
supplied  them  with  the  necessaries  of  life,  and  as  most  of 
them  were  now  so  reduced  in  means  as  to  be  dependent  upon 
the  gratuity  of  the  state,  each  of  the  commissioned  and 
staff  officers  of  the  Maryland  Line  and  of  the  state  troops 
in  the  Continental  army  was  to  be  allowed  every  year  dur- 
ing the  war,  at  a  fixed  price,  "  four  good  shirts  and  a  com- 
plete uniform,  suitable  to  his  station."  They  were  also  to 
be  allowed  tea,  coffee,  chocolate,  sugar,  rum,  soap  and 

Service  of  the  Maryland  Troops. 


tobacco,  in  certain  portions,  to  be  dealt  out  by  the  day  and 
month.  During  that  year,  in  lieu  of  these,  they  were  to 
receive  $2,000.  The  non-commissioned  officers  and  pri- 
vates were  also  to  be  given  an  allowance  in  rum  and  to- 
bacco, which,  for  the  year  1779,  was  commuted  at  £20 
currency  for  each  man.  The  act  also  provided  that  those 
who  should  enlist  in  a  Maryland  regiment  to  serve  for 
three  years,  or  during  the  war,  should  receive,  in  addition 
to  the  bounties  provided  by  congress  and  the  state,  a  hat,  a 
pair  of  shoes,  stockings  and  overalls. 


Forwarding  the  Cause  at  Home. 


HILE  the  Maryland 
troops  were  upholding 
the  honor  of  the  State  in  the 
field,  those  at  home,  the  non- 
combatants,  were  doing  their 
part  to  forward  the  patriotic 
cause.  A  feeling  of  patriotism 
was  manifested  everywhere 
among  all  classes,  and  in  many 
instances  those  who  could  not 
very  well  afford  it  sacrificed 
the  necessaries  of  life  to  con- 
tribute towards  the  support  of 
the  troops  in  the  field.  Every- 
thing that  was  possible  was  done  to  assist  in  the  struggle 
and  privations  were  endured  by  those  at  home  as  well  as 
by  those  in  camp.  Patriotic  sentiments  were  expressed  on 
all  sides.     Scharf^*^  gives  a  copy  of  a  letter  supposed  to 

1*5  "History  of  Western  Maryland,"  Vol.  II.,  p.  1035.     The  letter  is  as 
follows : 

To  Capt.  William  Heyser,  at  the  American  Camp,  Philadelphia. 
Dear  Father 

Through  the  mercies  of  almighty  God,  I  my  Mamma,  my  brother  and 


Forwarding  the  Cause  at  Home.  261 

have  been  written  to  Captain  William  Heyser  by  his  son, 
aged  nine  years.  While  the  sentiments  expressed  in  the 
letter  were  no  doubt  those  entertained  by  almost  everyone 
yet  the  letter  itself  Is  scarcely  one  such  as  would  be  written 
by  a  nine-year  old  boy. 

Many  of  the  German  settlers  in  western  Maryland  had 
conscientious  scruples  against  war  and  these  people  were 
averse  to  enlisting  in  the  army  and  taking  an  active  part  In 
the  war,  but  they  contributed  of  their  means,  many  of  them 
liberally.  Military  stores,  gunpowder,  guns  and  cannon, 
were  manufactured  at  a  number  of  places,  and  supplies  of 
various  kinds  also  contributed.  At  a  meeting  of  the  Com- 
mittee of  Observation  for  that  part  of  Frederick  county 
which  is  now  Washington  county,  held  at  Elizabeth  Town 
(Hagerstown)  on  April  8,  1776,  the  following  communi- 
cation was  received  from  the  Council  of  Safety: 

Sisters  are  well,  in  hopes  these  may  find  you  enjoying  these  Felicities, 
•which  tend  to  happiness  in  life,  and  everlasting  Happiness  In  Eternity  your 
long  absence  and  great  distance  is  the  only  matter  of  our  trouble,  but  our 
sincere  Prayers,  is  for  your  V^elfare  and  Prosperity,  begging  that  God  may 
prosper  you,  and  your  united  Brethren,  in  your  laudable  undertaking,  and 
in  the  end  crown  you  with  the  laurels  of  a  Complete  victory,  over  the 
Enemies  of  the  inestimable  Rights,  Liberties,  and  Privileges  of  distressed 
America,  and  hand  them  down  inviolate,  to  the  latest  Posterity.  My  Dear 
father,  my  greatest  Grief  is,  that  I  am  incapable  of  the  military  Service, 
that  I  might  enjoy  the  company  of  so  loving  a  father,  and  serve  my  country 
In  so  glorious  a  cause,  but  tho'  absent  from  you  yet  my  constant  prayer 
is  for  your  Safety,  in  the  Hour  of  danger,  your  complete  victory,  over  the 
Enemies,  of  the  united  States  of  America,  and  your  Safe  Restoration  to  the 
government  of  your  family.  I  and  my  brother  Jacob  Continue  at  School, 
and  hope  to  give  a  full  Satisfaction,  to  our  parents,  and  friends  in  our 
regular  conduct,  and  Progress  in  learning,  my  Mamma,  my  brother  and 
Sister  do  join  me  In  their  Prayers  and  well  wishes  for  you. 

I  am  Dr.  Father  your  most  dutiful  and  obedt  Son, 

Hagers  Town  William  Heyser 

October  12th 

262  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

In  Council  of  Safety,  Annapolis, 
March  23,  1776. 

Gentlemen: — The  great  difficulty  we  find  in  providing  blankets 
for  the  regular  forces  raised  for  the  defence  of  this  province  obliges 
us  to  apply  to  the  committee  of  observation  for  the  several  counties 
and  districts,  earnestly  requesting  that  they  w^ould  use  their  en- 
deavors to  procure  from  the  housekeepers  in  their  respective  coun- 
ties and  districts  all  the  blankets  or  rugs  that  they  can  with  any 
convenience  spare,  for  which  the  council  will  pay  such  prices  as 
the  committees  shall  agree  on,  as  well  as  any  expense  that  may 
arise  in  collecting  them  together ;  and  when  you  have  procured  any 
quantity,  you  will  send  them  to  Annapolis,  to  Col.  Smallwood,  or, 
in  his  absence,  to  the  commanding  officer  on  this  station,  who  will 
receive  the  same,  and  give  orders  on  the  council  for  the  payment 

We  hope  that  the  friends  to  our  cause  in  the  county  will  con- 
tribute everything  in  their  power  to  the  comfortable  subsistence  of 
the  soldiery  in  this  respect ;  it  will  be  an  act  of  great  humanity,  and 
render  an  essential  service  to  the  public. 

We  are,  Gentlemen,  your  most  O"*^  servants.     By  order. 

Daniel,  of  St.  Thos.,  Jennifer,  P. 

The   proceedings   of   the   Committee   then   go   on   to 

In  consequence  of  the  preceding  letter  from  the  honorable  the 
council  of  safety  of  this  province,  we  have,  agreeably  to  their  re- 
quest, furnished  them  with  what  quantity  of  blankets  and  rugs  the 
inhabitants  of  this  district  can  with  any  convenience  spare,  and  a 
price  estimated  on  them  by  this  committee  as  follows: 

£  s.  d.  £  s.  d. 

William  Baird,  i  blanket...  o  17  6       John  Ingram,  i  blanket o  15  o 

John  Parks,  i  rug o  iz  o  Adam  Grimer,  2  blankets       i   i&  o 

Andrew  Rench,  i  blanket.  ..0126  Wm.  Douglass,  1  blanket. . .  o  10  o 

Simon  Myer,            "         ...  o  15  o  Matthias  Need,  i  blanket...  o  12  o 

i^^Scharf's  "History  of  Western  Maryland,"  Vol,  I.,  p.  134. 

Forwarding  the  Cause  at  Home. 


Philip  Ryraeby,  j  coverlets. . 




Michael  Ott,  i  blanket. . 

..0     50 

Geo.  Fry,  i  blanket 




John  Feagen, 

. .  0  i'6  0 

Fclty  Safety,  i  blanket 




«            i( 


Jacob  Lazear,           " 




Jerentiah  Wells, 

. .  0  10  0 

Joseph  Birely,  i  coverlet... 




Joseph  Rench, 


I  blanket... 




Zach'h    Spires, 

. .  0  10  0 

Richard  Davis,        " 




Matthias  Nead, 

. .  0  10  0 

Thos.   Prather,         " 




Henry  Startzraan, 

. .   0  IiZ  0 

Ch'n  Rhorer, 




George  Swingly, 

. .  0160 

Leonard  Shryock,     " 




George  Hoffman, 

. .  0    7'  6 

Robert  Guthrie,  r  coverlet. . 




Jacob  Brumbaugh, 

.  .  21'      3    0 

Christian  Miller,     " 




Michael  Miller, 

. .42    17   0 

Jacob  Prunk,  r  blanket 




George  Hartte, 

. .    0    18    0 

Jacob  Rohrer,            " 




John    Roltrer, 

. .20    10  0 

Ellen  Miller, 




Christ'r  Burgard, 

. .    0120 

Chas.  Swearingen,  i  blanket 




Jacob  Good,  i   rug 


Ch'n  Eversole,         " 




John  Rench,  i  blanket. . 

. .    0120 

r  quilt 




John   Stull, 


. .    0   14   0 

"           "           I  coverlet. .. 




Received  of  Conrad  Sheitz  forty-four  blankets  for  the  use  of  this 
province,  vv^hich  were  delivered  him  by  the  committee  of  Observa- 
tion of  Elizabeth  Town  district. 

Received  by  me  this  I2th  day  of  April,  1776. 

Geo.  Stricker. 

While  there  were  some  of  the  inhabitants  of  Maryland 
who  remained  loyal  to  Great  Britain,  the  majority  of  them, 
particularly  among  the  Germans,  were  on  the  side  of  the 
patriots,  and  they  were  ever  on  the  alert  to  detect  any 
treasonable  designs  on  the  part  of  the  Tories,  and  owing 
to  their  vigilance  they  were  frequently  able  to  frustrate 
well-laid  plans  which  might  have  resulted  seriously  for  the 
American  cause.  One  of  the  most  notable  of  these  was 
that  concocted  by  Dr.  John  Connolly,  which  was  frustrated 
by  some  of  the  Germans  of  western  Maryland.  Connolly 
was  a  native  of  Lancaster  county,  Pennsylvania,  where  he 
became  a  physician.    After  taking  part  in  the  French  and 

264  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Indian  War,  he  spent  some  time  with  various  Indian  tribes, 
accompanying  them  on  long  marches  into  unexplored  terri- 
tory, and  finally  settled  at  Pittsburgh.  When  the  Revolu- 
tionary War  began  he  remained  loyal  to  Great  Britain. 
While  at  Pittsburgh  he  met  Lord  Dunmore,  governor  of 
Virginia,  and  when  the  latter  was  making  strenuous  efforts 
to  help  the  royal  cause  he  found  an  able  ally  in  Connolly. 
A  plan  was  formed  by  which  Connolly,  through  his  inti- 
macy with  the  Indians,  was  to  incite  them  to  a  war  upon 
the  frontiers,  and  to  raise  an  army  in  Canada  and  the 
western  settlements.  Dunmore  sent  Connolly  to  General 
Gage,  who  commanded  at  Boston,  with  the  following 
proposals : 

Proposals  for  raising  an  Army  to  the  Westward,  and  for  effectually 

obstructing  a  Communication  between  the  Southern  and 

Northern  Governments. 

As  I  have,  by  direction  from  his  Excellency  Lord  Dunmore,  pre- 
pared the  Ohio  Indians  to  act  in  concert  with  me  against  his 
Majesty's  enemies  in  that  quarter,  and  have  also  dispatched  intelli- 
gence to  the  different  officers  of  the  militia  on  the  frontiers  of 
Augusta  County,  in  Virginia,  giving  them  Lord  Dunmore's  assur- 
ances that  such  of  them  as  shall  hereafter  evince  their  loyalty  to 
his  Majesty  by  putting  themselves  under  my  command,  when  I 
shall  appear  among  them  with  proper  authority  for  that  purpose, 
of  a  confirmation  of  titles  to  their  lands,  and  the  quantity  of  three 
hundred  acres  to  all  who  should  take  up  arms  in  the  support  of  the 
constitution,  when  the  present  rebellion  subsided,  I  will  undertake 
to  penetrate  through  Virginia,  and  join  his  Excellency  Lord  Dun- 
more at  Alexandria  early  next  spring,  on  the  following  conditions 
and  authority: 

1st.  That  your  Excellency  will  give  me  a  commission  to  act  as 
Major-commandant  of  such  troops  as  I  may  raise  and  embody  on 
the  frontiers,  with  a  power  to  command  to  the  westward  and 

Forwarding  the  Cause  at  Home.  265 

employ  such  serviceable  French  and  English  partisans  as  I  can 
employ  by  pecuniary  rewards  or  otherwise. 

2d.  That  your  Excellency  will  give  orders  to  Captain  Lord  on 
the  Illinois  to  remove  himself,  with  the  garrison  under  his  com- 
mand, from  Fort  Gage  to  Detroit,  by  the  Aubache,  bringing  with 
him  all  the  artillery,  stores,  &c.,  &c.,  to  facilitate  which  under- 
taking he  is  to  have  authority  to  hire  boats,  horses,  Frenchmen, 
Indians,  &c.,  &c.,  to  proceed  with  all  possible  expedition  on  that 
route,  as  the  weather  may  occasionally  permit,  and  to  put  himself 
under  my  command  on  his  arrival  at  Detroit. 

3d.  That  the  commissary  at  Detroit  shall  be  empowered  to 
furnish  such  provision  as  I  may  judge  necessary  for  the  good  of  the 
service,  and  that  the  commanding  officer  shall  be  instructed  to  give 
every  possible  assistance  in  encouraging  the  French  and  Indians  of 
that  settlement  to  join  me. 

4th.  That  an  officer  of  artillery  be  immediately  sent  with  me  to 
pursue  such  route  as  I  may  find  most  expedient  to  gain  Detroit, 
with  orders  to  have  such  pieces  of  light  ordnance  as  may  be  thought 
requisite  for  the  demolishing  of  Fort  Dunmore  and  Fort  Fincastle, 
if  resistance  should  be  made  by  the  rebels  in  possession  of  those 

5th.  That  your  Excellency  will  empower  me  to  make  such 
reasonable  presents  to  the  Indian  chiefs  and  others  as  may  urge 
them  to  act  with  vigor  in  the  execution  of  my  orders. 

6th.  That  your  Excellency  will  send  to  Lord  Dunmore  such 
arms  as  may  be  spared,  in  order  to  equip  such  persons  as  may  be 
willing  to  serve  his  Majesty  at  our  junction,  in  the  vicinity  of 
Alexandria,  &c.,  &c.  If  your  Excellency  judges  it  expedient  for 
the  good  of  the  service  to  furnish  me  with  the  authority  and  other 
requisites  I  have  mentioned,  I  shall  embrace  the  earliest  oppor- 
tunity of  setting  off  for  Canada,  and  shall  immediately  dispatch 
Lord  Dunmore's  armed  schooner,  which  now  awaits  my  com- 
mands, with  an  account  of  what  your  Excellency  has  done,  and 
that  I  shall  be  ready,  if  practicable,  to  join  your  Lordship  by  the 
twentieth  of  April,  at  Alexandria,  where  the  troops  under  my 

266  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

command  may  fortify  themselves  under  the  cover  of  the  men  of 
war  on  that  station. 

If,  on  the  contrary,  your  Excellency  should  not  approve  of  what 
I  propose,  you  will  be  good  enough  to  immediately  honor  me  with 
your  dispatches  to  the  Earl  of  Dunmore,  that  I  may  return  as  early 
as  possible. 

General  Gage  approved  the  plan,  and  In  October,  1775, 
Connolly  again  joined  Dunmore,  who  In  accordance  with 
instructions  from  General  Gage,  gave  him  a  commission  as 
lieutenant-colonel  commandant  of  the  Queen's  Royal 
Rangers,  to  be  raised  "In  the  back  parts  and  Canada." 
On  November  13th  Connolly  left  Dunmore  and  started 
for  Detroit.  He  was  accompanied  by  Dr.  John  Smith  and 
Allan  Cameron.  The  former  was  a  Scotchman  who  lived 
on  Port  Tobacco  creek.  In  Charles  county,  Maryland. 
Connolly  had  Induced  him  to  accept  a  commission  as  sur- 
geon In  the  proposed  expedition.  Cameron  was  also  a 
Scotchman  who  had  left  home  on  account  of  a  duel  and 
had  come  to  Virginia  with  the  Intention  of  purchasing  lands 
In  that  colony.  He  served  for  some  time  as  deputy  Indian 
agent  In  South  Carolina,  but  having  suffered  much  abuse 
there  for  his  loyalty  to  the  crown,  and  having  gained  some 
notoriety  on  account  of  a  plan  to  Incite  the  Creek  and 
Cherokee  Indians  to  fall  on  the  colonIsts,i*^  ^g  readily 
engaged  to  join  the  party,  being  promised  a  commission  as 

The  party  set  out  in  a  flat-bottomed  boat.  Intending  to 
go  up  the  Potomac  and  disembark  near  the  home  of  Dr. 
Smith  and  from  that  point  proceed  on  horseback.  A 
storm  drove  them  into  the  St.  Mary's  river  and  from  that 
point  they  went  forward  on  horseback.    They  had  almost 

1*'^  Steincr,  "  Western  Maryland  in  the  Revolution,"  p.  40. 

Forwarding  the  Cause  at  Home.  267 

passed  the  frontier  when,  on  November  19,  they  stopped  at 
a  tavern  about  five  miles  from  Hagerstown.  Here  Con- 
nolly was  recognized  and  as  information  concerning  his 
plans  had  been  received  a  day  or  two  before  through  a 
letter  written  by  Connolly  to  a  friend  in  Pittsburgh,  the 
party  was  placed  under  arrest.  They  were  taken  to  Hagers- 
town and  the  next  day  were  brought  before  the  Committee 
of  Observation  who  ordered  them  sent  to  the  Committee 
of  Safety.  They  were  taken  to  Frederick  where  their  bag- 
gage was  thoroughly  examined  and  incriminating  papers 
were  found,  although  Connolly's  commission  and  other  im- 
portant papers  had  been  concealed  in  hollow  pillion  sticks 
and  thus  escaped  detection  and  were  later  destroyed  by 
Connolly's  servant.  Smith  made  his  escape  but  was  re- 
captured, and  on  the  order  of  John  Hancock,  president  of 
Congress,  the  three  prisoners  were  sent  to  Philadelphia. 
Connolly,  in  a  "  Narrative  of  the  Transactions,  Imprison- 
ment and  sufferings  of  John  Connolly,  an  American  Loyal- 
ist and  Lieutenant-Colonel  in  His  Majesty's  Service,"^^^ 
has  left  an  account  of  this  expedition,  while  Smith  tells  of 
some  of  the  incidents  attending  their  capture.^^^  He  says 
that  when  they  were  taken  to  Frederick  two  musicians, 
with  drum  and  fife,  marched  ahead  of  them  playing  the 
rogue's  march.  On  reaching  Frederick  they  were  taken 
before  "  a  committee  which  consisted  of  a  tailor,  a  leather 
breeches  maker,  a  shoemaker,  a  gingerbread  maker,  a 
butcher,  and  two  tavern  keepers.  The  majority  were  Ger- 
mans and  I  was  subjected  to  a  very  remarkable  hearing, 
as  follows : 

"  One  said  '  You  infernal  rascal,  how  darsht  you  make 

1*8  Pennsylvania  Magazine   of  History  and  Biography,   Vol.   XII.,   pp. 
310,  407;  Vol.  XIII.,  pp.  61,  i'S3,  2S1. 
"9  "  A  Tour  through  the  U.  S.  of  America,"  by  J.  D.  F.  Smyth. 

268  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

an  exshkape  from  this  honorable  committee  ? '  '  Der 
fluchter  Dyvel,'  cried  another,  '  how  can  you  shtand  so 
shtyff  for  king  Shorsh  akainst  dis  koontry.  '  Sacrament,' 
yelled  another,  '  dis  committee  will  let  Shorsh  know  how  to 
behave  himself,'  and  the  butcher  exclaimed,  '  I  would  kill 
all  the  English  tieves,  as  soon  as  Ich  would  kill  an  ox  or  a 
cow.' " 

While  there  were  a  number  of  Tories  among  the  citi- 
zens of  Maryland  there  were  very  few  to  be  found  among 
the  German  settlers.  These,  as  a  rule,  were  ardent  patriots, 
and  there  were  few  instances  where  Germans  were  arrested 
as  Tories.    There  was,  however,  one  notable  exception. 

In  178 1  another  plan  was  formed  by  the  British  and 
Tories  for  dividing  the  northern  colonies  from  the  southern. 
According  to  this  scheme  Cornwallis  was  to  march  inland 
from  the  Chesapeake  and  meet  the  bands  of  Tories  which 
were  to  be  raised  and  armed  in  the  interior.  In  maturing 
their  plans  it  was  arranged  that  a  disguised  British  officer 
was  to  meet  a  Tory  at  a  point  in  Frederick  county  to  put 
him  in  possession  of  all  the  plans  of  the  conspirators.  But 
it  so  happened  that  an  American  officer  was  at  the  appointed 
place  and  the  Tory's  papers  fell  into  his  hands,  revealing 
the  plot  and  the  names  of  the  conspirators.  The  latter 
were  arrested.  Among  them  were  a  number  of  Germans : 
Peter  Sueman,  Nicholas  Andrews,  John  George  Graves, 
Yost  Flecker,  Adam  Graves,  Henry  Shett,  and  Casper 
Fritchie.  On  July  25  these  seven  were  placed  on  trial  be- 
fore a  special  court  at  Frederick,  consisting  of  Alexander 
Contee  Hanson,  afterwards  Chancellor  of  the  State,  Col. 
James  Johnson  and  Upton  Sheredine.  The  seven  were 
found  guilty  of  high  treason  In  "  enlisting  men  for  the 
service  of  the  king  of  Great  Britain  and  administering  an 
oath  to  them  to  bear  true  allegiance  to  the  said  king,  and 

Forwarding  the  Cause  at  Home.  269 

to  obey  his  officers  when  called  upon,"     Judge  Hanson 
then  sentenced  the  men  as  follows  i^^*' 

Peter  Sueman,  Nicholas  Andrews,  John  George  Graves,  Yost 
Flecker,  Adam  Graves,  Henry  Shett,  Casper  Fritchie,  attend.  It 
has  been  suggested  to  the  court  that  notwithstanding  your  guilt  has 
been  ascertained  by  an  impartial  jury,  you  consider  the  proceedings 
against  you  nothing  more  than  solemn  mockery,  and  have  adopted 
a  vain  idea,  propagated  by  the  enemies  of  this  country,  that  she 
dare  not  punish  her  unnatural  subjects  for  engaging  in  the  service 
of  Great  Britain.  From  the  strange  insensibility  you  have  hereto- 
fore discovered,  I  was  indeed  led  to  conclude  that  you  were  under  a 
delusion,  which  might  prove  fatal  to  your  prospects  of  happiness 
hereafter.  I  think  it  is  my  duty,  therefore,  to  explain  to  you  your 
real  situation.  The  crime  you  have  been  convicted  of,  upon  the 
fullest  and  clearest  testimony,  is  of  such  a  nature  that  you  cannot, 
ought  not,  to  look  for  a  pardon.  Had  it  pleased  heaven  to  permit 
the  full  execution  of  your  unnatural  designs,  the  miseries  to  be 
experienced  by  your  devoted  country  would  have  been  dreadful 
even  in  the  contemplation.  The  ends  of  public  justice,  the  dictates 
of  policy,  and  the  feelings  of  humanity  all  require  that  you  should 
exhibit  an  awful  example  to  your  fellow-subjects,  and  the  dignity 
of  the  State,  with  everything  that  can  interest  the  heart  of  man, 
calls  aloud  for  your  punishment.  If  the  consideration  of  approach- 
ing fate  can  inspire  proper  sentiments,  you  will  pour  forth  your 
thanks  to  that  watchful  Providence  which  has  arrested  you  at  an 
early  date  of  your  guilt.  And  you  will  employ  the  short  time  you 
have  to  live  in  endeavoring,  by  a  sincere  penitence,  to  obtain  pardon 
from  the  Almighty  Being,  who  is  to  sit  in  judgment  upon  you, 
upon  me,  and  all  mankind. 

I  must  now  perform  the  terrible  task  of  denouncing  the  terrible 
punishment  ordained  for  high  treason. 

You,  Peter  Sueman,  Nicholas  Andrews,  Yost  Plecker,  Adam 
Graves,  Henry  Shett,  John  George  Graves,  and  Casper  Fritchie, 

150  Scharf's  "  History  of  Western  Maryland,"  Vol.  I.,  p.  143. 

270  The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

and  each  of  you,  attend  to  your  sentence.  You  shall  be  carried  to 
the  gaol  of  Fredericktown,  and  be  hanged  therein;  you  shall  be  cut 
down  to  the  earth  alive,  and  your  entrails  shall  be  taken  out  and 
burnt  while  you  are  yet  alive,  your  heads  shall  be  cut  off,  your 
body  shall  be  divided  into  four  parts,  and  your  heads  and  quarters 
shall  be  placed  where  his  excellency  the  Governor  shall  appoint. 
So  Lord  have  mercy  upon  your  poor  souls. 

Four  of  these  men  were  pardoned,  the  other  three  being 
executed  in  the  court-house  yard  at  Frederick.  One  of 
those  executed  was  Casper  Fritchie,  the  father  of  John 
Casper  Fritchie,  who  was  the  husband  of  Barbara  Fritchie, 
the  heroine  of  Whittler's  poem.^^^ 

With  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  War  the  inhabitants 
of  the  western  part  of  Maryland  settled  down  to  a  peaceful 
life,  turning  all  their  energies  to  the  development  of  the 
country.  The  population  increased  rapidly.  Many  of  the 
Hessians  who  had  come  to  fight  the  colonists  took  up  land 
in  that  section  and  became  their  neighbors.  Many  emi- 
grants came  to  Maryland  from  Germany  without  first  stop- 
ping in  Pennsylvania,  so  that  the  additions  to  the  popula- 
tion lost  the  distinctively  Pennsylvania-German  type,  but 
the  influence  of  the  first  settlers  was  never  lost. 

Two  hundred  years  have  passed  since  the  first  Germans 
from  Pennsylvania  made  their  way  through  the  trackless 
wilderness  of  Maryland:  two  hundred  years  which  have 
seen  that  wilderness  blossom  into  one  of  the  fairest  gardens 

151  Barbara  Fritchie  was  a  Pennsylvania-German.  She  was  born  in 
Lancaster,  Pa.,  Decennber  3,  1766,  the  daughter  of  Nicholas  and  Catherine 
Hauer.  Although  it  has  been  conclusively  shown  that  there  is  no  founda- 
tion in  fact  for  the  incident  given  in  Whittier's  poem,  yet,  like  the  equally 
mythical  story  of  Betsy  Ross  and  the  flag,  the  tale  will  no  doubt  continue 
to  find  believers  in  its  authenticity. 

Forwarding  the  Cause  at  Home. 


on  earth.  Through  the  trials  and  sufferings  of  those  early 
pioneers  the  foundations  were  laid  upon  which  has  arisen 
an  empire,  than  which  no  more  enduring  monument  to  their 
memory  could  be  erected.  Their  descendants  have  con- 
tinued the  work  so  well  begun  and  have  spread  out  and 
helped  to  conquer  new  fields  and  make  them  add  to  the 
wealth  of  the  nation.  To  the  south  and  west  this  stream 
of  emigration  made  its  way  unceasingly.  It  would  be  im- 
possible to  particularize,  but  there  is  no  part  of  the  country, 
from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific,  and  from  the  Gulf  to  the 
frozen  borders  on  the  north,  where  the  descendants  of 
those  early  German  settlers  of  Maryland  cannot  be  found. 
Many  of  them  have  set  their  mark  high  in  the  record  of 
the  world's  progress:  in  science,  in  art,  in  mechanics,  in 
whatever  makes  for  the  betterment  of  mankind,  and  in 
reaching  high  honors  themselves  have  honored  the  memory 
of  those  brave  men  and  women  who,  leaving  behind  them 
all  the  comforts  of  civilization,  and  taking  their  lives  In 
their  hands,  carved  out  a  home  In  the  forests  of  the  western 



Aaron,  239 

Abel,  221,  231 

Abercromby,   169 

Aberly,  227 

Able,  231 

Acre,  223 

Adams,  40,  175,  215,  216,  219,  257 

Adlura,  191 

Agnew,  180 

Aim,  222 

Albaugh,  188,  190 

Aldridge,  209,  219 

Alexander,  226,  239 

Alibock,  40 

Alinger,  223 

Allin,  175 

Allison,  210,  219 

Allsop,  217 

Alrichs,  123 

Alsop,  214 

Altimus,  238 

Ambrose,  180,  188,  190,  206 

Americk,  230 

Amersly,  229 

Ammersly,  239 

Anckle,  232 

Anderson,  210,  215,  257 

Andess,  218 

Andreas,  238 

Andrews,  238,  268,  269 

Angel,  228 

Angelberger,  99 

Anspach,  255 

Apfel,  93,  98 

Apple,  99,  139,  237 

Archley,  190 

Aringall,  137 

Armstrong,  46,  227,  233,  235,  236, 

Arnold,  227,  238 
Arran,  214 
Arrings,  226 
Arsheraft,  161 
Artis,  211 
Ashley,  236,  239 
Ashloff,  149 
Ashly,  226 
Askey,  210 
Askins,  123 
Atcheson,  212 
Atchison,  211 
Attley,  247 
Augusteen,  175 
Aulpaugh,  217 

Backdolt,  139 

Backer,  174,  227 

Bainbridge,  178,  191 

Baird,  188,  190,  206,  234,  262 

Baitson,  211 

Baker,  93,  105,  151,  182,  187,  190, 

192,  217,  222,  237 
Baldwin,  257 
Ball,  214 
Baltimore,  Lord,  5,  6,  7,  8,  9,   10, 

12,  13,  14,  15,  17,  20,  21,  42,  43, 

89,  90,  109,  121,  122,  123,  140, 

165,  166,  181 
Balzel,  230 
Banckauf,  93 
Bantz,  227,  239 
Bare,  191 

Index  to  Proper  Names. 


Barkshire,  214 

Barnes,  208 

Barnet,  213,  223,  240 

Barnitt,  213 

Barnitz,  61,  103 

Barnt,  174 

Barrack,  214,  218 

Barratt,  209 

Barrett,  220,  221 

Barrick,  218 

Barringer,  218 

Barry,  222 

Bartgis,  87 

Bartoon,  61 

Barts,  239 

Bartz,  206 

Bassler,   104 

Bast,  232 

Bates,  227,  238 

Batolomey,  239 

Bauer,  233 

Baugh,  217 

Baum,  93 

Baumgartner,  221 

Baun,  134 

Bauswell,  227 

Bawart,  235 

Bayer,  216,  225,  230,  231 

Bayley,  187,  188,  190,  192 

Baylor,  227 

Bayman,  214 

Beaden,  209 

Beading,  219 

Beadles,  161 

Beale,  257 

Beall,  169,  171,  178,  187,  188,  189, 

190,  191,  192,  194,  208,  209,  210, 

213,  214,  257 
Beam,  226,  227 
Bear,  118,  216 
Beard,  214,  218,  235 
Bearse,  215 

Beatty,  178,  187,  188,  189,  190,  192, 

193,  194,  213,  258 
Beaven,  257 
Bechtel,  99 
Beckerson,  231 
Becketh,  217 
Beckett,  214 
Beckwith,  217 
Becraft,  192 
Beddock,  130 
Bedford,  245 
Beeding,  219,  220 
Beekman,  16 
Been,  220 
Beer,  93 
Beiker,  231 
Bell,  216 
Belsoover,  234 
Belt,  258 

Beltzhoover,   105,  235,  236 
Beltzhover,  227 
Bemhart,  222 
Bender,  227 
Bene,  98 

Benner,  227,  235,  236 
Bennett,  212,  217,  221,  227,  239 
Benning,  215 
Bent,  190 

Benter,  216,  233,  234,  237 
Bentley,  217 
Berener,  223 
Berg,  93 
Bergy,  41 
Berreck,  217 
Berringer,  223 
Berry,  221 
Beyer,  93 
Bigler,  233 
Billow,  215 
Bingamon,  41 
Binkler,   175 
Bird,  230 
Bircly,  263 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Birij,  134 

Bischoff,  93 

Bishop,  227,  234,  236 

Bissett,  220 

Bitting,  232 

Bitts,  4Q 

Bitzell,  206 

Blackburn,  162,  210 

Blair,  161,  162,  178,  180,  188,  190, 

Blankenstein,  25 
Blunston,  127,  129,  132,  137 
Bly,  105 
Boardy,  220 
Boe,  215 
Boehler,  232 
Boehrae,  104 
Boiler,  61 
Boltz,  93 
Bonagel,  215 
Bonner,  225 
Booth,  162,  190 
Borker,  211 
Bostion,  217 
Bouch,  235 
Boucher,  216 
Bough,  227 

Bouquet,  156,  157,  161,  170 
Boward,  233 
Bowen,  137,  213 
Bower,  174,  225,  227 
Bowerd,  227 
Bowersmith,  221 

Bowie,  180,  182,  187,  190,  192,  250 
Bowles,  188,  190 
Bowman,  42,  216,  217 
Bownas,  23 
Boyd,  46,  183,  184,  188,  189,  190, 

Boyer,  190,  213,  217,  225,  231,  238 
Bozman,  5,  6,  10,  13,  15,  90 
Braddock,  48,  81  146,  147,  148,  159, 

Bradford,  220 
Bradley,   180,  206 
Bradmore,  162 
Bradstreet,  161 
Braeter,  237 
Brain,  257 
Brandt,  25 
Branwood,  218 
Brashears,  209 
Brattle,  217 
Brawner,   180,  214 
Brease,  214 
Breecher,  233,  235 
Breeze,  214 
Brent,  188 
Brice,  207,  257 

Brieger,  226 

Briggs,  220 

Bright,  134 

Brinker,  154 

Brinsford,  216 

Briscoe,   192 

Brodbech,  227 

Brodhead,  250 

Bronner,  93 

Brook,  181 

Brooke,  182,  185,  187,  188,  189,  190, 
193,  194 

Brown,  57,  76,  180,  206,  215,  221, 
222,  226,  233 

Browner,  139 

Browning,  209 

Brubacher,  232 

Bruce,  188,  190,  193 

Brucher,  236 

Brugh,  223 

Brumbaugh,  106,  263 

Bruner,  188 

Brunner,  190,  217,  220 

Bruschel,  93 

Bryan,  209,  218 

Bryant,  214 

Buch,  233,  238 

Index  to  Proper  Names. 


Buchanan,  218 

Bucher,  216 

Buck,  227 

Buckhannon,  218 

Buller,  213 

Bulsel,  225 

Bun,  41 

Burgard,  263 

Burgess,    187,    190,   191,  208,   209, 

Burk,  226,  233 
Burke,  238 
Burkett,  188,  190 
Burkhart,   117,  225 
Burn,  219 
Burney,  234,  235 
Burrawl,  218 
Burrol,  218 
Burton,  211,  214 
Busey,  213,  219 
Butchiere,   137 
Butlar,  250 

Butler,  159,  192,  193,  250 
Byard,  137 
Byer,  214,  238 
Byrn,  219 

Cadwallader,  251 

Cahill,  227,  239 

Calvert,  5,  6,  8,  9,  54,  213 

Gambler,  227,  233 

Cameron,  266 

Camler,  235 

Cammell,  218 

Campbell,  188,  190,  193,  215,  218, 

Campert,  105 
Campian,  223 
Cane,  219 
Caple,  237 
Cappele,  237 
Carey,  183 
Carlin,  211 

Carmack,  217 

Carmant,  217 

Cams,  219,  239 

Carpenter,  46,   161 

Carr,  257 

Carrick,  191,  221 

Carroll,  180,  212,  215,  219,  233 

Carter,  174,  209,  211 

CartHdge,  129,  130 

Carty,  213,  223 

Carvell,  137 

Cary,  191 

Casey,  222 

Cash,  214 

Casner,  227 

Cassll,  191 

Castle,  40 

Castner,  239 

Caufman,  227 

Cavenor,  212 

Cavernor,  212 

Cenedy,  215 

Chamberlin,  215 

Chambers,  131 

Champness,  227,  238 

Chance,  129,  130 

Chandler,  213 

Chapline,   100,   101,  171,  188,  189, 

190,  191,  194,  220 
Chapman,  220 
Chappell,  219 
Charles,  230,  237 
Charles  I,  7 
Chase,  195 
Chattell,  211 
Chattle,  211 
Chillon,  219 
Chippendale,  81 
Chrisman,  42 
Christman,  225,  233 
Churchwell,  213 
Ciferd,  218 
Clagett,  105,  192,  212 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Clancy,  212 

Clark,  209 

Clary,  211 

Class,  221 

Clauson,  21 

Claymour,  155 

Clemens,  40,  161,  162 

Clements,  19,  214 

Clementson,  18,  19 

Clice,  218 

Clifton,  227,  233,  235,  237 

Cline,  222,  227,  229,  232 

Clinton,  188,  190,  192,  231,  242,  243 

Clisce,  214 

Clise,  218 

Cloine,  165 

Closs,  223 

Closson,  221 

Cobell,  137 

Coberts,  104 

Cock,  188,  190 

Cocquard,  155 

Coffeeroth,  220 

Cole,  226,  227,  232,  239 

Col  ley,  222 

Collins,  211,  215,  222 

Colour,  230 

Colvin,  162 

Coraages,  18 

Combe,  152,  153 

Commegys,  16,  17 

Compton,  220 

Conn,  137,  174,  209 

Connan,  214 

Connoly,  240 

Connolly,  263,  264,  266,  267 

Connoway,  239 

Conrad,  216 

Conrod,  174 

Consella,  220 

Contrecoeur,  143 

Conrath,  105 

Cook,  211,  218 

Cooke,  211 

Coomore,  161 

Coon,  175 

Coonse,  221 

Cooper,  218 

Copple,   230 

Cornelison,  18 

Cornwallis,  175,  243,  244,  246,  268 

Corrick,  180 

Cortz,  221 

Courts,  250 

Cove,  221 

Coward,  57 

Cowley,  227 

Cox,  193 

Crab,  187 

Crabb,  171,  190,  192 

Crabbs,  206 

Crabs,  180 

Crafford,  219 

Crafft,  234 

Craft,  174,  237 

Crale,  222 

Cramer,  53,  225,  227,  231 

Cramphin,  182,  187,  188,  190,  192, 

Crapell,  216 
Craver,  174 
Crawl,  47 
Crawle,  188,  190 
Crawly,  211 
Creager,  193,  206,  217 
Creppell,  216 
Cresap,  128,  129,  130,  131,  133,  147, 

149,  153,  160,  171,  188,  190,  191, 

Cressap,  132 
Cressop,   129 
Criegh,  175 
Croft,  226,  227,  235 
Cromer,  227 
Cronies,  231 
Cronise,  227,  231 

Index  to  Proper  Names. 


Crontor,  41 
Crook,  210 
Cropp,  234,  235 
Cross,  41 
Crothorn,  227 
Croumer,  230 
Crow,  209 
Grower,  227,  237 
Crowl,  46 
Crowie,  137,  192 
Crowler,   134 
Grummet,  225 
Cruse,  61 
Crush,  227 
Cruss,  100,   101 
Crusius,  104 
Culler,  99 
Culver,  209 
Cumber,  217 
Cunius,  238 
Cunningham,  221 
Cunnius,  238 
Curley,  227,  232 
Curran,   180,  206 
Currington,  211 
Curts,  221 
Cusson,  41 
Custgrove,  240 

Dagworthy,  150,  164,  169 

Dalton,  228 

Bankers,  22 

Danker-Schilders,   17 

Danroth,  238 

Danruth,  228 

Darby,  124 

Darnall,  178,  179,  190,  192 

Dartmouth,  Lord,  62) 

Daugerty,  218 

Daugherty,  218 

Daunt,  130,  133 

David,  218 

Davidson,  258 

Davies,  211,  212 

Davis,  98,  105,  162,  185,  188,  189, 

190,  191,  192,  198,  211,  219,  222, 

Dawson,  148 
Dayley,  218 
Deakins,   187,   188,   189,   190,   191, 

192,  193,  194,  210 
Deale,  221 
Dean,  161,  221,  257 
Decamp,  218 
Decker,  238 
Decourcy,  250 
Deefhem,  175 
Deefherr,  175 
De  Heister,  243 
De  Hesse,  40 
Deitch,  238 
Delaitre,  139 
Delawter,  230 
Deneley,  215 
Denny,  258 
Dent,  250 
Detweiler,  40 
Dick,  218 
Dickerson,  209 
Dicks,  222 
Dickson,  178 
Dietz,   105 
Diffenderffer,  30,  61 
Digman,  223 
Dinwiddle,  143,  144,  151,  154,  163, 

Divers,  222 
Dixon,  140,  219 
Dobson,  257 
Dochterman,  232 
Doddridge,  68,  76,  78,  79 
Dodson,  215 
Dogherty,  211 
Dolton,  239 
Donack,  214 
Donovan,  257 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Dorn,  93 

Dorran,  190 

Dorsey,  171,  188,  190,  192,  258 

Dotts,  217 

Dougherty,   161,   162 

Doughland,  151 

Douglass,  262 

Doutweiler,  105 

Douville,  150 

Dowden,  178 

Downey,  218,  238 

Downing,  106,  211 

Drake,  212 

Draper,  210 

Dretch,  228 

Drislaam,  117 

Drome,  216 

Duall,  258 

Dubois,  40 

Dulany,  60,  63,  162,  180,  183 

Dullis,  214 

Dumas,  151 

Dumatt,  221 

Duncan,  216,  223,  232,  236 

Dunkin,  228 

Dunkle,  234,  235 

Dunmore,  Lord,  264,  265,  266 

Dunwidie,  162 

Du  Quesne,  142 

Dutterer,  216 

Duvall,  192 

Dwyre,  215 

Dych,  238 

Dye,  221 

Dyer,  227,  239 

Dyson,  115 

Earl,  161 
Eastburn,  191 
Ebenhard,  61 
Eberhart,  105 
Eckert,   105 
Eddis,  55,  60,  63 

Edelen,  183 
Edelin,  191,  211 
Edelman,  220 
Edgerly,  257 
Edington,  162 
Edison,  217 
Edmonston,  208 
Edwards,  46 
Eichelberger,  105 
Eggman,  231 
Eiginor,  221 
Eissell,  228 
Elder,  180,  207,  219 
Eley,  216 
Elliott,  228,  239 
Ellis,  191,  220 
Ellit,  220 

Ellradt,  93 

Ellsperger,  228 

Elsing,  228 

Elwood,  209 

Emerson,  130 

Emmet,  191 

Emerick,  229,  231 

Emrich,  220 

Engelle,  228 

England,  232 

Engle,  228,  231,  232 

English,  124,  222 

Engners,  41 

Enocks,   162 

Ensey,  228 

Entlen,   105 

Eove,  221 

Erskin,  123 

Estep,  208 

Estewin,  118 

Estup,   215 

Etnier,  228,  236 

Etter,  226,  237 

Ettleman,  215 

Ettsperger,  238 

Ettzinger,  238 

Index  to  Proper  Names. 


Evans,  137,  211 
Evat,  137 
Everly,  230 
Eversole,  263 
Ewing,  257 
Eyssell,  238 

Faber,  103,  104 

Faires,  180,  206 

Fairfax,   154 

Falkner,  25 

Fangler,   174 

Fanner,  221 

Fanning,  212 

Fantz,  230 

Farber,  231 

Farmer,  258 

Farnslar,  215 

Faulkner,  25 

Faut,  98 

Fauth,  93 

Feagen,  263 

Feely,  222 

Feeter,   175 

Fendall,  20 

Fenly,  214 
Fennell,  228,  239 
Fentlinger,  40 
Ferdinand  II,  28 
Ferguson,  220 
Fernandes,   250 
Ferrell,  209,  220 
Ferrins,  226,  231,  239 
Fettie,  230 
Fiche,  175 
Fiegley,  223 
Fife,   162 

Filler,  228,  233,  234,  235 
Finch,  221,  228 
Filter,  237 
Finley,  214,  238 
Fischer,   105 
Fish,  222 

Fishburn,  188,  190 
Fisher,  105,  188,  190,  214,  222,  228, 
231,  232,  233,  234,  235,  236,  239 
Fister,  225,  230 
Fitzgerrald,  212 
Fitzjarrald,  209 
Fitzpatrick,  228,  239 
Flack,  174,  217,  222 
Fleck,  228 
Fleegert,  236 
Fleete,  8,  9 
Fleming,  228 
Flemming,  192 
Fletcher,  193,  214,  215 
Flick,  221,  234,  235 
Fliet,  237 
Filming,  237 
Flint,  192 
Flora,  161,  162 
Fockler,  115,  117 
Fogely,  223 
Fogle,  218,  233,  235 
Fogler,  233,  235 
Foird,  258 
Foliott,  232 
Folliott,  228 
Foot,  139 

Forbes,  156,  158,  168,  169,  170 
Ford,  151,  154,  162,  258 
Forney,  228,  2Z7 
Forsythe,  221 
Fortunee,  93 
Fosney,  174 
Foster,  217 
Fournier,  235 
Fowee,  234 
Fowler,  220 
Fox,  162,  218 
France,  221 
Franken,  232 
Frankenfeld,  100 
Franklin,  Z3,  48,  81,  228 
Frankline,  219 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Frantz,  228,  238 

Fray,  134 

Frazer,  143 

Frazier,  149 

Free,  215 

Freeman,  209,  214,  215 

Freind,  215 

French,  126 

Fret,  40,  41 

Frey,  105,  226,  233,  234,  238 

Freynoiller,  237 

Friend,  192,  234,  235 

Frisk,  139 

Fritchie,  268,  269,  270 

From,  218 

Froman,  42 

Froshour,  230 

Frumantle,  222 

Fry,  40,  137,  143,  236,  263 

Fryback,  209 

Frye,  231 

Frymiller,  228,  237 

Fuhrman,  232 

Fulham,  228,  239 

Fullim,  232 

Fulsome,  219 

Funk,  102,  189,  190,  192,  194 

Furnier,  234 

Gable,  175 

Gage,  201,  264,  266 

Gaither,   193,  210,  211,  257 

Gale,  258 

Galissoniere,   142 

Gambare,  216 

Gambler,  227,  228,  236 

Gantner,  228,  231 

Garber,  40 

Gardenour,  102 

Gardner,  221 

Garnet,  258 

Garten,  209 

Gartner,  137 

Gartrell,  209,  210 

Gaskin,  212 

Gassaway,  257 

Gatrell,  209 

Gaul,  226,  239 

Gavan,  228 

Gavin,  236 

Geehan,  209 

Geerhert,  174 

Geiger,  93,  105 

Geist,  25 

Gentile,  219,  220 

Gentle,  219 

Gentner,  230 

George  II,  96,  98 

George   (King),  195 

Gerock,  102,  103,  232,  235 

Gerresheim,  104 

Getig,  228 

Getsoner,  139 

Getting,  237 

Geyer,  93 

Ghiselin,  214 

Gibson,  186,  212,  257 

Giddy,  215 

Gieser,  234 

Gilbert,  191 

Gill,  213 

Gillam,  219 

Gilmore,  213 

Gilmour,  213 

Gillum,  219 

Gisinger,  217 

Gist,  242,  244,  250 

Gittin,  233,  234 

Gitting,  235 

Gittings,  209 

Glaze,  219,  220 

Glory,  211 

Gnadig,  105 

Gobble,  215 

Goering,  104 

Goldsborough,   195 

Index  to  Proper  Names. 


Goldsmith,  113 

Gole,  117 

Good,  115,  191,  192,  214,  263 

Goodwin,  211 

Gordon,  39,  130 

Gore,  237 

Gorman,  210 

Gorr,  237 

Gotz,  98 

Gould,  228,  257 

Grabill,  137 

Grable,  134 

Graeber,  104 

Graff,  61,  230 

Graffenried,  41 

Granget,   104 

Grant,  157,  222,  243,  246 

Grasmuck,  103 

Grass,  233,  235 

Grauff,  210 

Graves,  268,  269 

Gray,  258 

Graybell,  237 

Graybill,  161,  225 

Greathouse,  234,  235 

Greechbaum,  234,  235 

Green,  210,  211,  222 

Greene,   133 

Greenwood,  218 

Greilich,  105 

Grice,  228 

Griffith,    137,    182,    187,   188,    190, 

192,  193,  194,  210,  214 
Grimber,  191 
Grimer,  262 
Grimes,  52 
Grommet,  230 
Groop,  237 
Grose,  217 
Grosh,  160,  188,  190,  216,  228,  232, 

Gross,  25 
Groth,  183 

Grove,  220 
Grow  ley,  238 
Gruber,  87,  88 
Grueber,  93 
Grunlin,  228 
Grupp,  228 
Guest,  132 
Guhan,  209 
Gump,  93,  98,  206 
Gunby,  257 
Guthrie,  263 
Guy,  98 

Haas,  188,  190 

Habach,  93 

Hack,  21 

Hacket,  235 

Hackett,  236 

Hafilfinger,  40 

Haflegh,  174 

Hagan,  219 

Hager,  54,  55,  105,  106,  185,  188, 

189,  190,  191,  223 
Hagon,  210 
Hahn,  232 
Hain,  230 
Haines,  223 
Hale,  214 

Halfpenny,  229,  239 
Hall,  131,  257 
Haller,  229,  238 
Halmon,  40 

Hamilton,  215,  231,  257,  258 
Hammer,  215,  231 
Hammersly,  229 
Hancock,  267 
Hanee,  209 
Haney,  180,  206 
Haninghouse,  229 
Hanniel,  162 
Hanson,    182,    183,    188,    189,    190, 

194,  197,  222,  257,  268,  269 
Harbaugh,  61,  94,  115 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Harbin,  220 

Harden,  209 

Hardenstein,  238 

Hardesty,  220 

Hardey,  222 

Harding,  209,  213 

Hardman,  218,  222,  239,  257 

Hargeroder,  237 

Harley,  229,  237 

Harling,  220 

Harman,   102 

Harmer,  18 

Harmony,  233,  235 

Harper,  211 

Harring,  232 

Harris,  212 

Harrison,  124,  214,  215 

Harriss,  212 

Harry,  105,  117,  174 

Hart,  125,  134,  222 

Hartenstein,  238 

Hartly,   174 

Hartman,  93,  229,  238 

Hartness,  233,  235 

Hartshorn,  257 

Hartle,  263 

Hartwick,  99 

Hartwig,  103 

Harwood,  192 

Haseligh,  229 

Haslet,  245 

Hasselback,  220 

Hast,  25 

Hatchcraft,  231 

Hatchey,   137 

Hatfield,  229,  235,  237 

Hauer,  270 

Hauseal,  99,  106 

Hauser,    105 

Hausraan,  229 

Haussegger,  225,  230,  232 

Havclay,  215 

Haver,  237 

Ha  whacker,  225 
Hawk,  206,  216,  230 
Hawker,  100,  101 
Hawkins,  188,  190 
Hayes,  212 
Haymon,  209 
Hays,  162,  210,  213 
Hazel,  211 
Hazelip,  229 
Hazlewood,  229,  239 
Hazlip,  239 
Heart,  219 
Heater,  211 
Heathman,  212 
Heckentora,  216 
Hecket,  233 
Hedges,  217 
Heefner,  234,  237 
Heeter,  216 
Heifner,  229,  230,  235 
Heger,  55 

Heinzman,   172 

Hellen,  213 

Heller,  237 

Helm,  225 

Hemerick,  229 

Henckel,  93 

Henderson,  19,  215,  222 

Hendricks,  46,   132,  238 

Hendrickson,   18,  19,  217 

Hendrix,  134 

Henistone,  212 

Hennes,  213 

Hennighausen,  38,   44 

Henninghouse,  231 

Henop,  100 

Henricks,  137 

Henry,  219 

Hens,  61 

Heppelwhite,  81 

Herd,  211 

Herdic,   105 

Hergeroder,  237 

Index  to  Proper  Names. 


Herman,  16,  19,  20,  21,  22,  23 

Heron,  226 

Herring,  229,  231 

Herriot,  191 

Herzer,  61 

Hesse,  213 

Heveron,   218 

Hewer,  229,  232 

Heyser,    105,    225,    233,    234,    236, 

260,  261 
Hicke,  209 
Hicks,  41,  155 
Higbee,  105 
Higdon,  219 
Hilderbrand,  231 
Hile,  229 

Hill,  213,  232,  239 
Hillery,  214 
Hillis,  48 
Hilton,  213 
Hindon,  212 
Hinds,  217 
Hinkel,  239 
Hinton,  212 
Hirsh,  222 
Hite,  41,  42 
Hiter,  192 
Hobbins,  220 
Hobbs,  188,  190,  192 
Hochshield,  226 
Hochersmith,  180,  205,  206 
Hockett,  229 
Hockey,  175 
Hoecke,  103 
Hoefflich,  232 
Hoeflich,  105,  120,  174 
Hoey,  211 
HofF,  98,  191,  193 
Hoffman,  98,  99,  139,  183,  188,  190, 

193,  237,  263 
Hog,  188,  190,  192 
Hogmire,  185,  188,  190,  192 
Hogshield,  231 

Holdup,  240 

Holland,  211 

Hollands,  211 

Holllday,  213 

Hollings,  214 

Hoi  Ion,  209 

Hollyday,  218 

Holtz,  213 

Holtzman,  218 

Honig,  98 

Hood,  177,  178,  221 

Hoof,  93 

Hook,  226,  229,  237 

Hooke,  219 

Hoopinder,  137 

Hoover,  180,  229,  230,  233,  235 

Hopewell,    161 

Hopkins,  210,  239 

Horine,  215 

Hose,  226,  233,  234,  236 

Hoshied,  231 

Hoskins,  219 

Hoskinson,  209 

Hosier,  220 

Hossilton,   217 

Hosteter,  191 

Hottfield,  234 

Houcks,  222 

Houer,   117 

House,  210 

Houseman,  230,  232 

Housley,  219 

Hovermale,   102 

How,  222 

Howard,  188,  190,  192,  221,  257 

Howe,  241 

Hower,  191,  216 

Hoy,   211 

Hoyle,  234,  235,  237 

Hubley,  225 

Hudson,  174,  214 

Huffman,  216 

Hugan,  257 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Hugh,  178,  192 

Hughes,   105,    180,    185,   188,    190, 

212,  229 
Hughmore,  239 
Huldiman,  40 
Huling,  238 
Hull,  229 
Hulse,   217 
Hulsman,  216 
Humphreys,  188,  190 
Hungerford,  182 
Hunk,  187 
Hurdle,  209 
Hurley,  221 
Hurvey,  210 
Hutchcraft,  213,  226 
Hutchcrofft,  239 
Hutchingson,  211 
Hutchinson,  213 
Hutzel,  93 
Hutzel,  98 
Hyatt,  237 
Hynes,   152 
Hyt,  40,  41 

Iden,  221 
Irafeld,  230 
Immel,   137 
Inglish,  124 
Ingram,  192,  262 
Innes,  146,  147,  163,  164 
Innis,  118 
Irissler,  212 
Isingminger,  230 
Itnier,   234 

Jacob,  41,  215,  257 
Jacobs,  34,  40,  213,  257 
Jacobson,  18 
Jacques,  233 
Jacquet,  233,  234,  236 
Jacquett,  226 
James,  21,  23,  25,  257 

James  I.,  5 

Jeans,  219 

Jennifer,  262 

Jerbo,  211 

Jinkings,  210 

Johns,  189,  190,  191 

Johnson,  18,  40,  116,  139,  147,  162, 

175,  183,  188,  189,  190,  191,  192, 

193,  194,  195,  226,  232,  253,  255, 

Johnston,  213,  229,  238,  239 
Jones,  46,  134,  137,  178,  187,  192, 

213,  215,  216,  218,  219,  222,  226, 

239,  258 
Jordan,  213,  258 
Jordon,  222 
Jugerhorn,  188 
Juraonville,  143 
Jung,  105 

Kallenberger,  216 
Kapp,  105 
Karr,  105 
Kast,  117 
Kaufman,  227 
Kauffman,   239 
Kauth,  93 
Kautz,  238 
Kearnes,  232,  238 
Kearshner,  238 
Keath,  212 
Kebler,  236 
Keemer,  211 
Keener,  232 
Keephart,  227 
Keeports,  225,  232 
Keintz,  238 
Keiser,  229,  236 
Keith,  31,  126,  127 
Kelam,  214 
Kelcholumer,  191 
Kellar,  216 
Keller,  215 

Index  to  Proper  Names. 


Kelly,  84,  180,  206,  214,  226 

Kcmmell,  237 

Kemmer,   175 

Kemp,  139,  188,   190,   192 

Ken  d  rick,  229,  238 

Kenly,  167,  175 

Kenneday,  213 

Kennedy,  180,  206 

Kenney,  152 

Kentz,  227 

Kephard,  240 

Keplinger,  229 

Kepphard,  231 

Kepplinger,   239 

Kercheval,  68 

Kern,  216 

Kernam,  175 

Kerney,  221 

Kerns,  226,  238 

Kerny,  220 

Kersey,  211 

Kershner,   173,   174,  227 

Kesszele,  98 

Kettle,  226,  229,  231 

Key,   190,   192,   198 

Keyer,  229 

Keyser,  226,  235,  238 

Kibler,  234,  235 

Kiding,  221 

Kieger,  219 

Kiltz,  258 

Kimberlin,   118 

Kimmell,  237 

King,  171,  215,  230 

Kingston,   219 

Kintz,  238 

Kirgery,   174 

Kirk,  213,  222 

Kisby,  211 

Kitely,  220 

Kleeman,  93 

Klein,  40,  105,  230,  231 

Kleinsmith,  105 

Klien,  233 

Kline,  227,  229,  235,  236 

Knapp,  25 

Knauff,  207 

Knave,  221 

Kneary,  237 

Knight,  41 

Knolton,  249 

Knowlar,  211 

Knyphausen,  251 

Koch,  118 

Kocherthal,  31 

Koefflich,  232 

Kolb,  40,  41 

Kolz,  98 

Koons,  227 

Koontz,  180 

Kortz,  233,  234 

Kotz,  225 

Kraft,  226,  238 

Kratz,  40 

Kreiger,  61 

Kremer,    106 

Kremewald,  117 

Kries,  232 

Kritzman,  98 

Krug,  99,  104 

Kruise,  229 

Kuhn,  206 

Kuhnes,  212 

Kuhns,  31 

Kuntz,  93,  229,  230,  231 

Kuntz,  98 

Kunz,  98 

Kurtz,  230 

Kiisters,   41 

Labadie,  21,  22 
Ladder,  226 
Lafflin,  84 
Lago,  227 
Lamar,  220,  257 
Landenberger,  225 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Landis,  123 
Lane,  40 
Lange,  25,  100 
Langhorne,   133 
Langley,  218 
Langton,  211 
Lanharn,  210 
Lansdale,  257 
Lantz,  227,  237 
Larantz,  227 
Larmore,  227 
La  shy  ear,  209 
Lathy,  9Z 
Laurence,  190 
Lawney,  227 
Lawnious,   137 
Lawnius,  134 
Lawrence,   188,  192 
Lay,  93,  98,  99 
Layzare,  209 
Lazenby,  208,  209 
Lazear,  263 
Leather,  231 
Lecky,  62 
Lecrose,   227 
Ledwitz,  245 
Lee,  84,  105 
Leedy,  175 
Leer,  162 
Legg,  209 
Lehnick,   93 
Lehny,  98 
Leider,  105 
Lein,  93 
Leiser,  235 
Leitch,  211,  212 
Leithauser,  237 
Leithusier,  227 
Leniger,  25 
Lentarage,  219 
Leonard,  207 
Lephart,   137 
Levely,  103 

Levering,  61 

Levy,  233 

Lewis,  209,  212,  219,  226,  233,  235, 

LibHart,   134 
Lickliter,  218 
Lieser,  233 
Lighter,  174 
Lightfoot,  210 
Lighthauser,  237 
Linch,  215 

Lindenberger,  103,  232 
Linder,  220,  221 
Lindley,  46 
Lindsey,  222 
Linebaugh,  207 
Lingenf  elder,   115 
Link,   105,  217 
Linkenfelter,  232 
Linsey,  218 
Linthicum,    192 
Lintridge,  219 
Lisher,  41 
Litzinger,  238 
Loar,  220,  221 
Locher,  234,  235 
Lock,  216 

Locker,  219,  227,  236 
Lockhead,  162 
Lodgeade,  209 
Loe,  216 
Logan,  31,  32 
Lohra,  237 

Long,  180,  206,  212,  220 
Longley,  210 
Lora,  225 
Lorah,  37 
Lorantz,  227 
Loreman,  47 
Lorentz,  237,  238 
Louden,  214 
Loudoun,  169,  172 
Lougher,  47 

Index  to  Proper  Names. 


Loure,,  232 

Louvois,  28 

Love,  211 

Lovelass,  219 

Loveless,  219 

Lovet,  210 

Low,  230 

Lowe,  137,  226 

Lower,  235 

Lowry,  211 

Lowther,   152,  214 

Lucas,  219,  220 

Luckas,  219,  220 

Luckett,  178,  188,  190,  192,  193 

Ludwick,  188,  190,  227,  231 

Lutz,  93 

Lydrick,  61 

Lye,  139 

Lynn,  152,  178 

McAlister,  257 
McAllen,  214 
McCallister,  190,  192 
McClaine,  215 
McClame,  215 
McClane,  215,  221 
McClary,   188,   190,  213 
McClellan,   161 
McColough,  227 
McCord,  162 
McCorgan,  233 
McCoy,  213 
McCracken,  215 
McCrery,  213 
McCullin,   174 
McCuIloch,  210 
McDavid,  210 
McDeed,  210 
McDonald,  213,  214,  218 
McDonall,  215 
McFarren,  192 
McGlury,   185 
McGrouch,  239 

McGuyer,  223 

Mclntire,  215 

McKay,  214 

McKenny,  221 

McKinsey,  236,  239 

McKinzie,  213 

McKoy,  214,  221,  239 

McLaughlin,    174 

McLean,  180,  206 

McLeod,  216 

McRae,  157 

McSherry,  185,  250,  252 

McTier,  215 

Macatee,  215 

Machenheimer,  238 

Mackabee,  211 

Mackall,  239 

Mackee,  211 

Mackey,  211 

Maclamary,  211 

Madcalf,  221 

Madden,  212 

Madding,  211 

Maddox,  219 

Magaw,  84,  252 

Magruder,  182,  187,  190,  192 

Mahoney,  210 

Mahony,  231,  239 

Malady,  239 

Malinia,  239 

Mallady,  232 

Malloon,  212 

Malone,  133 

Mamges,  258 

Mannan,   212 

Manipenny,   118 

Mantz,  216 

Marbury,  207,  257 

Marhay,   209 

Markel,  233 

Markham,  21 

Marie,    149 

Marolf,  232 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society, 

Maroney,  213 

Marshall,   162,  213 

Martain,  219 

Martin,    106,    180,    215,    216,    219, 

222,  227 
Mason,  140,  213 
Masters,   162 
Mateus,  98 
Mathews,   19 
Mathias,  188,  190 
Mathiason,  18,  19 
Mathison,  162 
Mattheis,  93 
Matthew,  207 
Matthews,   118,  206,  222 
Mattril,  239 
Maunsel,  227 
Mausser,  93 
Maximilian,  28 
May,  174 
Mayer,  57 
Mayhew,  93 
Maynard,  214 
Means,  215 
Menix,  217 
Menneville,  142 
Menson,  174 
Merfey,  215 
Mernke,  41 
Meroney,  214 
Messersmith,  220 
Metts,  222 
Mettz,  234 
Metz,  235 
Metzger,  99 
Meyer,  18,  98,  104,  117 
Meyers,  15,  225 
Meyor,  17 
Michael,  226,  227,  233,  234,  235, 

236,  237 
Micheelson,  18 
Michel,  41 
Miely,  227 

Mifflin,  248 

Miley,  237 

Millberger,  237 

Millburger,  237 

Miller,  87,  104,  105,  137,  139,  174, 
190,  214,  215,  222,  227,  230,  231, 
232,  233,  234,  235,  237,  239,  263 

Mills,  216,  219 

Minshall,  46,  137 

Mior,  41 

Mire,  41 

Mitchell,  208,  257 

Mittag,  93,  230 

Mober,  215 

Mockbee,  211,  219 

Moeller,  99 

Money,  214,  215 

Mongaul,  227 

Mongoal,  233 

Montson,  18 

Moor,  221,  222 

Moore,  188,  190,  192,  212,  218,  238 

Moppes,  232 

Moran,  161,  257 

Morgan,  130,  233,  234 

Morgon,  223 

Morolf,  216 

Morris,  40,  218,  222 

Morrison,  180,  222 

Mortt,  218 

Mosen,  236 

Moser,  218,  231,  239, 

Mouer,   216 

Mourrer,  216 

Mouser,  218 

Mowen,  222 

Moxley,  219 

Muckleroy,  213 

Mueller,  93 

Muhlenberg,  51,  94,  95,  96,  99 

Mullican,  211 

Mullihan,  220 

Muraa,  238 

Index  to  Proper  Names. 


Mumraa,  238,  239 
Mummard,  239 
Muramart,  227 
Mun,  257 
Munn,  223 
Munroe,  180 

Murdock,  183,  187-189,  190,  193 
Murphey,  221 

Murphy,  211,  212,  213,  239 
Murray,  162 
Muse,  250 
Musgrove,  209 
Mussler,  238 

Myer,  137,  214,  217,  237,  238,  262 
Myers,  52,  162,  217,  234,  235,  237, 

Nail,  216 

Nailor,  218 

Nalor,  218 

Narry,  174 

Nead,  61,  82,   102,   119,   128,   180, 

206,  263 
Neal,  223 
Neall,  213 

Need,  100,  101,  217,  262 
Neet,  217 
Neide,  117 
Nelson,  188,  190 
Nerving,  227 
Neswangher,  216 
Netsley,  216 
Neving,  239 
Nevitt,  227 
Newman,  222 
Newsanger,  216 
Ney,  105 
Nicholas,   162 
Nicholl,  211 
Nicholls,  155,  211 
Nichols,  209,  211,  213 
Nicholson,  210 
Nickols,  213 

Nighswanger,  41 
Night,  212 
Niverville,  150 
Nockey,   175 
Noise,  222 
Nolland,  212 
North   (Lord),  185,  198 
Norther  a  ft,   191,  211 
Norris,  193,  212,  215 
Norwood,   190 
Nowland,  192,  210 
Nowles,  221 

Obalam,  214 

O'Bryan,  215 

O'Daniel,  210 

OflFutt,  187,  190,  192 

Ogle,  123,  128,  131,  136,  138,  139, 

192,  206 
O'Gullen,   162 
Oldman,  257 
Oliver,  220 
O'Neal,  187,  189,  190 
Op  den  Graef,  40 
O'Quin,  227,  239 
Orendorf,  188,  191 
Orendorff,   190 
Orm,  187 

Orme,  182,  190,  208,  209 
Orndorff,   115,  220 
Ort,  93 
Osburn,  219 
Osten,  105 
Oster,    105,    174 
Ott,  105,  263 
Otterbein,  100,  104 
Ovelnaan,   180 
Overfelt,  216 
Owen,  219 
Owsley,  219 
Oyster,  47 
Ozenburn,  219 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Paca,  195 

Pack,  162,  212 

Pain,  220 

Painter,  227 

Pannebacker,  87 

Pannebeekers,  40 

Pannell,  216 

Panthar,  235 

Parran,  258 

Park,  180,  206 

Parkinson,  217,  218 

Parks,  185,  186,  187,  262 

Parnell,   127,   129 

Parson,  218 

Pastorius,  31 

Patrick,  212,  220 

Paw,  191 

Pawling,  40 

Peak,  219 

Pearce,  214 

Peen,  209 

Peery,   137 

Pegman,  215 

Pelly,  211 

Penn,   29,  32,   121,   122,   123,   125, 

126,  127,  128,  140,  209 
Penny,  211 
Pennybacker,  87 
Penroad,  215 
Pepple,  215 
Percy  (Lord),  242 
Perrin,  47 

Perry,  188,  189,  190,  191,  192 
Pfaut,  98 
Phlaviere,  137 
Phi  Her,  137 
Philpot,  213,  219 
Pifer,  234 
Piffer,  235 
Piltz,  118 
Pindell,    258 
Pindle,   118 
Pinkely,  220 

Pinnall,  216 
Pirkinson,  217,  218 
Pitcairn,  196 
Pitcher,  221 
Pitt,  156 
Plecker,  268,  269 
Plummer,   192 
Poger,  40 
Pointer,  227,  236 
Poland,  220 
Polehouse,   231,  239 
Polhouse,  226 
Polk,   162 
Pollard,  213 
Pomp,  104 
Pontiac,  158,  176 
Pope,  239 
Porter,  237,  239 
Postlewaite,  155 
Pote,  223 
Powell,  221 

Prather,  150,  157,  188,  190,  263 
Pratt,  257 
Praul,  250 

Preston,  213,  218,  222 
Prey,  93 

Price,  178,  183,  188,  189,  190,  193, 
198,  207,  215,  249,  250,  257,  258 
Procter,  237 
Proctor,  227,  239 
Protzman,  105,  206,  207 
Pruett,  212 
Prunk,  263 
Purnal,  209 
Putnam,  242,  243,  248 

Queer,  234 
Quier,  237 
Quinlin,  228,  239 
Quir,  235 
Quynn,  213 

Ragan,  105 

Index  to  Proper  Names. 


Rahauser,  104 

Raidy,  219 

Raishierc,  137 

Raleigh,  219 

Raley,  219 

Rambo,  40 

Randle,  220 

Ransbergen,   139 

Ranspergen,   139 

Rattermann,  156 

Rausch,  93 

Raver,  228,  236 

Rawlings,  191,  200,  251 

Rawlins,  173,  175,  254 

Ray,  209,  216 

Raybert,  228 

Raymer,  190 

Raynolds,  212 

Read,  212 

Realley,  217 

Reaver,  235 

Reeter,   174 

Reevenach,  233 

Reevenacht,  234 

Reever,  233 

Regalman,  228 

Regele,  238 

Regie,  238 

Rcgliman,  237 

Reich,  218 

Reichardt,  40 

Reincke,  61 

Reinhart,  238 

Reisner,  98,  133,  139 

Reitz,  233 

Remsburg,  190,  193 

Rench,  193,  222,  262,  263 

Renzand,  61 

Reusner,  93 

Reveley,  258 

Reynolds,  105,  208,  211,  220,  221 

Rhodes,  213,  214 

Rhorer,  263 

Rice,  215,  225 

Richards,  188,  190,  225,  228,  238 

Richardson,  216,  223 

Richmond,  207,  258 

Richter,  61 

Rick,  237 

Rickenbaugh,  222 

Ricketts,  211 

Ricknagle,  228 

Riddell,  65 

Ridenhour,  230,  239 

Ridenour,   175 

Rider,  227,  239 

Ridgely,  191,  192,  250 

Ridingour,  216 

Riely,  223,  228 

Rife,  40,  41 

Rigglcman,  234,  235 

Riggnagle,  232 

Riggs,  191 

Rigsbe,  131 

Riley,  211 

Rily,  210,  211 

Rine,  220 

Rinehart,  238 

Ringer,  192,  217,  218,  230 

Rismel,  223 

Rite,  214 

Ritmire,   227 

Ritter,  232 

Rittlemeyer,  228 

Rittlemyer,  238 

Roach,  226,  239 

Roads,  139 

Roberts,  40,  211 

Robertson,  215,  231,  233 

Robinson,  174,  180,  206,  213,  228, 

231,  232,  235 
Rob i son,  223 
Roche,  207 
Rochester,   105 
Rock,  103,  226 
Rodes,  212 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Roemer,  99 
Roessell,  93 
Rogers,  149 
Rohhbaugh,  237 
Rohrbach,  237 
Rohrback,  102 
Rohrer,  118,  263 
Roltrer,  263 
Rolwagen,  225 
Romer,  98 
Rommelsem,  237 
Romsburg,  188 
Ronenberger,  227 
Rorer,   175 
Rosen,  61 
Ross,  161,  211 
Roth,  235 
Rothe,  234 
Rough,  174 
Roullett,  102 
Rout,  161 
Roxburgh,   257 
Row,  180,  206 
Rowin,  218 
Rowlands,  239 
Rowlins,  217 
Rudisiel,  93 
Rudrieck,  216 
Ruetenik,  103 
Rumfell,  228 
Rumfield,  237 
Rummelson,   226 
Runkel,  100 
Ruppert,  228 
Russ,  218 
Rutlidge,  222 
Rutt,  40 
Ruttzn,  21 
Ryan,  209 
Ryley,  222 
Rymeby,   263 

Sachse,  27,  29 

Sadler,  25 

Safety,  263 

Saffle,  211 

Saftly,  221 

Sahm,  61 

Sailor,  234 

Salmon,  213 

Sam,  100,  101 

Sands,  221 

Sangar,   137 

Sanglaer,   134 

Sappor,  117 

Sarjeant,  219 

Saylor,   105,  236 

Schaaf,  61,  188,  190 

Schaefer,   93 

Schaeffer,  225,  232 

Schantz,  114 

Scharf,  9,  54,  62,  87,  102,  104,  154. 

167,  171,  179,  260 
Schaub,  93 
Schauffle,  93 
Scherer,  41 
Schesler,  232 
Schilders,  22 
Schippe,  25 
Schister,  105 

Schlatter,  51,  94,  95,  99,  115 
Schleitz,  118 

Schley,  56,  99,  114,  183,  188,  222 
Schmauk,  92,  103 
Schmidt,  61,  98 
Schmit,  40 

Schmucker,    104,    105 
Schnebly,  105 
SchoU,  40 
Schorcht,  232 
Schrawder,  225 
Schreier,  232 
Schreyer,  93 
Schriver,  188,  190,  193 
Schroder,  105 

Index  to  Proper  Names. 


Schultz,  51,  52,  53,  61,   134,  167, 

Schiitz,  232 
Schwartz,  40 
Schweinhard,  98 
Schweinhardt,   93,  98 
Schwcrdtfeger,  99,   106 
Schwidzer,  236 
Schwob,  103 
Scobell,  134 

Scott,  183,  188,  190,  214 
Scybert,  210 
Seaburn,  221 
Sealon,   161 
Sealors,  228 
Sechs,  98 
Seglaer,  134,  137 
Segraan,  238 
Sehora,  214 
Seiss,  61 
Selas,  229 
Self,  220 
Sellers,  191,  218 
Sellraan,  257 
Sellers,  218 
Selwood,  229 
Sergant,  249 
Serjeant,  218 
Settlemeyer,  228 
Settlemirer,  232 
Shackler,  175 
Shade,  217 

Shaffer,  139,  229,  238 
Shambarriere,   137 
Shame,  217 
Shank,  213 
Shark,  228 
Sharpe,  112,  144,  145,  146,  147, 153, 

165,  168,  169,  170,  172 
Shatz,  231 
Shaw,  46,  206 
Sheaf er,  230,  231 
Sheales,   192 

Sheekels,  209 

Sheeler,  102 

Sheest,  233,  235 

Shehan,  213 

Sheitz,  263 

Shelby,  161,  170 

Shelman,  216 

Shenk,  217 

Sheppart,  211 

Sheredine,   188,   189,   190,   194,  268 

Shett,  268,  269 

Shields,  180,  206 

Shimor,  41 

Shirley,  147 

Shively,  228,  239 

Shiife,  238 

Shock,   174 

Shoemaker,  214,  226,  228,  231,  234, 

235,  239 
Sholly,  174 
Shopper,  230 
Short,  211 
Shotter,  230 
Shotts,  228 
Shotz,   231 
S hover,  206 
Showier,  40 
Shrantz,  230 
Shrawder,  236 
Shrayer,  228 
Shrayock,  228 
Shriber,   174 
Shriock,  237 
Shroop,  230 

Shryock,  83,  84,  105,  237,  263 
Shugart,  225,  237 
Shukels,  209 
Shuler,  240 
Shutz,  228 
Sides,  236 
Siegfried,  216 
Sigler,  40 
Sill,  215 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

silver,  218,  228 

Silvor,   213 

Simcock,   124 

Simmon,  218 

Simon,  218 

Sirams,   209 

Simpson,   193 

Sinn,  93,  98 

Sipherson,   18 

Six,  99 

Skaggs,  213 

Skiles,  221 

Skinner,  257 

Slagel,  215 

Slender,  231 

Slick,  218 

Slife,  228 

Slite,  228 

Slreiter,  228 

Sluys,  137 

Sluyter,  22,  23 

Sluyter-Vorstmann,   17 

Smadern,  239 

Small,  162 

Smallwood,  207,  242,  243,  244,  250, 
257,  262 

Smeltzer,  230 

Smith,  8,  40,  41,  115,  117,  121,  133, 
137,  139,  178,  180,  187,  188,  189, 
190,  191,  192,  194,  206,  211,  212, 
213,  214,  216,  217,  218,  222,  225, 
226,  228,  229,  230,  232,  233,  234, 
235,  236,  237,  238,  239,  257,  258, 
266,  267 

Smitherd,  228 

Smithley,  236 

Smithly,  228,  229,  233,  234,  236, 

Smout,  46 

Smoute,   137 

Smyth,  267 

Snavely,  188,  190,  191 

Snebley,  185 

Snider,  174,  216,  229,  230,  231 

Snowdeigel,  217 

Snowdenge,  217 

Snowdens,   53 

Solamon,  210 

Soldner,  98 

Sollers,  110,  226,  238 

Sollom,  40 

Somervell,  258 

Spach,  98 

Sparks,  161 

Sparrow,  220 

Speak,  216 

Speake,  219 

Speck,  232,  237 

Spengel,  93 

Spires,  263 

Splise,  223 

Spottswood,  41 

Sprengle,  238 

Sprigg,  188,  189,  190,  212,  223 

Spright,   137 

Springer,  218 

Springle,  47 

Spunogle,  215 

Spycer,  210 

Spyker,  115,  210,  255 

St.  Clair,  169,  170 

Stalion,  219 

Stallings,  219 

Stalter,   237 

Stanley,  216 

Stanly,  211 

Stanner,  137 

Stanton,  228,  239 

Stanty,  226 

Stantz,  134 

Startzman,  263 

Statler,  229,  234,  235 

Stauffer,  226,  238 

Steel,  53,  219 

Steiger,  61 

Stein,  232 

Index  to  Proper  Names. 


Steincyfer,   105 

Steiner,  59,  91,  100,  195 

Stempel,  105 

Stephenson,  200 

Steret,  250 

Steuart,  212 

Stevens,  216 

Stewart,    158,    180,    186,    210,    221 

Stiener,  231 
Stiles,  239 
Stille,  18 
Stirling  (Lord),  242,  243,  244,  245, 

Stockbridge,  164,  172 
Stoddert,   149,   151,  152 
Stoever,  93 
Stoferd,  41 
Stogdon,  220 
Stoll,  98 
Stolmeyer,  98 
Stone,  13,  90,  240,  250 
Stonebraker,  229,  236 
Stonebreaker,   233,   235 
Stoner,  40,  190,  216,  222,  229,  232 
Storam,  223 
Stouder,  230 
Stout,  240 
Stover,  106 
Stowford,  40 
Stoyle,  229 
Straam,  236 
Strayley,  236 
Strayly,  234 
Strecher,  115 
Streib,  233 
Strieker,  61,  188,  190,  192,  225,  238, 

Stricklaer,   137 
Strider,   232 
Stringfellow,  32 
Striser,  217 
Striter,  237 

Stroam,  233,  235 
Strome,  228 
Stuart,   174 
Studdlemeier,  230 
Studer,  228 
Stuffle,  216 

Stuli,  115,  184,  185,  187,  188,  189, 
190,  192,  193,  194,  217,  222,  263 
Stuyvesant,  15,  16,  20 
Sueman,  268,  269 
Sulivane,  220 
Sullivan,  243 
Sumraerfield,   127 
Summers,  212,  238 
Sutton,  212 

Swan,  185,  188,  190,  193 
Swartz,  225 
Swearengen,  188,  189 
Swearingen,  185,  190,  192,  263 
Swimley,  192 
Swingly,  263 
Switzer,  229,  234,  236 
Swope,  103,  104,  137 
Sybert,   175,  210 
Sydey,  174 
Syphers,  207 

Tabler,  230 

Taeter,  221 

Talbort,  219 

Talbot,  123,  219 

Tamlane,  219 

Tandre,  137 

Taney,  180 

Tannehill,  214 

Tanner,  46,  127,  134,  137 

Tasker,  53,  130 

Tawney,  229 

Taylor,  47,  210,  214,  229,  232,  236 

Teagard,   154,   155 

Teemer,  217 

Tennaly,  216 

Test,  213,  216 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Teuferbiss,  93 
Thatcher,  200 
Theid,  257 

Thomas,   139,    182,   183,   187,   188, 
189,  190,  191,  193,  194,  215,  244, 
Thompson,  155,  214,  219,  220,  221 
Thornbourgh,  221 
Threlkeld,  187,  190 
Tice,  191 

Tilghman,  64,  195 
Tille,  123 
Tiller,  234 
Tilly,   28 
Timblin,  229 
Timken,  239 
Tite,  229 
Tobing,  217 
Tombleson,  218 
Tomkins,  221 
Tomlin,  219 
Tomm,  233,  235 
Tongue,  214 
Toreson,   18 
Toughman,  215 

Trace,  215 

Tracy,  219 

Trail,  211 

Traill,  211 

Traut,  93,  232 

Trent,  143 

Tressel,  174 

Trout,  139,  210 

Troxal,   175 

Troxel,  222,  223 

Troxell,    180 

Trubb,   117 

Truck,  226 

Trucks,  217 

Trueman,  257 

Trux,  217,  233 

Tucker,  208,  209 

Tudderow,  230 

Tumbleson,  218 
Turenne,  28 
Turner,  211,  216 
Tyce,  174 
Tysher,   175 
Tyson,  40 

Unsult,  99 
Urinson,  18 
Utie,  20,  123 
Utley,  61 

Valentine,  180,  207 

Vandernorte,  18 

Van  Lear,  105 

Van  Meter,  42 

Van   Swearengen,   188,   190 

Varglass,   137 

Vaudreuil,  150 

Vaughan,  161,  215,  239 

Veach,  178 

Veatch,  210,  219 

Veazy,  249 

Verdries,  98 

Verdriess,  93 

Vincent,  238 

Visinger,  231 

Vogler,  98 

Volks,  118 

Von  Graffenried,  41 

Vorstman,  22 

Wachtel,  230,  231 

Wade,  220,  229,  232,  239 

Waggoner,   118,  218,  229,  237 

Wagner,  105,  232,  233,  234,  235 

Wagoner,  217,  229 

Waker,  212 

Waldon,  240 

Walker,  210,  220,  221,  223,  229,  257 

Wallace,  207,  212 

Wallack,  137 

Wallauer,  104 

Index  to  Proper  Names. 


Wallis,  209,  222 

Waltenback,  221 

Walters,  219 

Walts,  216 

Waltz,  137 

Ward,  143,  215,  222,  243,  246 

Ware,  162,  242,  245,  250 

Warfield,  188,  190,  192,  258 

Warman,  212 

Warren,  188,  190,  198 

Wart,  215 

Washington,  54,  64,  143,  144,  151, 

154,  163,  242,  243,  245,  246,  248, 

251,  253 
Waters,  191,  192,  193,  209 
Watkins,  231,  257 
Watson,  152 
Wayne,  49 
Weakley,  219 

Weaver,  215,  229,  231,  234,  235,  237 
Weber,  40 
Weeguel,  240 
Weger,  238 
Weidman,   225 
Weier,  218 
Weinmer,  93 
Weirich,  220 
Weiser,  105,  225 
Weishaar,  16,  25 
Wcisong,  221 
Welch,   124 

Weller,  87,  180,  206,  232 
Wells,  76,  188,  190,  213,  221,  263 
Welsh,  221,  222 
Welshoffer,  134,  137 
Weltner,  98,  193,  225,  231,  236,  254 
Welty,  229,  238 
Wershler,  103 
Wesinger,  232 

West,  178,  192,  211,  219,  220,  222 
Westfall,  180 
Wetzel,  93,  98 
Weygand,  105 

Weyman,   105 

Wheelen,  213 

Wheeler,  18,  209,  213 

Wherfield,  139 

Whistler,  46 

Whitaker,  193 

White,  124,  209,  212,  215,  216,  218, 

220,  222,  239 
Whitesides,    105 
Whitman,  52 
Wicks,  222 
Wiesenthall,   103 
Wilcocks,  162 
Wilcoxen,  209 
Wildbahn,  99,  105 
Wilder,  160 
Wilhelm,  233,  235,  236 
Wilhelme,  229 
Wilhite,  230 
Wilkins,  132,  221 
Willhaut,  98 

Williams,  127,  147,  148,  162,  167, 
175,  185,  186,  188,  190,  192,  193, 
198,  200,  205,  210,  217,  219,  220, 

221,  229,  238,  257,  258 
Williard,  61 
Willsdaugh,  237 
Wilmott,  257 

Willson,  209 

Wilson,  188,  190,  210,  211 

Wilstock,  229,  237 

Wimer,  215 

Winchester,  188,  190,  193 

Windham,  219 

Windom,  212 

Windred,  139 

Windsor,  212 

Wink,  229,  232 

Wintz,  230 

Wirley,   175 

Wise,  139,  210,  233,  235 

Wisell,  139 

Wistar,  34 


The  Pennsylvania-Gertnan  Society. 

Witsinger,  229 

Woelpper,  225 

Wolf,  216,  220 

Wolford,  257 

Wolgamot,    174 

Wolgamott,  161,  162 

Woller,  218 

Wolly  Bergy,  41 

Wolstenholme,  53 

Woltz,  105 

Wood,  188,  190,  193,  208,  209,  211 

Wooler,  218 

Woolford,  229,  239,  257 

Wooten,   182 

Wooton,  187,  188,  189,  190 

Wootton,  190 

Worley,  46,  134,  137 

Woulds,  258 

Wright,  46,  47,  129,  131,  132,  137, 

229,  250 
Wyonge,  220 

Yakely,  229 

Yates,  210 

Yaulet,  216 

Yeakly,  234 

Yockley,  235,  236 

Young,  40,  105,  106,  137,  167,  188, 

190,  206,  234,  235 
Younger,  218 

Zahn,  61 

Ziegler,  230 

Zimmerman,  52,  229,  230,  232 

Zorah,  104 


Allotment  of  land,  10 
Almanac,  Hagerstown,  88 
Annapolis,  Germans  arriving  at,  56 
Antietam  church,  106 
Avalon,  colony  of,  6 

Bake-oven,  72 

Baker,  Isaac,  letter  from,  151 

Baltimore  laid  out,  60 

Bayer,  Captain  Michael,  231 

Blankets  contributed  for  the  army, 

Blunston,  Samuel,  to  issue  licenses 
to  settle,  127 ;  letter  from,  regard- 
ing Thomas  Cresap,  129;  reward 
offered  for  his  arrest,  137 

Border  troubles,  123,   124 

Boston  Port  Bill,  resolutions  against 
passed  in  Frederick  county,  182, 
183,  184 

Boundary  controversy,  121 

Bouquet,  Colonel  Henry,  156,  157 

Braddock's  campaign,  146 

Brethren  church,   106 

Brewery  established  in  Baltimore, 

Burgess,  Captain  Edward,  208 

Cabins,  construction  of,  67 

Campbell,  Captain  ^neas,  218 

Chance,  Samuel,  capture  of,  129 
Charter  of  Maryland,  7 
Church,  established,  91 
Church,    First   Lutheran    in    Mary- 
land, 92 
Clauson,  Jacob,  naturalized,  21 

Clementson,    Andrew,    naturalized, 

Clothing,  78 

Cold  winter  of  1740-1,  44 
Cold  winter  in  Germany,  29 
Commegys,    Cornelius,    naturalized, 

16,  18 
Committee    of    correspondence    for 

Frederick  county,  188,  191 
Committee  of  Observation  for  Fred- 
erick county,  190 
Company  rolls — 

Capt.   Michael   Bayer's   company, 

Capt.  Edward  Burgess'  company, 

Capt.    .^neas     Campbell's    com- 
pany, 218 
Capt.    Vallentine    Creager's   com- 
pany, 217 
Capt.  Leonard  Deakins'  company, 

Capt.  Henry  Fister's  company,  230 
Capt.  Jacob  Good's  company,  214 
Capt.  Philip  Graybell's  company, 

Capt.  Henry  Hardman's  company, 

Capt.  William  Heyser's  company, 

233,  234 
Capt.  Geo.  P.  Keeport's  company, 

Capt.   Peter   Maroney's  company, 

Capt.    John    Reynold's    company, 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Company,    Capt.    Richard    Smith's, 
Capt.    Benjamin     Spyker's    com- 
pany, 210 
Lt.-Col.   Ludwig   Weltner's   com- 
pany, 236 

Conditions  of  plantation,   13,   14 

Connolly's  conspiracy,  263 

Conococheague  settlement  aban- 
doned, 153 

Conococheague,  village  of,  54 

Cooking  utensils,  71 

Costumes,  78 

Creager,  Captain  Vallentlne,  217 

Creagerstown  laid  out,  53 

Cresap,  Thomas,  settles  on  the  Sus- 
quehanna, 128;  warrant  issued 
for  arrest  of,  133 

Daunt,  Knowles,  killed,  130 
Deakins,  Captain  Leonard,  210 
Declaration  of  the  Provincial  Con- 
vention, 201,  203 
Delaware  colony,  deserters  from,  15 
Dutch  settlers  on  the  Delaware,  20 

Education  of  the  Germans,  108 
Elizabeth-town  laid  out,  54 
Emigration,  German,  causes  of,  27 
Established  church,  91 

First  colonists,  the,  12 

First  German  settlement  in  Mary- 
land, 51 

First  German  settler,  16 

First  Lutheran  church  in  Maryland, 

First  visitor  to  Maryland,  8 

Fister,   Captain  Henry,  230 

Flax,  preparation  of,  85 

Flying  Camp  organized,  208 

Capt.  Edward  Burgess'  company, 

Capt.    ^neas    Campbell's    com- 
pany, 218 
Capt.    Vallentine    Creager's   com- 

panj',  217 
Capt.  Leonard  Deakins'  company, 

Capt.  Jacob  Good's  company,  214 
Capt.  Henry  Hardman's  company, 

Capt.  Peter  Mantz's  company,  216 
Capt.  Philip  Maroney's  company, 

Capt.    John    Reynold's    company, 

Capt.   Richard    Smith's   company, 

Capt.     Benjamin     Spyker's    com- 
pany, 210 
Food,  74 

Forbes,   General,  campaign  of,   156 
Foreigners  allowed  to  take  up  land, 

Foreigners  not  desired,  12 
Foreigners,  petition  from,  19 
Fort  Cumberland  erected,   146,   164 
Fort  Duquesne  built,    143 ;   expedi- 
tion against,  156,   158 
Fort    Frederick    erected,    153,    165; 

Revolutionary  prisoners  at,  175 
Fort  Pitt  erected,  158 
Fort  Mount  Pleasant  erected,  163 
Fort  Necessity,  surrender  of,   144 
Fort  Washington,  surrender  of,  251 
Franklin's  opinion  of  the  Germans, 

Frederick  county  troops  at  Cam- 
bridge, 196,  200;  two  companies 
to  be  raised  in,   197 

Frederick,  German  Reformed  church 
in,  99 

Frederick,  town  laid  out,  56;  growth 
of,  59 

French,  designs  of,  142 

Index  to  Subjects. 


Furniture  of  the  settlers,  70;  manu- 
facture of,  81 

German  colony  in  North  Carolina, 

German  emigrants  in  London,  30; 
lists  of  to  be  kept,  31;  hardships 
endured  on  the  voyage,  35 

German  emigration,  causes  of,  27 

German  Reformed  church  at  Fred- 
erick, 99;  at  Baltimore,  103;  at 
Hagerstown,  105 

German  Regiment,  organization  of, 
224;  roster  of,  226;  list  of  re- 
cruits in,  238 

German  Regiment — 

Capt.   Michael   Bayer's  company, 

Capt.  Henry  Fister's  company,  230 
Capt.  Philip  Graybell's  company, 

Capt.    Wm.     Heyser's     company, 

233,  234 
Capt.  Geo.  P.  Keeport's  company, 

Lt.-Col.  Weltner's  company,  236 

German  settlement,  first,  in  Mary- 
land, 51 

German  settlers  in  Maryland,  25, 
39,  50 

Germans  arriving  at  Annapolis,  56; 
education  of,  108 

Good,  Captain  Jacob,  214 

Graceham  settled,  61 

Graybell,  Captain  Philip,  237 

Growth  of  the  colony  of  Maryland, 

Hack,  George,  naturalized,  21 
Hager,  Jonathan,   arrives  in  Penn- 
sylvania, 54 
Hagerstown  almanac,  88 
Hagerstown  laid  out,  54 

Hagerstown,    Lutheran    church    at, 
105 ;    German    Reformed    church 
at,  105 
Hardman,  Captain  Henry,  222 
Harmer,  Gothofrid,  naturalized,   18 
Haussegger,  Col.  Nicholas,  225 
Hendrickson,  Bartholomew,  natural- 
ized,  18 
Hendrickson,   Hendrik,   naturalized, 

Herman,  Augustine,  naturalized,  21 
Heyser,  William,  letter  from,  260 
Heyser,  Captain  William,  233,  234 
Hite,   Jost,   starts   movement   south- 
ward, 41 
Home  building,  67 

Illiteracy  of  the  settlers,  109 
Indian  massacres,  147,  148,  152 
Indians,  expedition  against,  161 
Indians,  treatment  of,  9 
Ireland,  German  emigrants  sent  to, 

Jacobson,  Peter,  naturalized,   18 
Johnson,  Paul,  naturalized,  18 
Jumonville,  defeat  of,  143 

Keeport,  Captain  Geo.  P.,  232 
Kershner,  Captain  John,  174 
Kocherthal's  settlement,  31 

Labadist  doctrine,  24 

Labadist  settlement,  21 

Land,  liberal  offer  of  from  Lord 
Baltimore,  43 

Landis,  Samuel,  complains  of  the 
Marylanders,  123 

Log  cabins,  building  of,  69 

Long  Island,  battle  of,  242 

Lutheran  church,  the  first  in  Mary- 
land, 92 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Lutheran  church  at  Hagerstown, 
105;  at  Middletown,  104;  at 
Sharpsburg,  100 

Lutheran  church  at  Monocacy,  rules 
for  the  government  of,  96 

McCIellan,  Captain  William,  161 
Magistrates    of    Frederick    county, 

address  of,  195 
Mantz,  Captain  Peter,  216 
Map  of  the  colony  made,  20 
Marie,  Edmund,  killed  by  Indians, 

Maroney,   Captain   Philip,   213 
Maryland,  charter  of,  7 
Maryland  colony,  growth  of,  10,  37; 

population  of,  38 
Maryland,  German  settlers  in,  39 
Maryland  officers,  rank  of,  252;  ad- 
dress of,  255 
Maryland,  the  settlement  of,  5,  8 
Maryland    troops    on    Long    Island, 

242;  conduct  of,  250 
Mason  and  Dixon's  Line,  140 
Mathiason,    Hendrick,    naturalized, 

Meyer,  Peter,  naturalized,   18 
Micheelson,     Clement,     naturalized, 

Micheelson,   Jacob,    naturalized,    18 
Middletown,    Lutheran    church    at, 

Ministers,  difficulty  in  securing,  92 
Monocacy,  church   at,   93;   Michael 
Schlatter  visits,  94;  H.  M.  Muhl- 
enberg visits,  95 
Monocacy  road  surveyed,  46 
Monocacy,  settlement  of,  51 
Monocacy,  site  of,  52 
Montson,  Peter,  naturalized,  18 
Muhlenberg,  Henry  M.,  visits  Mon- 
ocacy, 95 

Naturalization  of  foreigners,  17,  18 
Newspapers,  87 

North  Carolina,  German  colony  in, 

Ohio  Company,  grant  to,  142 

Palatinate,   devastation   of,   28 

Paper-making,  83 

Parnell,     Edward,     driven     off    by 

Pennsylvania    authorities,    127 
"  Peggy    Stewart,"    destruction    of, 

Petition   of  settlers   near  Falckner's 

Swamp,  39 
Petition  from  some  settlers  in  Lan- 
caster county,  134 
Pon-hoss,  75 
Pontiac's  war,   158 
Presque  Isle,  fort  erected  at,  142 
Proclamation     of     Lord     Baltimore 

offering  land  to  settlers,  43 
Provincial    convention,    declaration 

of,  201,  203 
Provincial      convention,      Frederick 

county  delegates  to,   189,   194 

Rank  of  the  Maryland  officers,  252 
Redemptioners,  117 
Religious  toleration  in  Maryland,  89 
Reynolds,  Captain  John,  220 
Road  to  Fort  Cumberland  surveyed, 

Rocky  Hill  church,  104 
Rogers,  Benjamin,  killed  by  Indians, 

Roll  of 

Capt.    Michael    Bayer's   company 
in  the  German  regiment,  231 

Capt.  Edward  Burgess'  company 
in  the  Flying  Camp,  208 

Capt.    ^neas     Campbell's    com- 
pany in  the  Flying  Camp,  218 

Index  to  Subjects. 


Roll,  Capt.  Vallentine  Creager's 
company  in  the  Flying  Camp,  217 
Capt.  Leonard  Deakins'  company 

in   the   Flying   Camp,   210 
Capt.  Henry  Fister's  company  in 

the  German  regiment,  230 
Capt.   Jacob    Good's  company   in 

the  Flying  Camp,  214 
Capt.  Philip   Graybell's  company 

in  the  German  regiment,  237 
Capt.  Henry  Hardman's  company 

in  the  Flying  Camp,  222 
Capt.  William  Heyser's  company 

in   the   German   regiment,   233, 

Capt.  Geo.  P.  Keeport's  company 

in  the  German  regiment,  232 
Capt.   John   Kershner's   company, 

Capt.  William  McClellan's  com- 
pany, 161 
Capt.  Peter  Mantz's  company  in 

the  Flying  Camp,  216 
Capt.  Philip  Maroney's  company 

in  the  Flying  Camp,  213 
Capt.  John  Reynold's  company  in 

the  Flying  Camp,  220 
Capt.   Richard    Smith's    company 

in  the  Flying  Camp,  212 
Capt.  Benjamin  Spyker's  company 

in  the  Flying  Camp,  210 
Lt.-Col.  Weltner's  company  in  the 

German   regiment,  236 
Royal  American  regiment,  156 
Ruttzn,  Garrett,  naturalized,  21 

Schlatter,  Michael,  visits  Monocacy, 

Schley,   Thomas,   schoolmaster,    114 
Schoolmaster,  109;  German,  113 
Schools,  establishment  of,  109,  110, 

Sharpsburg,  Lutheran  church  at,  100 

Sharpsburg  settled,  61 
Shrawder,   Capt.  Philip,  236 
Sipherson,   Marcus,   naturalized,   18 
Slavery  among  the  Germans,  118 
Smallwood,    Col.   Wm.,    account  of 

the  battle  of  Long  Island,  244 
Smith,  Capt.  John,  visits  the  country, 

Smith,  Capt.  Richard,  212 
Soap-making,  82 

Springettsbury  Manor  surveyed,  127 
Spring-house,  73 
Spyker,  Benjamin,  Jr.,  schoolmaster, 

115;  Capt.  Benjamin,  210 
Stamp  Act  passed,   177;   opposition 

to,  178 
Stille,  Axell,  naturalized,  118 
Stoves,  72 

Straw-board,   manufacture  of,  83 
Summerfield,   Jerry,    driven    oflf   by 

the  Pennsylvania  authorities,  127 
Susquehanna,  lands  west  of,  125 
Swedish  colonists  on  the  Delaware 

ordered  to  submit  to  the  authority 

of  Maryland,  123 

Tanner,  Michael,  driven  off  by  the 

Pennsylvania   authorities,    127 
Tanning,  82 
Tea,  destruction  of  at  Hagerstown, 

Thirty  Years  War,  28 
Tobacco,  culture  of,  11,  Z7 
Toreson,  Andrew,  naturalized,  18 
Tories,  execution  of,  268 
Trade,  German  boys  taught  a,  80 

Urinson,  Cornelius,  naturalized,  18; 
John,  naturalized,  18 

Utie,  Col.  Nathaniel,  visits  the  Del- 
aware colony,   123 

Vandernorte,  Michaell,  naturalized, 


The  Pennsylvania-German  Society. 

Wagon-making,  81 

War,    Thirty-Years',     28;     of    the 

Spanish  succession,  29 
Ward,  Ensign,  surrender  of,   143 
Wheeler,  John,  naturalized,  18 
Williams,   John,  killed  by  Indians, 

Williams,  Paul,  driven  off  by  the 

Pennsylvania  authorities,  177 

Wister,  Casper,  letter  of,  34 
Wolgamott,  Capt.  John,   162 
Women,  part  taken  by,  66 
Wright,  John,  letter  from  concern- 
ing Thomas   Cresap,    129;    letter 
from  describing  an  invasion,  131 ; 
reward  offered  for  the  arrest  of, 


(Form  L-9) 

) 198   01934    6860 



Cuni>ille,  Pi 
Ocl  ■  Oc   1995